The Precede-Proceed Model of
Health Program Planning & Evaluation
For a Canadian English and French pair of adaptations of the model, see below
Canadian English adaptation of the
French adaptation of the
The Online Health Program Planner
Click on the following links for
more information on upgrades and additions (English and French versions)
Changes Coming-More information.pdf
Features and Updated Citations in
new 4th Edition
Health Program Planning: An Educational and Ecological Approach, New
The Precede-Proceed Model of health program planning
and evaluation builds on more
years of work by Dr. Lawrence W. Green
and colleagues at Berkeley, Johns Hopkins, the U.S. Public Health
Service, the University of Texas, the Kaiser Family Foundation, the University of
British Columbia, Health 2000, Macro International, and Emory University. In collaboration with
on the second edition of the textbook that describes the model, the original
Precede model was extended to encompass the wider environmental, policy and
organizational factors that Green and Kreuter had found important in their
respective roles in launching national programs of community health
promotion from the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. [See history
of the model in Chapter 1 endnote #14.]
In their 3rd
edition in 1999, Green and Kreuter added dimensions of health promotion
planning from their international experience in Canada, Europe, China,
Australia, Singapore, Japan, and Africa. Translations of the 2nd
edition into Chinese and Japanese, and condensed versions in French and
Spanish, had reached wider audiences of practitioners, researchers and
policy makers who produced a growing list of published applications of the
model. They also collaborated with
Robert Gold and
Nancy Atkinson to
produce the EMPOWER software described below, and to add a chapter on
technology applications of the Precede-Proceed model to the book. Following
the 3rd edition, Laura A. Linnan,
ScD, and her colleagues conducted in 2001 a survey
of the 253 universities offering graduate or undergraduate degree
specialization in health education, determining that the Precede-Proceed
Model was taught by 88% of respondents, used by 85.7% in teaching, and used
by 74.6% in practice, the most among 10 planning models listed. The
respondents also ranked PRECEDE-PROCEED highest among the 10 planning models
on usefulness for research (86%), and usefulness for practice (90.8%).
Linnan also served as a consultant to Green & Kreuter in their
preparation of the 4th edition (2005).
The goals of the model are to explain health-related
behaviors and environments, and to design and evaluate the interventions
needed to influence both the behaviors and the living conditions that
influence them and their consequences. This model has been applied, tested,
studied, extended, and verified in over 960 published studies and thousands of
unpublished projects in community, school, clinical, and workplace settings over the last
Click here to view a listing of the published
applications of the model.
The Precede-Proceed framework for planning is founded on the
disciplines of epidemiology; the social, behavioral, and educational sciences; and health
administration. Throughout the work with Precede and Proceed, two
fundamental propositions are emphasized: (1) health and health risks are caused by
multiple factors and (2) because health and health risks are determined by multiple
factors, efforts to effect behavioral, environmental, and social change must be
multidimensional or multisectoral, and participatory.
The Precede-Proceed Model is the framework around which
Green and Kreuter teamed with
Robert Gold, now
Dean of the College of Health and Human Performance at the University of
to build EMPOWER (CD-ROM
software and manual) to provide technical guidance and assistance to those involved in the
complex process of planning and implementing community-level cancer prevention and control
interventions. This system, EMPOWER (Enabling Methods of Planning and Organizing Within
Everyone's Reach), begins with the recognition that program planning encompasses many
complex skills, techniques, and data from a variety of fields.
An educational version of EMPOWER, designed to teach the components of Precede-Proceed,
is now available for sale from Jones and Bartlett Publishing Company.
Click here to
access ordering information from Jones and Bartlett.
Gold, R.S., Green, L.W. and Kreuter, M.W. EMPOWER: Enabling Methods of
Planning and Organizing Within Everyone's Reach. Sudbury, MA:
Jones & Bartlett Publishing, 1998.
To order a copy or to locate the sales representative for your state in the
U.S. or province in Canada, go to:
Jones & Bartlett
L.W. and Kreuter, M.W. Health Program Planning: An Educational and
Ecological Approach. 4th edition. NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education,
Green, L.W. and Kreuter, M.W. Health Promotion Planning: An Educational and Ecological
Approach, 3rd edition (Mayfield Publishing was purchased by McGraw-Hill
in 2001; for the catalog description of this book and to order a review
copy, to obtain copyright permissions to reprint from it, to identify sales
agents outside the U.S. or your camps representative, go to:
Green, L.W., & Kreuter, M.W. Health Promotion
Planning: An Educational and Environmental Approach, 2nd edition
(Palo Alto: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1991).
Green, LW, et al. Health Education Planning: A Diagnostic Approach. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield
Publishing Co., 1980.
Green, L.W., Kreuter, M. W. (1992).
CDC's Planned Approach to Community Health as an application of PRECEDE and an
inspiration for PROCEED. Journal of Health Education 23: 140-147. Click here for the complete CDC manual for use of the PATCH guidelines and procedures for planning and evaluating a community health
Green, L.W. and Ottoson, J.M. Community & Population
Health, 8th edition (WCB-McGraw-Hill, 1999). For the catalog description of this book and to order a review copy, to
obtain copyright permissions to reprint from it, to identify sales agents
outside the U.S. or your campus representative, go to:
M.W., Lezin, N., Kreuter, M., Green, L.W. Community Health Promotion Ideas That
Work, 2nd edition. Boston, Toronto, London, Singapore: Jones
& Bartlett Publishers, 2003.
Ottoson, J. M., & Green, L. W.
(2001). Public health education and health promotion. In L. F. Novick, & G. P.
Mays (Eds.). Public health administration: Principles for population-based
management. (Pp. 300-323). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.
2nd edition in press (2006).
for a videotape of the satellite broadcast of September 12, 2002
by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ASTDR), "Working
with Communities for Environmental Health" in which Dr Kreuter and others
discuss how the
PRECEDE-PROCEED model applies to planning community
environmental health programs.
For the McGraw-Hill EMEA (Europe, Middle East and
go to McGraw-Hill Ryerson: