Published Applications Of The Precede Model

           A-B           C-D           E-F         G-H          I-J-K          L-M          N-O          P-Q          R-S          T-U-V          W-X-Y-Z

The following references are to articles, chapters and books in which the PRECEDE model (or its successor, the PRECEDE-PROCEED model) has been applied, examined or extended.  See also the endnotes where we discuss or cite the reference in the 4th edition (new references in blue below) or earlier editions of the book describing  PRECEDE-PROCEED:  Green, L.W., and Kreuter, M.W., Health Program Planning: An Educational and Ecological Approach, 4th edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).  Click here to order a review copy.

The latest edition of the other book describing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model is:  Green, L.W. and Ottoson, J.M. Community and Population Health 8th edition (McGraw Hill, 1999).

This page may be used as a source for searching for authors and topics using your web browser's :Find" option within the "Edit" option. See further notes at the end of this page. Underlined text is hyperlinked to the abstract or full text of the article.

In addition to the bibliography of articles and books applying the PRECEDE model or the PRECEDE-PROCEED process of planning and evaluation, an electronic copy of a bibliography with annotations and/or abstracts and books is available by e-mail attachment as a Word.doc file by writing to Seena Nair <>. This bibliography has been compiled by Lawrence Green over more than three decades since the earliest publication of the model in 1973, serving as a searchable reference file rewriting the successive revisions of the model in the four editions of the book describing the model. 

A - B

Aboumatar, H., Ristaino, P., Davis, R.O., Thompson, C.B., Maragakis, L., Cosgrove, S., Rosenstein, B., and Perl, T.M. (Feb 2012). Infection Prevention Promotion Program Based on the PRECEDE Model: Improving Hand Hygiene Behaviors among Healthcare Personnel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol., 33(2):144-151. [Free Full Text]

Adeyanju, O. M. (1987-88).  A community-based health education analysis of an infectious disease control program in Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 8(3): 263-279.

Ahmed, N.U., Fort, J.G., Elzey, J.D., & Bailey, S. (Oct 2004). Empowering factors in repeat mammography: Insights from the stories of underserved women. J Ambul Care Manage, 27(4): 348-.    

Airhihenbuwa, C.O. (Dept. Hlth. Educ., Coll. Hlth & Hum. Devel., Penn State U.) (1990-91). A conceptual model for culturally appropriate health education programs in developing countries. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 11(1):53-62.

Airhihenbuwa, C.O. (1995).  Health and Culture: Beyond the Western Paradigm. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. [Presents the PEN3 model, based in part on PRECEDE-PROCEED]

Airhihenbuwa, C.O. (1995). Healthy Culture: Decolonization of Health and Education. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. [Presents the PEN3 model, based in part on on PRECEDE-PROCEED]

Akpor, O. A.  and Eweiye, F. E.  (2016). Smoking Prevalence and Knowledge about Its Health Implications among Health Care Professional Students in Ekiti State, South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 12(2): 1-10 [Free Full Text]

Allegrante, J.P. (Cornell Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases Center, The Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E. 70th St., New York, NY 10021), Kovar, P.T., MacKenzie, C.R., Peterson, M.G., & Gutin, B. (1993). A walking education program for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: theory and intervention strategies. Health Education Quarterly 20(1):63-81. See Kovar et al., 1992, for results of the trial.

Allen, K. D . (1992). Predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors associated with women's reported Pap smear screening behavior. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Allison, K.R. (Public Health Dept., City of N. York, 5100 Yonge St., N. York, Ontario M2N 5V7, Canada) (1991). Theoretical issues concerning the relationship between perceived control and preventive health behavior. Health Education Research, 6(2):141-151.

Alteneder, R.R. (PhD, Assoc.Prof., Nursing, Sch. of Nursing, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo,OH 43699), Price, J.H., Telljohann, S.K., Didion, J., Locher, A. (1992). Using the PRECEDE model to determine junior high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about AIDS. Jour. School Health 62(10): 464-470

Alteneder, R.R. (PhD, Assoc. Prof., Nursing, School of Nursing, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH 43699) (1994). Use of an educational program on HIV/AIDS with junior high students. Int Conf AIDS, 10(2): 355 (abstract no. PD0601).

American College of Preventive Medicine and Fogarty Center (1976). Preventive Medicine USA New York: Prodist, pp. 162-171.                                                                                                  

Andersen, R. (1968). A Behavioral Model of Families' Use of Health Services (Chicago: University of Chicago, Center for Health Administration Studies, Research Series No. 25, University of Chicago Press). [The original work on which the delineation and documentation of predisposing and enabling factors in use of health services was based.]

Anderson, R. M. (Department of Health Services, School of Public Health, UCLA, ). (March 1995). Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: Does it matter?  Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36(1): 1-10.

Antoniadis, Anastasia (Early Intervention Technical Assistance, <>), & Lubker, B.B. (1997). Epidemiology as an essential tool for establishing prevention programs and evaluating their impact and outcome. Journal of Communication Disorders, 30 (4): 269-284.

Arbeit, M.L., Johnson, C.C., Mott, D.S., Harsha, D.W., Nicklas, T.A., Webber, L.S., Berenson, G.S. (National Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane School of Public Health & Tropical Med., New Orleans, LA 70112-2824) (1992). The Heart Smart cardiovascular school health promotion: behavior correlates of risk factor change. Preventive Medicine, 21(1):18-32.

Arnsberger, P., Fox, P., Ryder, P., Nussey, B., Zhang, X. and Otero-Sabogal, R. (January 2006). Timely follow-up among multicultural women with abnormal mammograms. Am J Health Behav, 30(1): 51-61. [Free Full Text]

Artuso, S., Cargo, M., Brown, A., and Daniel, M. (2013). Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 13(1): 1-13. [Free Full Text]
Ashley, Nancy (Hum Services Roundtable, 811 First Ave, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98104) (1993). King County Regional Domestic Violence Public Education Campaign. Seattle: Human Services Roundtable.

Ashwell, Helen S (, Barclay, Lesley (Graduate School for Health Practice, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909, Australia (2009). A retrospective analysis of a community-based health program in Papua New Guinea. Health Promotion International, 24(2):140-148. [Free Full Text]

Ayode, D., McBride, C.M., de Heer, H.D., Watanabe, E., Gebreyesus, T., Tora, A., Tadele, G., Davey, G. (2013). A Qualitative Study Exploring Barriers Related to Use of Footwear in Rural Highland Ethiopia: Implications for Neglected Tropical Disease Control. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(4): e2199. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002199. [Free Full Text]

Azar, F.E., Solhi, M., Nejhaddadgar, N., Amani, F. (2017). The effect of intervention using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model based on quality of life in diabetic patients. Electron Physician. 9(8):5024-5030. doi: 10.19082/5024. eCollection 2017 Aug.

Azizzadeh Pormehr, A., Shojaezadeh, D. (2019). The Effects of Educational Intervention for Anxiety Reduction on Nursing Staffs based on PRECEDE- PROCEED Model. Health Education and Health Promotion, 7(3): 119-123. [Free Full Text]

Backer, T.E. (Human Interaction Research Institute) (1994). 'Replication' may be the sincerest form of philanthropy. Editorial in The Chronicle of Philanthropy. March 8.

Bailey, Patricia Hill, Rukholm, E.E., Vanderlee, R., Hyland, J. (1994). A Heart Health Survey at the worksite: The first step to effective programming. AAOHN Journal 42(1): 9-14.

Bailey, W. C. UAB Asthma Project. Birmingham, AL: University of Alabama at Birmingham (Room 115, New Hillman Building, Birmingham, AL 35924), October 1985 - September 1988. [LWG comment: See the published refs by Bailey et al from this most extensive and thoroughly evaluated early application of the PRECEDE model.]

Bailey, W.C., Kohler, C.L., Richards, J.M. Jr, Windsor, R.A., Brooks, C.M., Gerald, L.B., Martin, B., Higgins, D.M., Liu, T. (1999). Asthma self-management: do patient education programs always have an impact? Arch Intern Med. 159, 2422-8. [Free Full Text]

Bailey, W.C., Richards, J.M. Jr, Brooks, C.M., Soong, S.J., Windsor, R.A., Manzella, B.A. (1990). [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham] (August 1990). A randomized trial to improve self-management practices of adults with asthma. Arch Intern Med, 150(8):1664-8.

Bailey, W.C., Richards, J.M., Manzella, B.A., Windsor, R.A., Brooks, C.M., Soong, S.J. (1987). Promoting Self-Management in Adults with Asthma--An Overview of the UAB Program. Health Education Quarterly 14: 345-55.

Baillie, Lorraine; Rubinson, Laurna  (1981). Planning School-Based Sexuality Programs Utilizing the PRECEDE Model.  Journal of School Health, 51(4): 282-87

Bakdash, M.B. (1983). The Use of Mass Media in Community Periodontal Education. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 43(2): 128-31.

Bakdash, M.B., Lange, A.L., McMillan, D.G. (1983). The Effect of a Televised Periodontal Campaign on Public Periodontal AwarenessJournal of Periodontology 54: 666-70.

Bakdash, M.B., Lange, A.L., McMillan, D.G.  (1984).  Periodontal public service announcements:  whom they reach and their effectiveness.  Northwest Dentistry, 63(5): 26-30.

Bakdash, M.B., McMillan, D.G., Lange, A. L. (1984). Minnesota periodontal awareness television campaignNorthwest Dentistry, 63(6): 12-7.

Bakken, S., Lantigua, R.A., Busacca, L.V., Bigger, J.T. (Jul-Aug 2009). Barriers, enablers, and incentives for research participation: a report from the Ambulatory Care Research Network (ACRN). J Am Board Fam Med, 22(4):436-45. [Free Full Text]

Balch, G.I., Loughrey, K.A., Weinberg, L., Lurie, D., Eisner, E. (1997). Probing Consumer Benefits and Barriers for the National 5 A Day Campaign: Focus Group Findings. Journal of Nutrition Education, 29 (4): 178-183. [See also National Cancer Inst.]

Banerjee, A.T., Kin, R., Strachan, P.H., Boyle, M.H., Anand, S.S., Oremus, M. (2015). Factors Facilitating the Implementation of Church-Based Heart Health Promotion Programs for Older Adults: A Qualitative Study Guided by the Precede-Proceed Model. American Journal of Health Promotion, 29 (6): 365-373. [Abstract]

Barner, J. C., Mason, H. L., & Murray, M. D. (1999). Assessment of asthma patients' willingness to pay for and give time to an asthma self-management program. Clinical Therapeutics 21(5): 878-894. 

Barnhoorn, Florie (Nieuwe Leliestraat 101, 1015 SL Amsterdam, The Netherlands) & Adriaanse, H. (1992). In search of factors responsible for noncompliance among tuberculosis patients in Wardha District, India. Social Science & Medicine 34(3):291-306.  Erratum published  in Soc Sci Med 1992 Jun;34(11):II]. 

Bartholomew, L. Kay (Office of Educ Resources, MC 4-3250, Texas Children's Hospital, 6621 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030), Seilheimer, D. K., Parcel, G. S., Spinelli, S. H., and Pumariega, A. J. (1989). Planning Patient Education for Cystic Fibrosis: Application of a Diagnostic Framework. Patient Education and Counseling 13(1):57-68. This project received the Award of Program Excellence from the Society for Public Health Education, 1994. See also Parcel et al., 1994.

Bartholomew, L.K., Koenning, G., Dahlquist, L., Barron, K. (1994). An educational needs assessment of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research 7(3):136-143. This project received the Award of Program Excellence from the Society for Public Health Education. See also Parcel et al., 1994.

Bartholomew, L.K. (Center for Health Promotion Research & Development,, Parcel, G.S., (, & Kok, G. Intervention Mapping: The workbook. (in press, Revision 4 - 1998).

Bartholomew, L. Kay (Center for Health Promotion Research and Development, University of Texas Health Science Center, ), Czyzewski, D. I., Parcel, G. S., Swank, P. R., Sockrider, M. M., Mariotto, M. J., Schidlow, D. V., Fink, R. J. & Seilheimer, D. K. (October 1997).  Self-management of cystic fibrosis: Short-term outcomes of the cystic fibrosis family education program. Health Education and Behavior, 24(5): 652-666. 

Bartholomew, L.K. , Parcel, G.S. & Kok, G. (1998).  Intervention mapping: A process for developing theory- and evidence-based health education programs. Health Education and Behavior, 25(5): 545-563. 

Bartholomew, L.K., Parcel, G.K., Kok, G., Gottlieb, N.H.  (2001).  Intervention Mapping:  Designing Theory-and Evidence-Based Health Promotion ProgramsMountain View, CA:  Mayfield Publishing Co. (now McGraw-Hill)

Barholomew, L.K., Czyzewski, D.I., Swank, P.R., McCormick, L., Parcel, G.S. (January 2000).   Maximizing the impact of the cystic fibrosis family education program:  Factors related to program diffusionFamily and Community Health, 22(4), 27-47

Bartlett, E.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 N.Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205) (1982). Behavioral Diagnosis: A Practical Approach to Patient Education,  Patient Counseling and Health Education, 4(1):29-35.

Bartlett, E.E., Green, L.W. (1980). Selection of educational methods. Chap. 6 in Green, L.W., Kreuter, M.W., Deeds, S.G., Partridge, K.B. Health Education Planning: A Diagnostic Approach. Palo Alto: Mayfield Pub. Co., pp. 86-115.

Basch, C.E. (Columbia Teachers College, New York) (1987). Assessing health education needs: A multidimensional-multimethod approach. Chap. 3 in PM Lazes, LH Kaplan, KA Gordon (eds.), Handbook of Health Education 2nd ed. Rockville, MD: Aspen, pp. 49-73.

Battista, R.N. (Dept. Epidem. & Biostatistics, McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1A4), J.L. Williams, and L.A. MacFarlane (1990). Determinants of preventive practices in fee-for-service primary care. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 6(1): 6-11.

Becker, H. (University of Texas at Austin School of Nursing, 1700 Red River, Austin, TX 78701 email:, SL Hendrickson, L Shaver (1998). Nonurban parental beliefs about childhood injury and bicycle safety. American Journal of Health Behavior 22(3): 218-227. 

Beeker, Carolyn (Communication and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA), Kraft, J.M., Southwell, B.G., and Jorgensen, C.M. (June 2000). Colorectal Cancer Screening in Older Men and Women: Qualitative Research Findings and Implications for Intervention Journal of Community Health 25(3):263-78.

Bellingham, Rick (Possibilities Inc., PO Box 433, Basking Ridge, NJ 07920) (1994). Critical Issues in Worksite Health Promotion. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Bennett, BI (Oct-Dec 1977). A model for teaching health education skills to primary care practitioners. International Journal of Health Education 20(4): 232-9.

Bennett, E., Cummings, P., Quan, L., & Lewis, F. (1999). Evaluation of a drowning prevention campaign in King County, Washington. Injury Prevention, 5(2): 109-113.

Benson, RoseAnn (1989). Selected Eating Practices and Weight Control Techniques Among Elite Women Swimmers. Ph.D. dissertation: Southern Illinois Univ. at Carbondale. Described in Fig. 3.2, p. 42 of Sarvala & McDermott, 1993 (see below).

Benson, RoseAnn (Head Women's Swimming Coach, San Jose State Univ., San Jose, CA), Taub, Diane E (1993). Using the PRECEDE model for causal analysis of bulimic tendencies among elite women swimmers: Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Causes in Educational Diagnosis. Journal of Health Education 24(6):360-368. [Uses path analysis to test PRECEDE factors against pathogenic weight control techniques and eating behaviors.]

Berenson, Gerald S (School of Public Health & Tropical Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Health SL29, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112-2699), DW Harsha, SMcD Hunter, CC Johnson, M Levy, SD Little, TA Nicklas, SR Srinivasan, SJ Virgilio, LS Webber. (1998). Introduction of comprehensive health promotion for elementary schools: The Health Ahead/Heart Smart Program. New York: Vantage, esp. chapters 3 & 6.

Berger, David (National Audubon Society, P.O. Box 5052, Brownsville, TX 78523), M. Inkelas, S. Myhre, A. Mishler (1994). Developing health education materials for inner-city low literacy parents. Public Health Reports 109(2): 168-172. [Free Full Text]

Berland, Alex (Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, 855 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9), NB Whyte, L. Maxwell (1995). Hospital nurses and health promotion. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 27(4): 13-31.

Berne, Linda A., Dunlap, Patricia (Jan 1991). Addressing Competitive Stress in Junior Tennis Players.  Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance  v62 n1 p59-63

Bertera, Robert L. (Human Resources, Integrated Health Care, N-11400, DuPont Co., Wilmington, Delaware 19898) (1981). The Effects of Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring in the Workplace Using Automated Blood Pressure Measurement. Baltimore, MD: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, School of Hygiene and Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University.

Bertera R.L. (1990). The Effects of Workplace Health Promotion on Absenteeism and Employment Costs in a Large Industrial Population. American Journal of Public Health 80(9):1101-5. [Free Full Text]

Bertera, R.L. (1990). Planning and Implementing Health Promotion in the Workplace: A Case Study of the Du Pont Company Experience. Health Education Quarterly 17(3): 307-27. 

Bertera, R.L. (Nov 1991). The effects of behavioral risks on absenteeism and health-care costs in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Medicine 33(11): 1119-1124

Bertera, R.L. (1993). Behavioral risk factor and illness day changes with workplace health promotion: two-year results. Amer J Health Promotion 7(5):365-373.

Bertera, R.L., Cuthie, J.C. (1984). Blood pressure self-monitoring in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Medicine 26: 183-8.

Bertera, R.L., Levine, D.M., and Green, L.W. (1982). Behavioral effects of blood pressure self-monitoring in the workplace using automated measurements. Prev. Med 11(3), 158-163

Bertera, R.L., Oehl, L.K., Telepchak, J.M. (1990). Self-help versus group approaches to smoking cessation in the workplace: eighteen-month follow-up and cost analysis. American Journal of Health Promotion 4(3): 187-92.

Bertram, D.A., and Brooks-Bertram, P.A. (1977). The Evaluation of Continuing Medical Education: A Literature Review. Health Education Monographs 5(4): 330-62.

Best, A., Stokols, D., Green, L. W., Leischow, S., Holmes, B., & Buchholz, K. (2003). An integrative framework for community partnering to translate theory into effective health promotion strategy. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18(2), 168-176.

Better Health Commission (1986). Looking Forward to Better Health. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service, vols. 1-3.

Bian, Hui and Smith, C.L. (June 2006).  Development of a questionnaire to assess dentists’ knowledge, opinion, education resources, physician cooperation, and clinical practice regarding obstructive sleep apnea (OSAQ-D) Sleep and Breathing, 10(2), 76-82

Bibeau, D.L., Mullen, K.D., McLeroy, K.R., Green, L.W., and Foshee, V. (1988). Evaluations of workplace smoking cessation programs: a critique. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 4(2), 87-95. 

Binkley, C.J., Johnson, K.W. (2013). Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Planning Model in Designing an Oral Health Strategy. J Theory Pract Dent Public Health ;1(3). pii

Bird, J. A., Otero-Sabogal, R., Ha, N.-T., & McPhee, S. J. (1996). Tailoring lay health worker interventions for diverse cultures: lessons learned from Vietnamese and Latina communities. Health Education and Behavior, 23 (Suppl.), S105-S122.

Black, M.E.A.  (, Stein, K.F., Loveland-Cherry, C.J. (2001).  Older women and mammography screening behavior:  Do possible selves contribute?  Health Education and Behavior, 28(2),200-216

Blank, M.E. (April 2006). The precede/proceed model: an advanced organizer for the reconceptualisation of the teaching-learning process in health education and health promotion. SalusOnline 10(1):18–25. [Departamento de Salud Pública.Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad de Carabobo. Correpondencia: Calle 196. No. 121. La Campiña II. Naguanagua. Edo. Carabobo. Venezuela. E-mail: [Spanish: Abstract; Full Text - El modelo precede/proceed: un organizador avanzado para la reconceptualización del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en educación y promoción de la salud.]

Blom, Jan (1999).  Precede-Proceed Model ook voor voedingsinterventie:  [Interview of] Prof. Dr. Lawrence W. Green, auteur van 'Health Promotion Planning'.  VoedingsMagazine 1/1999, pp. 16-18 [in Dutch].

Boddy, L.M., Knowles, Z.R., Davies, I.G., Warburton, G.L., Mackintosh, K.A., Houghton, L., & Fairclough, S.J. (2012). Using formative research to develop the healthy eating component of the CHANGE! school-based curriculum intervention. BMC Public Health, 12, 710. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-710. [Free Full Text]

Bogan, G.O., Knobloch, R.S., Liburd, L.C., O'Rourke, T.W. (1992). Organizing an urban African-American community for health promotion: lessons from Chicago. Journal of Health Education 23(3):157-159.

Boisvert, Deanne M. (Seattle & King County Public Health, 400 Yesler Way, Suite 500, Seattle, WA 98104-2628; (1999). Making a difference: A guide to health education for community health workers. Sitka, Alaska: Southeast Alaska Regional Health Corporation, 222 Tongass Dr., Sitka, AK 99835. pp. 1-37.

Bolan, Robert K. (San Francisco AIDS Foundation, 54 Tenth St., SF, CA 94103) (1986). Health education planning for AIDS risk reduction in the gay/bisexual male community: use of the PRECEDE framework. Amer. Pub. Health Assoc. 114th Ann. Mtg. Abstracts, Las Vegas, p. 162. Manuscript 22pp. (See also Bolan, 1985).

Bolan, R.K. (San Francisco AIDS Foundation, 54 Tenth St., San Francisco, CA 94103) (1985). "PRECEDE" and Networking Process Reduce AIDS Risks in San Francisco Program. Center (Natl.Center for Health Educ.) 3:5.

Bonaguro, J.A. (Ohio Univ.) (Sept 1981). PRECEDE for wellness. Journal of School Health 51:501-506.

Bonaguro, J.A., Miaoulis, G. (Jan/Feb1983). Marketing: a tool for health education planning. Health Education 14 (1): 6-11

Boothroyd, P., Green, L.W., Hertzman, C., Lynam, J., McIntosh, J., Rees, W., Singer, S.M., Wackernagel, M., and Woollard, R. (Univ. of British Columbia Task Force on Healthy and Sustainable Communities) (1994). Tools for sustainability: Iteration and implementation. Chap. 10 in Cordia Chu and Rod Simpson (Eds.). Ecological Public Health: From Vision to Practice. Toronto: Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, pp. 111-121. See esp. pp. 119-120 for the model adapted to sustainability, ecological footprint and Appropriated Carrying Capacity.

Borgers, Resi (Dept. Health Education, University of Limburg, POB 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands), Mullen, P.D., Meertens, R., Rijken, M., et al (Nov 1993). The information-seeking behavior of cancer outpatients: a description of the situation. Patient Education and Counseling 22(1):35-46.

Boulet, L-P., (Centre de Pneumologie, Hopital Laval, Universite Laval, Sainte-Foy, Quebec), Chapman, K.R.,  Green, L.W., & Fitzgerald, J.M. (1994). Asthma education. Chest 106(4, Suppl.): 184S-196S. [Free Full Text]

Bouwman, L.I., te Molder, H., Koelen, M.M., and van Woerkum, C.M. I eat healthfully but I am not a freak. Consumers' everyday life perspective on healthful eating. (2009). Appetite 53(3): 390-398. [Free Full Text]

Bowen, Deborah J (PhD, Cancer Prevention Research Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, ), Kinne, S. & Urban, N. (1997). Analyzing communities for readiness to change. Am J Health Behav, 21(4): 289-298.

Bowler, M.H., , Morisky , D.E. (1983). Small group strategy for improving compliance behavior and blood pressure control. Health Education Quarterly 10(1): 56-69.

 Bowler, M.H., Morisky, D.E., and Deeds, S.G. (Johns Hopkins Univ.) (1980). Needs assessment strategies in working with compliance issues and blood pressure control. Patient Counseling and Health Education 1st Quarter 2(1):22-27.

Boyd, C. (Newfoundland Council on smoking and Health, St. Johns, NF) (1993). Up in Smoke: Teens n' Tobacco. Tobacco-Free Canada: First National Conference on Tobacco or Health, Toronto, Oct. Ottawa: Health Promotion Directorate, Health Canada.

Braddy, B.A. (Center for Policy Studies, Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194), Orenstein, D., Brownstein, J.N., and Cook, T.J. (1992). PATCH: An example of community empowerment for health. Journal of Health Education 23(3): 179-182. [The PATCH manual was continuously updated online by CDC until 2004, as it was gradually replaced by a new generation of community health planning tools]. For the full PATCH manual, which is now out of print, click here. 

Brailey, L.J. (1986). Effects of health teaching in the workplace on women's knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding breast self-examination. Research in Nursing and Health 9(3): 223-31.

Breckon, D. J. (1982).  An introduction to the theoretical foundations of hospital health education. In D. J. Breckon (Ed.), Hospital Health Education: A Guide to Program Development (pp.175-184). Rockville, MD: Aspen Systems. 

Breckon, D.J., Harvey, J.R., and Lancaster, R.B. (1994). Community Health Education: Settings, Roles, and Skills for the 21st Century. (3rd ed.). Gaithersberg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc., pp. 121-127.

Breckon, D.J., Harvey, J.R., and Lancaster, R.B. (1998). Community health education: Settings, roles, and skills for the 21st century. (4th ed.). Maryland: Aspen Publishers, esp. pp. 151-161, with a discussion of the evolution of Precede to Precede-Proceed and PATCH.

Brink, S.G., Lovato, C.Y. & Kolbe, L.J. (Center for Health Promotion Research & Development, Univ. Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX) (1987). Evaluation of an Adolescent Safety Belt Program: Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for Program Refinement. Paper presented at Society for Public Health Education, Las Vegas, 1986; final report to National Highway and Traffic Safety Agency, Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Brink, S. G., Simons-Morton, D., Parcel, G. and Tiernan, K. (May 1988). Community Intervention Handbooks for Comprehensive Health Promotion Programming. Family and Community Health 11(1): 28-35.

British Columbia Ministry of Health, Community Health Division (1994). School-Based Prevention Model Handbook. Victoria: BC Ministry of Health.

Brosseau, L.M., Parker, D.L., Lazovich, D., Milton, T., & Dugan, S.  (Jan 2002).  Designing intervention effectiveness studies for occupational health and safety:  The Minnesota wood dust studyAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine, 41(1): 54-61.

Brouse, C.H., Basch, C. E., Wolf, R. L., & Shmukler, C. (Sept 2004). Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: an educational diagnosis. J Cancer Educ, 19(3): 170-3.

Brown, E. Richard (UCLA Sch. Pub. Hlth.) (1983). Community organization influence on local public health care policy: a general research model and comparative case study. Health Education Quarterly 10(3-4):205-233.

Brown, L.F. (1994). Research in dental health education and health promotion: A review of the literature. Health Education Quarterly, 21 (1): 83-102. 

Brown, W. B. (Min Agric & Fisheries, PO Box 327, Rangiora, NZ), Williamson, N.B. (Dept Large Animal Clin Sciences, Coll Vet Med, Univ Minn, St Paul, MN 55108), and Carlaw, R.A. (1988). A diagnostic approach to educating Minnesota dairy farmers in the prevention and control of bovine mastitis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 5(3): 197-211.

Brownson, Ross C. (Washington Univ.), Baker, Elizabeth A., Leet, Terry L., Gillespie, Kathleen N., & True, Wm R. (2010).  Evidence-Based Public Health. (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford Univ. Press. 

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Fertman, Carl I., Allensworth, Diane D. (Eds.). Health Promotion Programs: From Theory to Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint, 2010. Copyright by Society for Public Health Education. 

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Fors, Stuart W., Owen, S., Hall, W.D. et al. (1989). Evaluation of a diffusion strategy for school-based hypertension education. Health Education Quarterly 16(2): 255-61.

Francisco, V.T. (Dept. Human Devel., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045), Paine, A.L., Fawcett, S.B. (1993). A methodology for monitoring and evaluating community health coalitions. Health Education Research 8(3):403-416.

Frank, G.C., Vaden, A., Martin, J. (1987). School health promotion: child nutrition programs. Journal of School Health 57(10):451-460.

Frankish, C.J. (UBC Institute of Health Promotion Research, Room 324, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z3), CD Milligan, C Reid. (1998). A review of relationships between active living and determinants of health. Soc. Sci. Med. 47(3): 287-301.

Frankish, C.J., Lovato, C.Y., Shannon, W.J . (1999). Models, theories, and principles of health promotion with multicultural populations. Chapter 3 in RM Huff & MV Kline (Eds.), Promoting Health in Multicultural Populations: A Handbook for Practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 41-72, esp. pp. 59-63, 67

Frankish, C.J., Lovato, C.Y., Poureslami, I. (2013). Models, theories, and principles of health promotion with multicultural populations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Third Edition. In Press

Frankish, C. James (Inst. of Health Promotion Res., UBC, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3) (1994). Crisis centers and their role in treatment: suicide prevention versus health promotion. Death Studies 18(4): 327-339.

Frankish, C.James and LW Green (1994). Organizational and community change as the scientific basis for disease prevention and health promotion policy. In Gary L. Albrecht (ed.), Advances in Medical Sociology, Volume IV: A Reconsideration of Health Behavior Change Models. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc., pp. 209-233.

Frankish, J. <> Keynote Paper. Psychologists and mental health: A recommended approach (pp. 1-3). In D. Nicholls (Ed.), Psychologically Speaking. (1997, September).

Fraser, W. (MD, Msc, Pavillon St-Francois d'Assise (CHUQ), 10 Rue de l'Espinay, Quebec, Canada G1L 3L5), Maunsell, E., Hodnett, E., Moutquin, J.M. (1997). Childbirth Alternatives Post-Cesarean Study Group. Randomized controlled trial of a prenatal vaginal birth after cesarean section education and support program. American Journal of Obstet Gynecol. 176(2): 419-425.

Frauenknecht, M., Brylinsky, J.A., Zimmer, C.G. (1998).  “Healthy Athlete 2000”: Planning a health education initiative using the PRECEDE model. Journal of Health Education, 29 (5): 312-318.

Frazier, P.J. (Univ Minnesota, Sch Dent, Dept Prevent Sci, Div Hlth Ecol, 15-136 Moos Tower, Minneapolis, MN 55455),  Horowitz, A.M. (NIDR) (1990). Oral health education and promotion in maternal and child health: a position paper. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 50(6 Spec No):390-395.

Freed, G. L., Bordley, W. C. & Defriese, G. H. (1993). Childhood immunization programs: An analysis of policy issues. The Milbank Quarterly, 71(1): 65-96.

Freire, K., and Runyan, C.W. (2006). Planning Models: PRECEDE-PROCEED and Haddon Matrix. In AC Gielen, DA Sleet, and RJ DiClemente (Eds.). Injury and Violence Prevention: Behavioral Science Theories, Methods, and Applications. (1st edition, pp. 127-158. ) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

French, J., Adams, L., and French, J. (1986). From analysis to synthesis: Theories of health education. Health Education Journal, 45(2): 71-74.

Freudenberg, N. (1989). Preventing AIDS: A Guide to Effective Education for the Prevention of HIV Infection. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

Friis, R.H., Forouzesh, M., Chhim, H.S., Monga, S., Sze, D. (2006). Sociocultural determinants of tobacco use among Cambodian Americans. Health Educ Res. 21(3):355-65. [Free Full Text]

Fuchs, JA (1988). Planning for community health promotion: a rural example. Health Values 12(6): 3-8.

Fulmer, H.S., Cashman, S., Hattis, P., Schlaff, A., Horgan, D.M. (1992). Bridging the gap between medicine, public health and the community: PATCH and the Carney Hospital experience. Journal of Health Education 23:167-170. [The PATCH manual was continuously updated online by CDC until 2004, as it was gradually replaced by a new generation of community health planning tools]. For the full PATCH manual, which is now out of print, click here. 

Furst, Gloria P. (Dept. Rehabil.Med., NIH, Bldg. 10, Rm 6S235, Bethesda MD 20892), Gerber, L.H., Smith, C.C., Fisher, S.,  Shulman, B. (1987). A program for improving energy conservation behaviors in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Occupational therapy 41(2):102-111.

Furst, G.P., LH Gerber, CB Smith (1985). Rehabilitation through Learning: Energy Conservation and Joint Protection--A Workbook for Persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, GPO Stock No. 017-045-00107-4, NIH Publ. No. 85-2743. Instructors Guide: Rehabilitation through Learning...: Instructor's Guide (GPO Stock No. 017-045-00103-9, NIH Publication No. 85-2743).

G - H

Gallani, M.C.B.J., Cornélio, M.E., Agondi, de.F., and Rodrigues, R.C.M. (2013). Conceptual Framework for Research and Clinical Practice Concerning Cardiovascular Health-Related Behaviors. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 21 Spec No: 207–215. [Free Full Text]

Garvin, Theresa (Dept of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON) (1995). "We're Strong Women" - Building a community-university research partnership. Geoforum 26(3): 273-286.

Gary, T.L., Bone, L.R., Hill, M.N., Levine, D.M., McGuire, M., Saudek, C., Brancati, F.L. (Johns Hopkins Univ.). (2003). Randomized controlled trial of the effects of nurse case manager and community health worker interventions on risk factors for diabetes-related complications in urban African Americans. Preventive Medicine, 37(1): 23-32.

Gauthier-Gagnon, C, M-C Grise, D Potvin. (1998). Predisposing factors related to prosthetic use by people with a transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 10 (4): 99-109.

Gayatri M, Dasvarma GL (2020) Predictors of early initiation of breastfeeding in Indonesia: A population-based cross-sectional survey. PLoS ONE 15(9): e0239446.

Gayle, Jacob A. (1988?). A Descriptive Study of Health Status of Nigerian Education Program Students Enrolled at the Ohio State University, 1985-86 (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University, Dissertation Abstracts International).

Gayle, J.A. (1987). Health as the universal language. International students as teaching resources. Health Educ. 18(2):29.

German, Pearl S. and Chwalow, A.J. (Johns Hopkins) (1976). Conflicts in ethical problems of patient education--strategies for hypertension control explore contractual approach. International Journal of Health Education 19(3):195-201; reprinted in Nursing Digest--Patient Teaching, Barbara Redman, ed., American Nursing Association, pp. 41-45.

Gerstein, Dean (National Opinion Research Corp., Washington, DC) and Green, L.W. (1993). Preventing Drug Abuse: What Do We Know? Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Order from the Publisher: 1-800-624-6242.

Ghaffarifar S, Ghofranipour F, Ahmadi F, Khoshbaten M. (2015). Barriers to Effective Doctor-Patient Relationship Based on PRECEDE PROCEED Model. Glob J Health Sci. 25;7(6):24-32. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n6p24. PMID: 26153160; PMCID: PMC4803924. [Free Full Text]

, A.C. and Green, L.W. (2015). The Impact of Policy, Environmental, and Educational Interventions: A Synthesis of the Evidence From Two Public Health Success Stories. Health Educ Behav 42 (1 Suppl): 20S-34S, doi: 10.1177/1090198115570049. [Free Full Text]

Gielen, A.C., McDonald, E.M., Gary, T.L., and Bone, L.R. (2008). Using the PRECEDE/PROCEED Model to Apply Health Behavior Theories. In K. Glanz, F.M. B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath, (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice (4th edition, pp. 407-433). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gielen, Andrea C., & Sleet, D. (2003). Application of behavior-change theories and methods to injury prevention. Epidemiologic Reviews, 25, 65-76. [Full text online]

Gielen, A.C. & McDonald, E.M. (2002). Using the PRECEDE/PROCEED Planning Model to Apply Health Behavior Theories. In K. Glanz, F.M. B. K. Rimer, & F.M. Lewis,  (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice (3rd edition, pp. 409-436). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [with a case study in home safety]

Gielen, A. C. Wilson, M., McDonald, E. et al. (2001). Randomized trial of enhanced anticipatory guidance for injury prevention. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 155(1): 42-59.[Free Full Text]

Gielen, A. C. & McDonald, E. M. (1997). The PRECEDE-PROCEED Planning Model. In K. Glanz, F. M. Lewis & B. K. Rimer (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice (2nd edition) (pp.359-383). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gielen, Andrea C. (1992). Health education and injury control: integrating approaches. Health Education Quarterly 19(2):203-18.

Gielen, A.C. and Radius, S. (1984). Project KISS (Kids in Safety Belts): educational approaches and evaluation measures. Health Education 15(5): 43-7.

Gilbert, Glen G. and Sawyer, Robin G. (1995; 2000). Health Education: Creating Strategies for School and Community Health. 1st, 2nd edition. Boston & London: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, pp. 67-70; 78-83 in 1st; pp. 59, 62-65 in 2nd ed.

Gillman, Susan C. (Univ. Texas) (1980). Planning school health services in the community. Health Values 4(1): 38-42

Gilmore, Gary D. (1977). Needs assessment processes for community health education. International Journal of Health Education 20(3): 164-73.

Gilmore, G. D., Campbell, M. D., and Becker, B. L. (1989). Needs Assessment Strategies for Health Education and Health Promotion. Indianapolis, IN: Benchmark Press.

Gilmore, G.D., & Campbell, M.D. (1996, 2004). Needs assessment strategies for health education and health promotion. (2nd & 3rd ed.). Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark Publishers.

Gilmore, GD, MD Campbell, and BL Becker (1989). Needs Assessment Strategies for Health Education and Health Promotion. Indianapolis, IN: Benchmark Press.

Glanz, Karen (Cancer Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu) and Rimer, Barbara (Duke University Medical Center, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Durham NC). (1995). Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No. 95-3896, Public Health Service, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, July. [Free from NCI, Bethesda, MD, call Cancer Information Service at 1-800/4-CANCER]

Glanz, Karen (Cancer Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu) and Rimer, Barbara (Duke University Medical Center, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Durham NC). (2005). Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice, 2nd Edition. Publication Number: T052. NIH Number: 05-3896. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute. [For Publication details and ordering information from NCI]

Glanz, K., Carbone, E., & Song, V. (1999). Formative research for developing targeted skin cancer prevention programs for children in multiethnic Hawaii. Health Education Research 14(2):155-166.

Glanz, K., & Oldenburg, B. (1997). Relevance of health behavior research to health promotion and health education. Chapter 8 in DS Gochman (Ed.), Handbook of Health Behavior Research IV: Relevance for professionals and issues for the future. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 143-161.

Glanz, K., Grove, J., Lerman, C., Gotay, C., Le Marchand, L. (1999). Correlates of intentions to obtain genetic counseling and colorectal cancer gene testing among at-risk relatives from three ethnic groups. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 8 (4 Pt 2): 329-336. [A partial application based on the original Andersen model in which reinforcing factors are grouped under enabling factors.]

Glenn, Margaret K. (Manager, Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention & Disability, VSA Educational Services, 1331 F St., NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20008) (1994). Preparing rehabilitation specialists to address the prevention of substance abuse problems. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 38(2): 164-179

Godin, Gaston (1991). L'éducation pour la santé: les fondements psychosociaux de la définition des messages éducatifs. Sciences Sociales et Santé 9(1): 67-94.

Goeppinger, Jean (Univ. Minnesota School of Public Health), and Kate Lorig (Stanford Univ. Arthritis Center) (1992). What do we know about what works: Patient education theories and models. In K. Lorig Patient Education: A Practical Approach. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book.

Gold, R. S., Green, L. W. <>, & Kreuter, M. W. (1997).  Empower: Enabling methods of planning and organizing within everyone's reach (International version 2.25). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishing Co.

Goldbloom, R.B. and Lawrence, R.S., eds. (1990). Preventing Disease: Beyond the Rhetoric. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Goldenhar, L.M., LaMontagne, A.D., Katz, T., Heaney, C., & Landsbergis, P.  (2001).  The intervention research process in occupational safety and health:  An overview from the national occupational research agenda intervention effectiveness research teamJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 43(7): 616-622

Goldrick, B.A., Larson, E. (Univ. Connecticut) (1992). Assessing the need for infection control programs: a diagnostic approach. Journal of Long Term Care Administration 20(1): 20-23.

Goodman, Robert (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC), Steckler, A., Hoover, S., Schwartz, R. (1992). A critique of contemporary community health promotion approaches: based on a qualitative review of six programs in Maine. American Journal of Health Promotion 7(3):208-220.

Goodman, R.M., Speers, M.A., McLeroy, K., Fawcet, S., Kegler, M., Parker, E., Smith, S.R., Sterling, T.D., & Wallerstein, N. (1998).  Identifying and defining the dimensions of community capacity to provide a basis for measurementHealth Education & Behavior, 25(3): 258-78.

Goodson, P., Gottlieb, N.H., Smith, M.M. (1999). Put Prevention into Practice: Evaluation of program initiation in nine Texas clinical sites. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 17(1):73-78.

Gorman, M.,  &  Mallon, D.  (1989). The role of a community-based health education program in the prevention of AIDS. Medical Anthropology, 10(2-3):159-166.

Gottlieb, Nell H. (Dept. Kinesiology & Health Education, Univ. Texas, Belmont Hall, Rm.222, Austin TX 78712), Eriksen, M.P., Lovato, C.Y., Weinstein, R.P., Green, L.W. (1990). Impact of a restrictive work site smoking policy on smoking behavior, attitudes, and norms. Journal of Occupational Medicine 32(1): 16-23.

Gottlieb, N.H. and Green, L.W. (1984). Life events, social network, life-style, and health: an analysis of the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Health Education Quarterly, 11(1): 91-105.

Gottlieb, N.H. and Green, L.W. (1987). Ethnicity and lifestyle health risk: some possible mechanisms. American Journal of Health Promotion 2: 37-45.

Gottlieb, N.H., Lovato, Chris Y., Weinstein, Riki, Green, L.W., Eriksen, M.P. (1992). The implementation of a restrictive worksite smoking policy in a large decentralized organization. Health Education Quarterly 19(1): 77-100. Applies admin. & policy diagnosis.

Gottlieb, N.H. and Nelson, A. (1990). A systematic effort to reduce smoking at the worksite. Health Education Quarterly 17(1): 99-118.

Gottlieb, N.H., Wright, Dawna , Sneden, Gail G . (1995). Using PRECEDE/PROCEED for linkage implementation planning: diffusion of the Texas "Top Priority", a worksite health promotion program. Submitted to Health Education Quarterly, manuscript March 20, 1995 not for quotation without permission.

Graef, Judith A. (Sr.Prog.Officer, HealthCom Project, Academy for Educational Development, Inc., 1255 23rd St., N.W., Washington, DC 20037), Elder, John P. & Mills Booth, Elizabeth (1993). Communication for Health and Behavior Change: A Developing Country Perspective. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Describes the model (p.23) and adapts the behavior analysis scale (pp. 69-70 and Resource E: pp. 169-171).

Graff, Wendy, Pearson, D., LeVan, S. & Sofian, N. (GHC) (1987). Process evaluation strengthens employee health promotion program at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. In JP Opatz, (ed.), Health Promotion Evaluation: Measuring the Organizational Impact. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point Foundation, National Wellness Institute.

Green, L, Terry, P.E. (Jan-Feb 2015). “What’s past is prologue”: views from Dr. Lawrence Green. Am J Health Promot., 29(3):TAHP2-8. 

Green, L.W., and Hiatt, R.A. Behavioural determinants of health and disease. In Detels, R., Beaglehole R, et al (Eds). Oxford Textbook of Public Health. 5th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2009), chap 2.3; pp 120-138.   Forthcoming revision by Green LW, Hiatt RA, & Hoeft K, in 6th edition, 2013. 

Green, L.W. (1973). Planning for patient educators: Considerations and implications. Proceedings of the Maryland Conference on Patient Programming. Rockville: Health Care Facilities Service, Health Resources Administration, DHEW Publication No. (HRA) 74-002. [This was the first publication of the PRECEDE model, though it was not called that until 1980]

Green, L.W. (1974). Toward cost-benefit evaluations of health education: some concepts, methods, and examples. Health Education Monographs 2 (Suppl. 1): 34-64. Reprinted in Supplement to the Report of the President's Committee on Health Education (New York: National Health Council, Sept. 1974), and in U.S. Congress, Disease Control and Health Education and Promotion (Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, 1975), pp.939-965.

Green, L.W. (1975). Evaluation of patient education programs: Criteria and measurement techniques. In Rx: Education for the Patient, Proceedings of the Continuing Education Institute, Southern Illinois University. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, pp. 89-98.

Green, L.W. (1976). Methods available to evaluate the health education components of preventive health programs. In Preventive Medicine, USA. New York: Prodist, Appendix M, pp. 162-171.

Green, L.W. (1976). Site- and symptom-related factors in secondary prevention of cancer. In JW Cullen, BH Fox, & RN Isom (Eds.), Cancer: The Behavioral Dimensions. New York: Raven Press, pp.45-61.

Green, L.W. (1978). Determining the impact and effectiveness of health education as it relates to federal policy. Health Education Monographs, 6 (Suppl. 1): 28-66.

Green, L.W. (1979). National policy in the promotion of health. Keynote address at the Tenth International Conference on Health Education, London, Sept. 3, 1979. International Journal of Health Education 22:161-168. [First presentation of policy, regulatory and organizational components of PROCEED model.]

Green, L.W. (1980). Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report and the Prospects. In WJ McNerney, (ed.), Working for a Healthier America. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, pp. 95-110. [First publication of model later to be integrated with PRECEDE as the PROCEED components.]

Green, L.W. (1981). Planning for Health Education: A Training Package. Madison, WI: Institute for Health Planning, 702 N.Blackhawk Ave., Madison WI 53705, tel. 608-233-9791. Videotape, trainer's guide, case study, collection of key articles, six audiotapes. Preview Training Package, U.S.$10.00; Purchase Training Package US$42.50 + $4.00 shipping.

Green, L.W. (1981). Emerging federal perspectives on health promotion. In JP Allegrante, (ed.), Health Promotion Monographs, no. 1, New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 28pp.

Green, L.W. (1981). The objectives for the nation in disease prevention and health promotion: A challenge to health education training. Keynote address for National Conference for Institutions Preparing Health Educators: Proceedings. Washington, DC: US Office of Health Information and Health Promotion, DHHS Publication No. 81-50171, pp. 61-73.

Green, L.W. (1982). Reconciling policy in health education and primary health care. International Journal of Health Education 24 (Suppl.3): 1-11.

Green, L.W. (1983). New policies in education for health. World Health (April-May): 13-7.

Green, L.W. (1983). New Policies for Health Education in Primary Health Care. Background document for the Technical Discussions of the 36th World Health Assembly. Geneva: World Health Organization, May.

Green, L.W. (1984). A triage and stepped approach to self-care education. Medical Times 111: 75-80.

Green, L.W. (1984). La educacion para la salud en el medio urbano. In Conferencia InterAmericana de Educacion Para La Salud. Mexico City: Sector Salud, SEP, and International Union for Health Education and World Health Organization, pp. 80-82.

Green, L.W. (1984). Modifying and developing health behavior. Annual Review of Public Health 5: 215-36.

Green, L.W. (1986). Applications and trials of the PRECEDE framework for planning and evaluation of health education programs. Amer. Pub. Health Assoc. 114th Ann. Mtg. Abstracts, Las Vegas, p. 162. See series of abstracts from the several panel presentations on applications, e.g., Bolan.

Green, L.W. (1986). Evaluation model: a framework for the design of rigorous evaluation of efforts in health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion 1(1): 77-9.

Green, L.W. (1986). New Policies for Health Education in Primary Health Care. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Green, L.W. (1986). Research agenda: building a consensus on research questions. American Journal of Health Promotion 1(2): 70-2.

Green, L.W. (1986). The theory of participation: a qualitative analysis of its expression in national and international health policies. In WB Ward, (ed.), Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 1, Pt. A, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc., pp. 211-236.

Green, L.W. (1987). How physicians can improve patients' participation and maintenance in self-care. Western Journal of Medicine 147(3): 346-9.

Green, L.W. (1987). Program Planning and Evaluation Guide for Lung Associations. New York: American Lung Association.

Green, L.W. (1988). Policies for decentralization and development of health education. Rev Saude Publica 22(3):217-20.

Green, L. W., and Kreuter, M. W. (1991). Health promotion planning: an educational and environmental approach. 2nd Edn. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishers.

Green, L.W. (1991). Prevention and health education. In JM Last and RB Wallace (eds.), Maxcy-Rosenau Preventive Medicine and Public Health 13th Ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Chap.45, pp.787-802.

Green, L.W. (1991). Theory based planning and evaluation of health education programmes. Published abstracts/proceedings of Health – United Effort: XIV World Conference on Health Education, Helsinki, Finland, June 16-21, 1991. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Council for Health Education, p.434.

Green, L.W. (1992). The Health Promotion Research Agenda revisited. American Journal of Health Promotion 6(6):411-413.

Green, L.W. (1993). Modifying lifestyle to improve health. In W. Douglas Skelton & Marian Osterweis (eds.), Promoting Community Health: The Role of the Academic Health Center. Washington, DC: Association of Academic Health Centers, 1993, pp. 54-69.

Green, L.W. (1994). Refocusing health care systems to address both individual care and population health. Clin Invest Med 17(2):133-41.

Green, L.W. (1996). Health promotion in the worksite: theory and practice. Japan Health and Culture Promotion Center Newsletter. No. 3: 2-13.

Green, L.W. Prevention and health education in clinical, school, and community settings. (1998) In Wallace, R. B. (Ed.). Maxcy-Roseneau-Last. Public Health and Preventive Medicine (14th ed.) Norwalk, CN: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Chapter 48, pp. 889-904.

Green, L.W. (1999). What can we generalize from research on patient education and clinical health promotion to physician counseling on diet? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (Suppl. 2): S9-S18.

Green, L. W. (2001). From research to "best practices" in other settings and populations. Am J Health Behav. 25(3): 165-78.

Green, L.W. and Allen, J. (1980). Toward a Healthy Community: Organizing Events for Community Health Promotion. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, PHS Publ. No. 80-50113.

Green, L.W., Cargo, M., and Ottoson, J.M. (1994). The role of physicians in supporting lifestyle changes. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition and Health 3: 119-130. Also in Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting of the Society of Prospective Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, April 15-17, 1993. Indianapolis, IN: Society of Prospective Medicine, Publishers, 1993, pp. 89-129.

Green, L.W., Costagliola, D., and Chwalow, A.J. (1991). Diagnostic éducatif et évaluation de stratégies éducatives (modèle PRECEDE): Méthodology pratique pour induire des changements de comportements et d'état de santé. Journées Annuelles de Diabétologie de l'Hotel Dieu (Paris: Flammarion Médecine-Sciences, 1991), pp. 227-240.

Green, L.W. and Deutsch, M. (1987). Estimating Poor Pregnancy Outcomes in the Local Community that may be Related to Smoking. Houston: Center for Health Promotion Research and Development, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1987. Software programmed in Turbo PASCAL, plus manuals, developed under March of Dimes grant.

Green, L.W., Eriksen, M.P., and Schor, E.L. (1988). Preventive practices by physicians: behavioral determinants and potential interventions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 4 (suppl. 4, 1988): 101-7, reprinted in R. N. Battista and R. S. Lawrence, eds., Implementing Preventive Services (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); pp. 101-7.

Green, L.W., Fisher, A., Amin, R., Shafiullah, A.B.M. (1975). Paths to the adoption of family planning: a time-lagged correlation analysis of the dacca family planning experiment. Int. Jour. Health Educ. 18:85-96.

Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J. (IHPR) (1994). Theories and principles of health education applied to asthma. Chest 106(4, Suppl.): 219S-230S.

Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., Wharf-Higgins, J . (1993). Scientific basis for cardiovascular disease prevention and heart health promotion policy: psychosocial and community determinants. Canadian Journal of Cardiology 9 (Suppl. D): 50D-51D.

Green, L.W., Glanz, K., Hochbaum, G.M., Kok, G., Kreuter, M.W., Lewis, F.M., Lorig, K., Morisky, D., Rimer, B.K., and Rosenstock, I.W. (1994). Can we build on, or must we replace, the theories and models in health education? Health Education Research 9(3):397-404.

Green, L. & Iverson, D. (1982). School health education. Ann Rev Public Health, 3: 321-328.

Green, L.W. and Kreuter, M.W. (1992). CDC's Planned Approach to Community Health as an application of PRECEDE and an inspiration for PROCEED. Journal of Health Education 23(3): 140-147. [The PATCH manual was continuously updated online by CDC until 2004, as it was gradually replaced by a new generation of community health planning tools]. For the full PATCH manual, which is now out of print, click here. 

Green, L.W. and Kreuter, M.W. (1993). Are community organization and health promotion one process or two? American Journal of Health Promotion V5, I07, 3

Green, L.W., Levine, D.M. and Deeds, S.G. (1975). Clinical trials of health education for hypertensive outpatients: design and baseline data. Preventive Medicine 4(4): 417-25.

Green, L.W., Levine, D.M. and Deeds, S.G. (1977). Health education and control of hypertension. Presented at the American Federation for Clinical Research, Washington, DC, May 2, 1977. Clin. Res. (abstract), 25(3), May, 1977. See also Med. World News, May 30, 1977; and Fam. Pract. News 7:55, July 15, 1977.

Green, L.W., Levine, D.M., Wolle, J. and Deeds, S.G. (1979). Development of randomized patient education experiments with urban poor hypertensives. Patient Counseling and Health Education 1(3): 106-11.

Green, L.W. and Lewis, F.M. (1986). Measurement and Evaluation in Health Education and Health Promotion. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.

Green, L.W., Lewis, F.M. and Levine, D.M . (1980). Balancing statistical data and clinician judgments in the diagnosis of patient educational needs. Journal of Community Health 6(2): 79-91.

Green, L.W. and McAlister, A. (1984). Macro-intervention to support health behavior: some theoretical perspectives and practical reflections. Health Education Quarterly 11(3): 322-39.

Green, L.W., & Mercer, S.L. (2002). PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. In Breslow L, Goldstein, BD, Green LW, Keck DW, Last JM, & McGinnis, JM (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Public Health. Vol 3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, Gale Group, pp. 956-958. Describes the model in 3 pages with reproduction of the framework as it appeared in the 3rd edition. See also "Predisposing Factors" (pp. 958-961) by Green & Mercer in the same volume, and "Enabling Factors" by Mercer in vol. 2 (pp. 376-378).

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Hazavehei, S.M., Jalili, Z., Heydarnia, A.R., and Faghihzadeh, S. (2006). Application of the PRECEDE model for controlling iron-deficiency anemia among children aged 1-5, Kerman, Iran. Promot Educ. 13(3):173-7. 

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Hiddink, G.J. (Dutch Dairy Foundation on Nutrition & Health, Zonnenbaan 12D, 3606 CA Maarssen, The Netherlands), Hautvast, J.G.A.J., vann Woerkum, C.M.J., Fieren, C.J., van 't Hof, M.A. (1995). Nutrition guidance by primary-care physicians: perceived barriers and low involvement. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49(11):842-851.

Higgins, Joan Wharf and MacDonald, Marjorie (Institute of Health Promotion Res., Univ. British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3) (1992). The School-Based Prevention Model: A Training Handbook. Prepared for the Alcohol and Drug Programs, BC Ministry of Health, by M.A. MacDonald and Associates, Victoria, BC.

Highfield, L., Bartholomew, L.K., Hartman, M.A., Ford, M.M., Balihe, P. (Nov 2014). Grounding evidence-based approaches to cancer prevention in the community: A case study of mammography barriers in underserved African American Women. Health Promotion Practice 15(6):904-914. 

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Hill, J. (Univ.Leeds, Dept. Med., Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Rheumatism Research, Leeds LS2 9JT, W.Yorkshire, Eng.) (1990). Patient education--what to teach patients with rheumatic disease. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 110(6): 204-207.

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Hlaing, P.H., Sullivan, P.E., and Chaiyawat, P. (2019). Application of PRECEDE-PROCEED Planning Model in Transforming the Clinical Decision Making Behavior of Physical Therapists in Myanmar. Front Public Health. 7(114). doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00114. eCollection 2019. [Free Full Text]

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Howat, P., Cross, D., Hall, M., Iredell, H., Stevenson, M., Gibbs, S., Officer J., Dillon, J. (2001). Community participation in road safety: barriers and enablers. Journal of Community Health. 26(4): 257-270.

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Huebner, C.E., Barlow, W.E., Tyll, L.T., Johnston, B.D., Thompson, R.S. (2004). Expanding developmental and behavioral services for newborns in primary care: program design, delivery, and evaluation framework. Am J Prev Med. 26(4):344-55. [See Johnston, Huebner et al for additional results.]

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Hunter, K., Keay, L., Clapham, K., Brown, J., Bilston, L.E., Lyford, M., Gilbert, C., and Ivers, R.Q. (2017). "He's the Number One Thing in My World": Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to Explore Child Car Seat Use in a Regional Community in New South Wales. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 4(10). pii: E1206. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14101206. 

Hunnicutt, David M. (Univ. Nebraska at Lincoln), Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina, Newman, Ian M., Davis, Joe L. and Crawford, Janet (1993). Use of the delphi technique to support a comprehensive campus alcohol abuse initiative. Journal of Health Education 24(2):88-96.

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Jahangiry, L., Khazaee-Pool, M., Mahdavi, B. et al. (2018). Preventive factors related to brucellosis among rural population using the PRECEDE model: an application of path analysis. Tropical Animal Health and Production: 1-10. 

Jancey, J.M., Clarke, A., Howat, P.A., Lee, A.H., Shilton, T., and Fisher, J. (2008). A Physical Activity Program to Mobilize Older People: A Practical and Sustainable ApproachThe Gerontologist, 48(2): 251-257. [Free Full Text]

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Jeihooni, A.K., Harsini, P.A., Kashfi, S.M., and Rakhshani, T. (2019). Effect of educational intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model on preventive behaviors of cutaneous leishmaniasis among housewives. Cadernos de Saúde Pública [online], 35(7): e00158818 [Free Full Text]

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Jimba, Masamine (Asst Prof, Dept International Community Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, JAPAN, Tel: +81-3-5841-3697/3698, Fax: +81-3-5841-3422,, Joshi, D.D. (2001). Health promotion approach for the control of food-borne parasitic zoonoses [tapeworm] in Nepal: Emphasis on an environmental assessment. Southeast J Trop Med Public Health 32(suppl 2):229-35. [See Joshi below]

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Johnson, C.C., Powers, C.R., Bao, W., Harsha, D.W., and Berenson, G.S. (Natl.Cntr.for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane Sch.Public Health & Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112-2824) (1994). Cardiovascular risk factors of elementary school teachers in a low socio-economic area of a metropolitan city: the Heart Smart Program. Health Education Research 9(2):183-191. See Arbeit et al., 1992 and Downey et al., 1987 for more complete descriptions.

Johnston, B.D., Huebner, C.E., Tyll,  L.T., Barlow, W.E., Thompson, R.S. (2004). Expanding developmental and behavioral services for newborns in primary care; Effects on parental well-being, practice, and satisfaction. Am J Prev Med. 26(4):356-66. [See Huebner et al for PRECEDE design and evaluation.]

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Joshi, D.D., Poudyal, P.M., Jimba, M.,Mishra, P.N., Neave, L.A., Maharjan, M. Controlling Taenia solium [tapeworm] in Nepal using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2001; 32(suppl 2):94-97. 

Kaiser Family Foundation. (1990). The Health Promotion Program of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Menlo Park: The Henry J. Kaiser Foundation.

Kaiser Family Foundation. (1989). Strategic Plan for the Health Promotion Program, 1989-1991. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Kar, Snehendu B. (1981-82). Factors in consistency between attitudes and behavior: implications for policies and programs. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 2(1):3-22. [Not an application of PRECEDE, but discovered convergent findings with additive predictive power of predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors (by different names) in linear relationship with current family planning use.]

Katz, D.L., Murimi, M., Gonzalez, A., Nijike, V., Green, L.W. (2011). From clinical trial to community adoption: The Multi-site Translational Community Trial (mTCT). Am J Public Health, 101(8): e17-e27.

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Kaukiainen, Anneli. (2000). Promotion of the Health of Construction Workers. Tampere, Finland: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Research Reports 35. Esp. pp. 24-38, 60-62.

Kegler, Michelle C., & Miner, Kathleen. (2004). Environmental Health Promotion Interventions: Considerations for Preparation and Practice. Health Educ Behav, 31(4): 510 - 525.

Keintz, Martha K. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, 510 Township Line Road, Cheltenham, PA 19012), Rimer, B.K., Fleisher, L. and Engstrom, P.(1988). Educating older adults about their increased cancer risk. Gerontologist 28(4): 487-90.

Keintz, Martha K., Rimer, B.K., Fleisher, L., Fox, L., and Engstrom, P. (1988). Use of multiple data sources in planning a smoking cessation program for a defined population. In PF Engstrom, PN Anderson and LE Mortenson (eds.), Advances in Cancer Control: Cancer Control Research and the Emergence of the Oncology Product Line, New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 31-42.

Keintz, Martha K., Fleisher, L., Rimer, B.K. (1994). Reaching mothers of preschool-aged children with a targeted quit smoking intervention. Journal of Community Health 19(1):25-40, [Results from Keintz et al., 1988].

Keith, Susan E. (Department of Kinesiology, Angelo State University, TX, ) & Doyle, E. I. (1998). Using PRECEDE/PROCEED to address diabetes within the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. American Journal of Health Behavior, 22(5): 358-367.

Kelly, G.R. (Veterans Affairs Med Ctr, 151, Perry Point, MD 21902), Scott, J.E., Mamon, J. (1990). Medication compliance and health education among outpatients with chronic mental disorders. Medical Care 28(12):1181-1197.

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King, M.L., Aden, A., Tapa, S., Jumah, R., and Khan, S. (2014). Evidence-Based Stillbirth Prevention Strategies: Combining Empirical and Theoretical Paradigms to Inform Health Planning and Decision-Making. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 11(4): 258-265

Klimmek, R.K., Noyes, E., Edington-Saunders, K., Logue, C., Jones, R., and Wenzel. (2012). Training of community health workers to deliver cancer patient navigation to rural African American seniors. J. Prog Community Health Partnersh., 6(2):167-74.

Kline, M.V. (1999). Planning health promotion and disease prevention programs in multicultural populations. Chapter 4 in RM Huff & MV Kline (Eds.), Promoting Health in Multicultural Populations: A Handbook for Practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 73-102, esp. pp. 76-78, 81-91

Kline, M.V. & Huff, R.M. (1999).  Moving into the 21st century: Final thoughts about multicultural health promotion and disease prevention. Chapter 27 in RM Huff & MV Kline (Eds.), Promoting Health in Multicultural Populations: A Handbook for Practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 501-516, esp. pp. 504-506, 509, 513.

Kline, M.V. & Huff, R.M. (1999).  Tips for working with Asian American populations. Chapter 21 in RM Huff & MV Kline (Eds.), Promoting Health in Multicultural Populations: A Handbook for Practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 383-396, esp. pp. 383, 389-390.

Kloos, H. (1995). Human behavior, health education and schistosomiasis control--A review. Social Science & Medicine 40(11): 1497-1511

Knazan, Y. (Jan 1983-Jan 1985). Dental Health Promotion for Senior Citizens. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, Faculty of Dentistry, School of Dental Hygiene (available: 780 Bannatyne Ave., Room D108, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0W3, Canada)

Knazan, Y.L. (1986). Application of PRECEDE to dental health promotion for a Canadian well-elderly population. Gerodontics 2(5):180-185.

Kocken P.L., Voorham A.J.J. , Brandsma J., Swart W.A.J.M. (2001) Effects of peer-led Aids education aimed at Turkish and Moroccan male migrants in the Netherlands: a randomized controlled evaluation study. European Journal of Public health 11(2): 153-159.

Koivula, Meeri (Department of Nursing Science, University of Tampere, PO Box 607, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland) & Paunonen, M. (1998). Smoking habits among Finnish middle-aged men: experiences and attitudes. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(2): 327-334.

Kok, F.J. (1982). Doelgroepsegmentatie in de Primaire Preventie van Cardiovasculaire Ziekten (Target group segmentation in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases) (Drukwerk, the Netherlands: Krips Repro, Meppel, 1982), esp. Chapters 1 and 8.

Kok, F.J., Matroos, A.W., van den Ban, A.W., & Hautvast, J.G.A.J. (1982). Characteristics of individuals with multiple behavioral risk factors for coronary heart disease: the Netherlands, Amer J Public Health 72(9): 986-991.

Kok, G. (1999). Targeted prevention for people with HIV/AIDS: feasible and desirable? Patient Education and Counseling 36(3): 239-246.

Kok, G. (1991). Health Promotion Planning: An Educational and Environmental Approach (Second Edition)...[book review]. Hygie 10(2):48.

Kok, Gerjo (PhD, Prof.& Chair, Dept Health Educ, Univ Limburg, Maastricht, the Netherlands) (1992). Quality of planning as a decisive determinant of health education effectiveness. Hygie: Int J Health Educ 11(4):5-9.

Kok, G. and Green, L.W. (1990). Research to support health promotion in practice: a plea for increased co-operation. Health Promotion International, 5(4), 303-308.

Kok, G. (1997). Health education. In: Ayers, S., Baum, A., McManus, C., Newman, S., Weiman, J., Wallston, K. & West, R. (Eds.). Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine (pp. 216-219). Cambridge University Press.

Kok, G. (2005). Health promotion. In: Ayers, S., Baum, A., McManus, C., Newman, S., Weiman, J., Wallston, K. & West, R. (Eds.). Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine. Cambridge University Press.

Kok, G. (HEALTH, University of Limburg, P. O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands), van den Borne, B. & Mullen, P. D. (1997). Effectiveness of health education and health promotion: meta-analyses of effect studies and determinants of effectiveness. Patient Education and Counseling, 30(1): 19-27.

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Kokko, S., Green, L.W., Kannas, L. (2013). A review of settings-based health promotion with applications to sports clubs. Health Promotion International doi: 10.1093/heapro/dat046. [Free Full Text]

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Kolbe, L.J. (CDC Div. of Adolescent and School Health), Brink, S., and Lovato, C.Y. (1987). Models/Theories Applied to DOT Adolescent Safety Belt Project: Questionnaire. Houston: Center for Health Promotion Research and Development, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

Kolbe, L. J., Iverson, D.C., Kreuter, M. W., Hochbaum, G. & Christensen, G. (1981). Propositions for an alternate and complementary health education paradigm. Health Education, 12(3): 24-30.

Kolbe, L.J., Green, L.W., Foreyt, J. et al. (1985). Appropriate function of health education in schools. In N. Krasnagor, J. Arasteh, and M. Cataldo (eds.), Child Health Behavior: A Behavioral Pediatrics Perspective, New York: Wiley, pp. 171-209.

Konrad, T. R. & DeFriese, G. H. (1990). Primer on evaluation methods: On the subject of sampling.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 5(2): 147-153

Kotler, P. and Roberto, E.L. (1989). Social Marketing: Strategies for Changing Public Behavior. New York: The Free Press, pp. 282-294.

Kovar, P.A., Allegrante, J.P. (Cornell Arthritis & Musculoskeletal Diseases Center, The Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E. 70th St., New York, NY 10021), MacKenzie, C.R., Peterson, M.G., Gutin, B., Charlson, M.E. (1992). Supervised fitness walking in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 116(7): 529-534. See Allegrante et al., 1992, for theory & intervention planning.

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Kratzke, C., Garzon, L., Lombard, J.,Karlowicz, K. (2010). Training Community Health Workers: Factors that Influence Mammography Use. Journal of Community Health , 35(6), 683-688

Kreuter, M. W. <>, Lezin, N. A., & Green, L. W. (1998). Community health promotion ideas that work: A field-book for practitioners. Subbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Kreuter, M.W. (1992). 'What do you think of certification?' and other burning questions. In Eta Sigma Gamma 25th Anniversary Celebration Proceedings. The Eta Sigma Gamma Monograph Series 10(2):23-29.

Kreuter, M.W.  (1992). PATCH: its origin, basic concepts, and links to contemporary public health policy. Journal of Health Education 23(3): 135-139. [The PATCH manual was continuously updated online by CDC until 2004, as it was gradually replaced by a new generation of community health planning tools]. For the full PATCH manual, which is now out of print, click here. 

Kreuter, M.W., & Green, L.W. (1991). The new PRECEDE: A workshop for health education leaders. Published abstracts/proceedings of Health – United Effort: XIV World Conference on Health Education, Helsinki, Finland, June 16-21, 1991. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Council for Health Education, p.435-436.

Kristal, Alan R. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1124 Columbia, MP 702, Seattle, WA 98104), Patterson, R.E., Glanz, K., Heimendinger, J., Hebert, J.R., Feng, Z., Probart, C. (1995). Psychosocial correlates of healthful diets: baseline results from the Working Well study. Preventive Medicine. 24(3): 221-28.

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Kroger, Fred (1991). Preventing HIV infection: educating the general public. The Journal of Primary Prevention 12(1):7-17.

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Lafontaine, G. (Direction de la sante publique, RRSSS de la Monteregie, 5245 boul. Cousineau, bureau 3000, Saint-Hubert, Quebec, Canada J3Y 6J8), Bedard, L. (1997). La prevention des infections dans les services de garde a l’enfance:  les facteurs potentials d’influenceCanadian Journal of Public Health, 88(4): 250-254.

Laitakari, J. (The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, PO Box 30, 33501 Tampere, Finland), Miilunpalo, S., Vuori, I. (1997). The process and methods of health counseling by primary health care personnel in Finland: a national survey. Patient Education and Counseling; 30(1): 61-70.

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Lam, W., Dawson, A., and Fowler, C. (2016) Approaches to better engage parent–child in health home-visiting programmes: A content analysis. J Child Health Care, 10.1177/1367493516653260

Lam, T. K., McPhee, S. J., Mock, J., Wong, C., Doan, H. T., Nguyen, T., Lai, K. Q., Ha-Iaconis, T., & Luong, T.N. (2003). Encouraging Vietnamese-American women to obtain Pap Tests through lay health worker outreach and media education. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18(7), 516-24.

Langille, D.B. (Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, 5849 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7), Mann, K.V., Gailiunas, P.N. (1997). Primary care physicians' perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and STD prevention practices in a Nova Scotia county. American Journal of Preventive Medicine; 13(4): 324-30.

Langlois, M.A., Hallam, J.S. (2010). Integrating Multiple Health Behavior Theories Into Program Planning: The PER Worksheet. Health Promotion Practice, 11(2): 282-288

Larson, E., McGee, A., Quraishi, Z.A. et al. (1991). Effect of an automated sink on handwashing practices and attitudes in high-risk units. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 12(7):422-428 

Larson, E.L. (RN, PhD, FAAN, CIC, St. Mary's Hall, 3700 Reservoir Rd. NW Washington DC 20005), Bryan, J.L., Adler, L.M., Blane, C. (1997). A multifaceted approach to changing handwashing behavior. Am J Infect Control  25(1):3-10.

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Lazovich, D., Parker, D.L., Brosseau, L.M., Milton, T.M., Dugan, S.K., Pan, W., Hock, L. (2002).  Effectiveness of  a worksite intervention to reduce an occupational exposure:  The Minnesota wood dust study.  American Journal of Public Health 92(9), 1498-1505. 

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Lengerich, E.J., Kluhsman, B.C., Bencivenga, M., Allen, R., Miele, M.B., and Farace, E. (2007). Development of community plans to enhance survivorship from colorectal cancer: Community-based participatory research in rural communities.

Lennon, J.L. (1993). An Application of the PRECEDE Model in Health Program Planning: An Example of Health Promotion in Diarrhea Control. Filipino Family Physician; 31(1): 23-29.

Leonard, J.C., Scharff, D.P., Koors, V., Lerner, E.B., Adelgais, K.M., Anders, J., … Jaffe, D. M. (2012). A qualitative assessment of factors that influence emergency medical services partnerships in prehospital research. Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 19(2), 161–173. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01283.x. [Free Full Text]

Leppik, I.E. (Minnesota Comprehens Epilepsy Program, PA 5775 Wayzata Blvd, Suite 255, Minneapolis, MN 55416) (1990). How to get patients with epilepsy to take their medication: the problem of noncompliance. Postgraduate Med. 88(1):253-256.

Leveque, A. (2001). Traumatismes et épidémiologie: un cadre de réflexion un approche globale, indispensable, un role central pour l'épidémiologie. Brussels: Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Ecole de Santé Publique. Chapter 6.3.1: Un exemple d'approche globale: le modèle de Green. Pp. 188 presents the model and its integration with the Haddon model.

Lesvesque, L., Guilbault, G., Delormier, T., & Potvin, L. (2005). Unpacking the black box: A deconstruction of the programming approach and physical activity interventions implemented in the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project. Health Promotion Practice 6(1): 64-71. 

Levin, S., Martin, M.W., McKenzie, T.L., & DeLouise, A.C. (2002). Assessment of a pilot video's effect on physical activity and heart health for young children. Family and Community Health, 25(3):10-17.

Levine, D.M. (Div. Internal Med., Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Med., 1830 E. Monument St., Room 8047, Baltimore, MD 21205) (1982). Health education for behavioral change--clinical trial to public health program. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 151(5):215-219.

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Levine, D. (1990). The results: impact and outcome of patient education. Journal of Human Hypertension 4 (Suppl.1):35-37.

Levine, D.M., Becker, D.M., Bone, L.R. (1992). Narrowing the gap in health status of minority populations: a community-academic medical center partnership. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 8(9):319-323.

Levine, D.M., Fedder, D.O., Green, L.W., McClellan, W., Roccella, E.J., Saunders, E., Simonds, S.K., Weiss, S. and Winston, M. (National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Health Education in High Blood Pressure Control, 120/80 National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892) (1987). The Physician's Guide: Improving Adherence Among Hypertensive Patients. Bethesda: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Levine, D.M., and Green, L.W. (1981). Cardiovascular risk reduction: An interdisciplinary approach to research training. International Journal of Health Education, 24(1), 20-25.

Levine, D.M., and Green, L.W. (1983). Behavioral change through health education. In NM Kaplan and J. Stamler, (eds.), Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease: Practical Management of the Risk Factors. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 161-9.

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Levine, D.M., Green, L.W., Morisky, D. (1987). Effect of a structured health education program on reducing morbidity and mortality from high blood pressure. Bibl Cardiol 42:8-16

Levine, D. M., Green, L. W., Russell, R. P., Morisky, D., Chwalow, A. J., and Benson, P. (1979). Compliance in hypertension management: what the physician can do. Practical Cardiology 5:151-160.

Levine, D.M., Morisky, D.E., Bone, L.R., Lewis, C., Ward, W.B., and Green, L.W. (1982). Data-based planning for educational interventions through hypertension control programs for urban and rural populations in Maryland. Public Health Reports 97(2): 107-112.

Leviton, L.C., Finnegan, J.R., Zapka, J.G., Meischke, H., Estabrook, B., Gilliland, J., Linares, A., Weitzman, E.R., Raczynski, J., & Stone, E.  (1999).  Formative research methods to understand patient and provider responses to heart attack symptoms.  Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(4): 385-397.

Li, Y., (Department of Social Medicine and Health Service Management, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, PR China. Cao, J., Lin, H., Li, D., Wang, Y., He, J. (2009). Community health needs assessment with precede-proceed model: a mixed methods study. BMC Health Serv Res. 9:181. [Free Full Text]

Lian, W. M., Chan, R., & Wee, S. (2000). Sex workers' perspectives on condom use for oral sex with clients: a qualitative study. Health Education and Behavior, 27(4):502-16.

Lian, W. M., Gan, L., Pin, C. H., Wee, S., & Ye, H. C.. (1999).  Determinants of leisure-time physical activity in an elderly population in Singapore. American Journal of Public Health, 89(10): 1578-80.

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Lichter, M., Arens, P.L., Reinstein, N., Simonds, S.K., and Heeringa, S.G. (1986). Oakwood Hospital Community Health Promotion Program. Health Care Management Review 11: 75-87.

Light, L. and Contento, I.R. (1989). Changing the course: a school nutrition and cancer education program by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. Journal Of School Health 59(5): 205-209.

Linnan, L.A. (Univ N. Carolina SPH, Chapel Hill), Sterba, K.R., Lee, A.N., Bontempi, J.B., Yang, J., and Crump, C. (2005). Planning and the Professional Preparation of Health Educators: Implications for Teaching, Research, and Practice. Health Promot Pract. 6(3): 308-319

Lipnickey, S.C. (1986). Application of the PRECEDE Model to a school-based program of drug, alcohol and tobacco education. [microform] ED281126 Gov't Publications / Microforms Div. 12pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association (114th, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 28-Oct. 2, 1986.

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Lomas, J. (Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main St.West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5) (1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: Who should do what? In Kenneth S. Warren & Frederick Mosteller (Eds.) Doing More Good than Harm: The Evaluation of Health Care Interventions. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 703, pp. 226-237 [see esp. pp. 227-8 & Fig. 1].

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Loos, G.P. (1999). Health promotion planning in Pacific Islander population groups. Chapter 23 in RM Huff & MV Kline (Eds.), Promoting Health in Multicultural Populations: A Handbook for Practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 419-448, esp. pp. 420, 441.

Lorig, K. (Stanford Arthritis Center, HRP Bldg., Rm.6, Stanford, CA 94305) (1996). Use of PRECEDE Model and self-efficacy in arthritis education programs. Prepared for the New Zealand Arthritis Field Officers, Unpub., April 1989, 18pp. In Kate Lorig and Associates. Patient Education: A Practical Approach 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications. See esp. pp. 216-223.

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Loughrey K.A., Balch, G.I., Lefebvre, R.C., Doner, L., Johnston, C., Eisner, E., Hadley, L. (1997). Bringing 5 A Day Consumers into Focus: The Qualitative Use of Consumer Research to Guide Strategic Decision Making. Journal of Nutrition Education, 29 (4):172-177.

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Mullen, P. D., Simons-Morton, D. G., Ramirez, G., Frankowski, R. F., Green, L. W. & Mains, D. A.  (1997). A meta-analysis of trials evaluating patient education and counseling for three groups of preventive health behaviors. Patient Education and Counseling, 32(3): 157-173.

Mummery, W.K.<>, & Spence, J.C. (1998). Stages of physical activity in the Alberta population. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 89 (6): 421-423.

Muus, K.J., & Ahmed, K.A.(Center for Rural Health, U.N.Dakota School of Med., 501 N.Columbia Rd., Grand Forks, ND 58203) (1991). Physician utilization behavior among rural residents. Focus on Rural Health 8(2):10-12.

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Nacken, A., Rehfuess, E.A., Paul, I., Lupapula, A., and Pfadenhauer, L.M. (2018). Teachers’ competence, school policy and social context—HIV prevention needs of primary schools in Kagera, Tanzania. Health Education Research 33(6):505-521.

Naderi, Z., Zigheimat, F., Ebadi, A., Kachouei, H., and Mahdizadeh, S. (2009). Evaluation of the Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model on the Quality of Life of People Living with Epilepsy Referring to Baqyatallah Hospital in Tehran. Daneshvar med. 16(82):37–44. [Free Full Text - in Persian Language]

Nadrian, H., Sharifabad, M., Soleimani Salehabadi, H. (2010). Paradims of rheumatoid arthritis patients quality of life predictors based on path analysis of the Precede model. Hormozgan Med J. 14(1): 32–44.[Free Full Text - in Persian Language]

National Cancer Institute (2001).  Five-a-Day for Better Health Program.  Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute Monograph 01-5018, National Institutes of Health. Indicates applications of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model in the Five-a-Day projects in Louisiana (pp. 135, 138), North Carolina (pp. 152, 158), and describes the Model in Appendix D-3.

National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control (1989). Injury Prevention: Meeting the Challenge (New York: Oxford University Press), as a supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5(3): pp. 10, 74-76

National Research Council. An Integrated Framework for Assessing the Value of Community-Based Prevention . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012.

Naylor, P.J., Wharf-Higgins, J., Blair, L., Green, L., & O’Connor, B.  (2002).  Evaluating the participatory process in a community-based heart health project.  Social Science & Medicine, 55(7): 1173-1187.

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Nazari, M., Heydarnia, A., Eftekhar, A.H., Mobaasheri, M., Amin, S.F., Niknami, S., et al. (2008). Paper: Interventions based on PRECEDE-PROCEED for Promoting Safety Behaviors In Primary School Boys. Armaghane-Danesh, 13(2): 83-93. [Free Full Text in Persian language]

Neef, N., Scutchfield, F. D., Elder, J. & Bender, S. J. (1991). Testicular self examination by young men: An analysis of characteristics associated with practice. Journal of American College Health, 39(4): 187-190.

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Nelson, C. F., Kreuter, M.W., Watkins, N.B., Stoddard, R.R. (1987). Planned Approach to Community Health: The PATCH Program. In PA Nutting, (ed.), Community-Oriented Primary Care: From Principle to Practice. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, HRS-A-PE 86-1, chap. 47. [The PATCH manual was continuously updated online by CDC until 2004, as it was gradually replaced by a new generation of community health planning tools]. For the full PATCH manual, which is now out of print, click here. 

Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M. (1996). The use of health behavior theory in nutrition counseling. Topics in Clinical Nutrition; 11(2): 60-73.

Newman, I.M. and Martin, G.L. (1982). Attitudinal and normative factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Australia and the USA: a methodology to assist health education planning. Community Health Studies 6(1): 47-56.

Newman, I.M., Martin, G.L., and Weppner, R. (1982). A conceptual model for developing prevention programs. The International Journal of the Addictions 17(3): 493-504.

Ngowi, H.A., Mlangwa, J.ED., Mlozi, M.RS., Tolma, E.L., Kassuku, A.A., Carabin, H., and Willingham, A.L. (2009). Implementation and evaluation of a health-promotion strategy for control of Taenia solium infections in northern Tanzania. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 47(1): 24-34. 

Ngowi, H.A., Tolma, E.l., Kassuku, A A., Mlozi, M. RS., Mlangwa, J.ED., Carabin, H. and Willingham, A L. (2007). Using the PRECEDE model to plan a health promotion strategy for control of Taenia solium infections in northern Tanzania. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 45(2): 41-48. 

Nguyen, T. T. (MD, Asst Prof., Univ of California, San Francisco, Vietnamese Community Health Promotion Project, 44 Page St., Suite 500, San Francisco, CA 94102,, McPhee, S.J., Nguyen, T., Lam, T., Mock, J. (2002).  Predictors of cervical pap smear screening awareness, intention, and receipt among Vietnamese-American women. Amer J Prev Med 23(3):207-214.

Nguyen, M.N., Grignon, R., Tremblay, M., Delisle, L. (Direction de la Santé Publique de Laval, 800 Boul.Chomedey, Tour A, 2ieme étage, Laval, Québec, Canada, H7V 1X1). (1995). Behavioral diagnosis of 30 to 60 year-old men in the Fabreville Heart Health Program. Journal of Community Health 20(3):257-269.

Nguyen, M.N., Potvin, L., O'Loughlin, J., Philibert, L., Moisan, J., Paradis, G., Tremblay, M. (1995). L'épicerie aide-t-elle le consommateur a choisir les aliments qui favorisent la santé du coeur? Une étude exploratoire. Canadian Journal of Public Health 86(3): 185-187.

Nicklas, T.A. (Dept of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Development and Education, North Dakota State University, EML Hall, PO Box 5057, Fargo, ND 58105-5057), Johnson, C.C., Myers, L., Farris, R. P., & Cunningham, A. (1998). Outcomes of high school program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption: Gimme 5 – A fresh nutrition concept for students. Journal of School Health 68(6): 248-253.

Noble, K.A., and Lauzon, R.R.J. (1986). Smoke-free spaces for kids — a Canadian experiment. Health Education Journal, 45(3):152-154.

Norozi, E., Mostafavi, F., Hassanzadeh, A., Moodi, M., and Sharifirad, G. (2011). Factors related with quality of life among postmenopausal women in Isfahan, Iran, based on behavioral analysis phase of precede model. Health System Res. 7(3): 267–77.

Nowjack-Raymer, R. (NIDR, Health Promotion Sect., Westwood Bldg., 5333 Westbard Ave., Bethesda, MD 20892) (1990). Contributing factors to maternal and child oral health. Journal Public Health 50(6 Spec No):370-378.

Nozu, Y. (Assoc.Prof., 1-1 Tegata Gakuen, Akita Univ., Akita City, 010 Japan), Iwai, K., and Watanabe, M. (1996). AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and skills among high school students in Akita: Results from Akita AIDS education for Adolescent Survey (AAAS). Abstract No.234. Proceedings: Makuhari, Japan: XVth World Conference of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education: 306-309. 

Null, Dawn Bloyd. (2011). A preliminary study of living and working on the towboat: What are the health implications? The Health Education Monograph Series (Eta Sigma Gamma National Professional Health Education Honorary), 28(3):48-55.

O'Brien, R.W., Smith, S.S., Bush, P.J., & Peleg, E. (Div.of Children's Health Promotion, Georgetown Univ., Rm.415, Kober-Cogan Hall, 3750 Reservoir Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20007). (1990). Obesity, self-esteem, and health locus of control in black youths during transition to adolescence. American Journal of Health Promotion 5(2):133-139. Based on KYB project using PRECEDE model, see Bush (1989).

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (1981). Toward a Healthy Community: Organizing Events for Community Health Promotion (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Pub. No. PHS 80-50113).

Ogaitis, S., Chen, T.T., and Cernada, G.P. (1988). Eating attitudes, dieting, and bulimia among junior high school students. Intl. Quar. Community Health Education 9(1): 51-61.

Oh, H.S. & Kim, Y.R. (1993).  Planning process of health promotion programs for individuals with arthritis (in Korean). Kanhohak Tamgu, 2(2): 79-99, discussion 100-1.

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Oliver-Vazquez, M.; Sanchez-Ayendez, M.; Suarez-Perez, E.; Velez-Almodovar, H. (1999).   Planning a Breast Cancer Health Promotion: Qualitative and Quantitative Data on Puerto Rican Elderly WomenPromotion and Education, 6(4):16-19.

Oliver-Vazquez, M., Sanchez-Ayendez, M., Suarez-Perez, E., Velez-Almodovar, H., Arroyo-Calderon, Y. (2002). Breast cancer health promotion model for older Puerto Rican women: results of a pilot programme. Health Promotion International 17(1): 3-11. [Free Full Text]

Olson, C.M. (Div. Nutritional Sciences, Rm.376 MVR Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853) (1994). Promoting positive nutritional practices during pregnancy and lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59(2 suppl.):525S-531S. [Free Full Text]

O'Loughlin, J.L., Paradis, G., Gray-Donald, K., & Renaud, L. (1999).  The Impact of a Community-Based Heart Disease Prevention Program in a Low-Income, Inner-City Neighborhood.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89(12): 1819-1826. [Free Full Text]

O'Loughlin, J. (Dept of Public Health, Montreal General Hospital, 4835, Christophe-Colomb, Montreal (Quebec) H2J 3G8), Paradis, G., Kishchuk, N., Gray-Donald, K., Renaud, L., Finés, P., Barnett, T. (1995). Coeur en santé St-Henri - a heart health promotion programme in Montreal, Canada: design and methods for evaluation. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 49(5): 495-502. [Free Full Text]

O'Meara, C. (Univ. of Canberra, PO Box 1, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia) (1993). An evaluation of consumer perspectives of childbirth and parenting education. Midwifery 9(4): 210-219.

Opdycke, R.A. (College of Pharmacy, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1065), Ascione, F.J., Shimp, L.A., Rosen, R.I. (1992). A systematic approach to educating elderly patients about their medications. Patient Education and Counseling 19(1): 43-60. [Free Full Text]

Orenstein, D.C., Speers, N.M., Brownstein, J.N. and Ramsey, D.C. (CDC) (1992). Synthesis of the Four PATCH Evaluations. Journal of Health Education 23(3): 187-192. [The PATCH manual was continuously updated online by CDC until 2004, as it was gradually replaced by a new generation of community health planning tools]. For the full PATCH manual, which is now out of print, click here. 

Oruoji, M.A., Hashemi, S.I., Hazavehei, S.M.M., Charkazi, A., Jvaheri, J., and Moazeni, M. (2012). The positive impact of educational intervention program based on PRECEDE model on preventive preventive behaviors to reduce brucellosis in the rural people of KHomein. J Gorgan Bouyeh Facult Nurs Midwifery. 2012(1):51–60.

Ostwald, S. K. & Rothenberger, J. (1985). Development of a testicular self-examination program for college men. Journal of the American College Health, 33(6): 234-239.

Ottoson J.M. and Green, L.W. (1987). Reconciling Concept and Context: Theory of Implementation. In WB Ward and MH Becker, (eds.), Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 2, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp. 353-82.

Ottoson, J.M. (Adult Educ. Research Centre, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1L2, Canada) (May 1993). Implementation research: understanding the application of learning following continuing professional education. Proceedings of Adult Education Research Conference, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University.

Ottoson, J.M. (1995). Use of a conceptual framework to explore multiple influences on the application of learning following a continuing education program. Canadian J. of Adult Education 9(2): 1-18.

Ottoson, J.M. (1997). After the Applause: Exploring Multiple Influences on Application Following Adult Education Programs. Adult Education Quarterly 47(2): 92-107.

Ottoson, J. M. (1998). The role of contextual variables in the application of community training in substance abuse prevention, paper presented at XVI World Conference on Health Promotion and Health Education.   San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 21-26, 1998.  Abstracts "Book published by Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, 1998, pp. 26-27.

Ottoson, J.M. & Green, L.W. (2001). Public health education and health promotion. Chap 12 in Lloyd F. Novick & Glen P. Mays (Eds.). Public Health Administration: Principles for Population-Based Management. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc., pp. 300-323. 2nd edition in press, 2006.

Oxman, A.D. (Health Services Res.Unit, Natl.Inst.of Public Health, Geitmyrsveien 75, 0462 Oslo, Norway), Thomson, M.A., Davis, D.A., Haynes, R.B. (McMaster U.) (1995). No magic bullets: A systematic review of 102 trials of interventions to improve professional practice. Canadian Medical Association Journal 153(10):1423-1431. [Free Full Text]

Ozer, E.M., Adams, S.H., Lustig, J.L., Gee, S., Garber, A.K., Gardner, L.R., Rehbein, M., Addison, L., Irwin, C.E. Jr. (2005). Increasing the screening and counseling of adolescents for risky health behaviors: a primary care intervention. Pediatrics 115(4):960-8. [Free Full Text]

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Padilla, G. V. & Bulcavage, L. M. (1991). Theories used in patient / health education. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 7(2): 87-96.

Painter, J. E., Sales, J.M., Pazol, K., Grimes, T., Wingood, G.M., and DiClemente, R.J. (Rollins School of Public Health, Emory Univ.). (2010). Development, theoretical framework, and lessons learned from implementation of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention. Health Promotion Practice, 111(3 Suppl):42S-52S.

Painter, S.B. (2002). Community Health Education and Promotion Manual. 2nd Ed. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers (

Palti, H. (Maternal and Child Health Unit, Dept of Social Medicine, Hadassah Medical Organization, POB 12000, Jerusalem 91120, Israel), Knishkowy, B., Epstein, Y., Halevy,A., Meir, M., Adler, B. (1997). Reported health concerns of Israeli high school students – differences by age and sex. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 33(2): 123-128.

Paluck, E.C.M. (1998). Pharmacist-Client Communication: A study of quality and client satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. [Free Full Text]

Paluck, E.C., Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., Fielding, D.W., and Haverkamp. B. (2003). Assessment of communication barriers in community pharmaciesEval Health Prof 26(4): 380-403

Paluck, E.C, Williamson, D.L., Milligan, C.D., & Frankish, C.J. (2001). The Use of Population Health and Health Promotion Research by Regional Health Authorities in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 92(1):19-23. [Abstract/Free Full Text]

Paradis, G.(Dept of Public Health, Montreal General Hospital, 4835, Christophe-Colomb, Montreal (Quebec) H2J 3G8), O'Loughlin, J., Elliott, M., Masson, P., Renaud, L., Sacks-Silver, G., Lampron, G. (1995). Coeur en santé St-Henri - a heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada: theoretical model and early field experience. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 49(5): 503-512. [Free Full Text]

Parcel, G. S. (1984). Theoretical models for application in school health education research. Health Education, 15(4): 39-49.

Parcel, G.S. & Baranowski, T. (1981). Social learning theory and health education. Health Education, 12(3):l4-18

Parcel, G. S. & Brink, S. Development of Community-Based Risk Reduction Handbooks Program. Houston, TX: University of Texas Science Center at Houston, Center for Health Promotion Research and Development (P. O. Box 20186, Houston, TX 77225).

Parcel, G.S., Eriksen, M.P., Lovato, C.Y. et al. (1989). The diffusion of school-based tobacco-use prevention programs: project description and baseline data. Health Education Research 4(1): 111-24. [Free Full Text]

Parcel, G.S., O'Hara-Tompkins, N.M., Harrist, R.B., Basen-Engquist, K.M., McCormick, L.K., Gottlieb, N.H., Eriksen, M.P. (1995). Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part II: Evaluation of the adoption phase. Health Education Research 10(3):297-307. [Free Full Text]

Parcel, G.S., Green, L.W., and Bettes, B.A. (1989). School-based programs to prevent or reduce obesity. In  Krasnagor, N.A., Grave, G.D. and Kretchmer, N. (eds.), Childhood Obesity: A Biobehavioral Perspective. Caldwell, NJ: Telford Press, pp. 143-157.

Parcel, G.S., Muraskin, L.D., and Endert, C.M. (1988). Community education: study group report [of Society for Adolescent Medicine], Journal of Adolescent Health Care 9(6, Suppl): 41S-415S.

Parcel, G.S., Simons-Morton, B.G., and Kolbe, L.J. (1988). Health promotion: integrating organizational change and student learning strategies. Health Education Quarterly 15(4): 436-50.

Parcel, G.S., Simons-Morton, B.G., O'Hara, N.M. et al. (1989). School promotion of healthful diet and physical activity: impact on learning outcomes and self-reported behavior. Health Education Quarterly 16(2): 181-99.

Parcel, G.S., Simons-Morton, D.G., Brink, S.G. et al. (1987). Smoking Control Among Women: A CDC Community Intervention Handbook Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control.

Parcel, G.S., Swank, P.R., Mariotto, M.J., Bartholomew, L.K., Czyzewski, D.I., Sockride, M.M., Seilheim, D.K. (1994). Self-management of cystic-fibrosis--A structural model for educational and behavioral variables. Social Science and Medicine 38(9): 1307-1315. This project received the Award of Program Excellence from the Society for Public Health Education, 1994. See also Bartholomew et al., 1994.

Parent, F., Baulana, R., Kahombo, G., Coppieters, Y. Garant, M., De Ketele, J-M. (2011). A comprehensive competence-based approach in curriculum development: Experiences from African and European contexts. Health Education Journal 70(3): 301-317 

Parent, F., Kahombo, G., Bapitani, J., Garant, M., Coppieters, Y., Leveque, A., and Piette, D. (2004). A model for analysis, systemic planning and strategic synthesis for health science teaching in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a vision for action. Hum Resour Health 2(1):16. [Free Full Text]

Parkinson, R.S. and Associates, eds. (1982). Managing Health Promotion in the Workplace: Guidelines for Implementation and Evaluation Palo Alto: Mayfield.

Parks, C.P. (co Dept of Health, Leisure & Safety Sciences, The University of Tennessee, 1914 Andy Holt Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996-2700). (1995). Gang behavior in the schools: reality or myth? Educational Psychology Review. 7(1): 41-68.

Pasagian-Macaulay, A. (4742 Centre Avenue, Suite 507, Pittsburgh PA 15213), Basch, C. E., Zybert, P. & Wylie-Rosett, J. (1997). Ophthalmic knowledge and beliefs among women with diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 23(4): 433-437.

Pasick, R. J., D'Onofrio, C. N., & Otero-Sabogal, R. (1996). Similarities and differences across cultures: questions to inform a third generation for health promotion research. Health Education Quarterly, 23 (Suppl.), S142-S161.

Pasick, R. J. & Burke, N. J. (2008). A critical review of theory in breast cancer screening promotion across cultures. Annual Review of Public Health, 29: 351-368.

Paskett, E.D., Tatum, C.M., D'Agostino, R. Jr., Rushing, J., Velez, R., Michielutte, R., & Dignan, M. (1999). Community-based interventions to improve breast and cervical cancer screening: Results of the Forsyth County Cancer Screening (FoCaS) Project. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 8 (5): 453-459. [Free Full Text]

Paskett, ED, CM Tatum, R D’Agostino Jr., J Rushing, R Velez. (1999). The FoCas Project: Improving breast and cervical cancer screening among low-income women. Chapter 2 in N Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level: New advances (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 47-58, esp. p 50.

Penner, A.J. (2002). The impact of oral health and the implications on quality of life for seniors: A Prince Edward Island Study. M.Ed. Thesis. UNIVERSITY OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (CANADA), 129 pages.

Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen (MD, Unidad de Nutricion Comunitaria, San Vicente, 4, 48001 Bilbao, Spain) & Aranceta, J. (1997). Nutrition education for schoolchildren living in a low-income urban area in Spain. Journal of Nutrition Education, 29(5): 267-273.

Petermann, Lisa and Petz, Graham. (2011). The E2D2 Model: A Dynamic Approach to Cancer Prevention Interventions. Health Promot Pract., 12: 561-568. 

Phillips, J.L., Rolley, J.X., & Davidson, P.M. (2012). Developing Targeted Health Service Interventions Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model: Two Australian Case Studies. Nursing Research and Practice, 2012, 279431. doi:10.1155/2012/279431. [Free Full Text]

Pichora-Fuller, M.K. (1997). Assistive listening devices in accessibility programs for the elderly: A health promotion approach (pp. 161-202). In R. Lubinski & J. Higginbothan (Eds), Communication Technologies for the Elderly. Singular: San Diego.

Pocetta, G., Votino, A., Biribanti, A., and Rossi, A. (2015). Recording Non Communicable Chronic Diseases at Risk Behaviours in General Practice. A qualitative study using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. Ann Ig. 27(3):554-61. doi: 10.7416/ai.2015.2047.[Free Full Text]

Polcyn, M. M. (Assoc.Prof., Health Education, Lourdes Coll., 6832 Convent Blvd., Sylvania, OH 43560), Price, J.H., Jurs, S.G., & Roberts, S.M. (1991). Utility of the PRECEDE Model in differentiating users and nonusers of smokeless tobacco. Journal of School Health 61(4): 166-171.

Pornthip, K., Pannee, B., & Pall, C. (2019). The Effects of an Integration of PRECEDE-PROCEED Model and Health Literacy in Behavioral Modification for Weight Control among Overweight and Obesity of Adolescents in the Northeast of Thailand. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development 10(10): 1010-1015

Porter, C.M. Revisiting Precede–Proceed: A leading model for ecological and ethical health promotion. (2015-2016). Health Education Journal, 75 (6). doi:10.1177/0017896915619645. 

Potter, M.B., Walsh, J.M.E., Yu, T.M., Gildengorin, G., Green, L.W., McPhee, S.J. (2011). The Effectiveness of the FLU–FOBT Program in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial. Am J Prev Med. 41(1): 9 –16. [Free Full Text]

Potvin, L. (PhD, Ministere de la Santé et des Services Sociaux du Québec; GRIS, Université de Montréal, Quebec),  Paradis, G., Laurier, D., Masson, P., Pelletier, J., Lessard R. (1992). Le Cadre d'Intervention du Projet Québécois de Démonstration en Santé du Coeur. Hygie: Revue Internationale d'Education pour la Santé 11(1):17-23

Pournaghash-Tehrani, S., and Etemadi, S. (2014).  ED and Quality of Life in CABG Patients: An Intervention Study Using PRECEDE-PROCEED Educational Program. International Journal of Impotence Research, 26(1): 16-19. [Free Full Text]

Preedy, V.R., and Watson, R.L. (Eds). (2010). PRECEDE/PROCEED Program Planning Model. In Handbook of Disease Burdens and Quality of Life Measures, Part 4 (Glossary), pg. 4292. [Front Matter]

Proulx, M, L Potvin, P Lehoux, E Gariépy, M Tremblay.  (1999).  L’action structurante de l’utilisation d’un modèle pour la planification de programmes en promotion de la santé (Structuring action from the use of a model for planning programs in health promotion).  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 90 (1): 23-26

Pucci, L.G. (Boston Tobacco Control Program, 1010 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, MA 02118), Haglund, B. (1994). 'Naturally Smoke Free': a support program for facilitating worksite smoking control policy implementation in Sweden. Health Promotion International. 9(3): 177-187. [Free Full Text]

Pujet, J.C. (CTAR, 74, Rue de la Colonie, F 75013, Paris, France), Nejjari, C., Tessier, J.F., Sapene, M., Pasquet, S.,  Racineux, J.L. (1997). Diagnostic and education in asthma. A description of the results of a survey by questionnaire. Revue Des Maladies Respiratoires, 14: 209-217.

Quandt, S.A. (Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina,, Arcury, T.A., Austin, C.K. and Cabrera, L.F. (2001). Latino immigrants: preventing occupational exposure to pesticides: using participatory research with latino farmworkers to develop an intervention. J Immigr Health 3(2): 85-96

Quandt, S. A., Arcury, T. A., Austin, C. K. & Saavedra, R. M. (1998). Farmworker and farmer perceptions of farmworker agricultural chemical exposure in North Carolina. Human Organization, 57 (3): 359-368.

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Radzyminski, S. (2006). Population health as a framework for forensic nursing curriculum. Journal of Forensic Nursing 2(1): 33-41   

Rahmani, D., Zeng, C., Goodarzi, A.M., and Vahid, F. (2021). Organizational Compliance During COVID-19: Investigating the Effects of Anxiety, Productivity, and Individual Risk Factors Among Iranian Healthcare EmployeesFront. Commun. 6:560451. doi: 10.3389/fcomm.2021.560451. [Free Full Text]

Rainey, C.J., Mayo, R.M., Haley-Zitlin, V., Kemper, K.A., & Cason, K.L.  (2001).  Nutritional beliefs, attitudes and practices of elderly, rural, southern womenJournal of Nutrition for the Elderly (now called Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics) 20(2): 3-27

Rainey, C.J., Cason, K.L.  (2001).  Nutrition interventions for low-income, elderly womenAmerican Journal of Health Behavior, 25(3):  245-251.

Ramey, S. L., Shelley, M. C., Welk, G. J., & Franke, W. D. (2003). Cardiovascular disease risk reduction efforts among law enforcement officers: An application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model. Evidence-Based Preventive Medicine, 1(1)

Ramirez, A.G. and McAlister, A.L. (1988). Mass media campaign--A Su Salud. Preventive Medicine 17(5): 608-21.

Ranjbaran, S., Dehdari, T., Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, K., Majdabadi, M.M. (2015). Poor Sleep Quality in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: An Intervention Study Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. J Tehran Heart Cent.. 10(1):1-8. Epub 2015 Jan 8. 

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Subramanyam, Malavika A., & Cooke, Bryan (Univ of Northern Colorado). (Nov 8-9, 2002). Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among school teachers of rural South India. Poster presentation at 53rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Public Health Education, Declaring our Interdependence: United for Health Education, Philadelphia

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Sun, Wei Yue and Shun, Jiun  (Dept.Health Science Educ., FLG-5 University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611). (1995).  Smoking behavior amongst different socioeconomic groups in the workplace in the People's Republic of China. Health Promotion International 10(4): 261-266.

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Taggart, V.S., Zuckerman, A.E., Sly, R.M., Steinmueller, C., Newman, G. (Georgetown University Lab. for Children's Health Promotion, Kober-Cogan Bldg., Room 419, 3750 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington, DC), O'Brien, R.W., Schneider, S., and Bellanti, J.A. (1991). You can control asthma: evaluation of an asthma education program for hospitalized inner-city children. Patient Education and Counseling, 17(1):35-47.

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Taylor, M., Coovadia, H. M., Kvalsvig, J. D., Jinabhai, C. C., Reddy, P. (1999). Helminth control as an entry point for health-promoting schools in KwaZulu-Natal. South African Medical Journal 89 (3): 273-279

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Texas Department of Health (correspondence: Lisa Regan-Vienop <>). (1997). Targeting population-based health promotion: Linking populuation risk factors to effective interventions. Health Promotion Interchange, 1 (3): 1.

Texas Department of Health (correspondence: Lisa Regan-Vienop <>). (1997).  PRECEDE - a powerful planning tool. Health Promotion Interchange, 1 (3): 6, 8-9.

Thamer, M., Fox Ray, N., Henderson, S. C., Rinehart, C. S., Sherman, C. R. & Furguson, J. H. (1998). Influence of the NIH Consensus Conference on Helicobacter Pylori on physician prescribing among a Medicaid population. Medical Care, 36 (5): 646-660.

The Health Communication Unit and National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Online health program planner. Available from: 

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Thompson, R.S., Meyer, B.A., Smith-DiJulio, K., Caplow, M.P., Maiuro, R.D., Thompson, D.C., Sugg, N.K., Rivara, F.P. (1998). A training program to improve domestic violence identification and management in primary care: preliminary results. Violence and Victims. 13(4):395-410.

Thompson, R.S., Rivara, F.P., Thompson, D.C., Barlow, W.E., Sugg, N.K., Maiuro, R.D., Rubanowice, D.M. (2000). Identification and Management of Domestic Violence: A Randomized Trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19(4): 253-263.[Free Full Text]

Thomsen, Christy A. (Cancer Information Service Branch, National Cancer Institute, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2580, Bldg. 31, Rm. 10A16, Bethesda, MD 20892-2580 USA) & Ter Maat, J. (1998). Evaluating the Cancer Information Service: A Model for Health Communications. Part 1. Journal of Health Communication, 3 (suppl.):1-13.

Tillgren, P. (Department of International Health and Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-172 83 Sundbyberg, Sweden), Haglund, B. J. A., Ainetdin, T., Thornqvist, E., Uhrbom, E. & Holm, L-E. (1995). Effects of different intervention strategies in the implementation of a nationwide tobacco “Quit and Win” contest in SwedenTobacco Control, 4(4): 344-350. [Free Full Text]

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Timmreck, T. C. (1998). An introduction to epidemiology (2nd edition) (especially pp. 338-340). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Timmreck, Thomas C (1995). Planning, Program Development, and Evaluation: A Handbook for Health Promotion, Aging, and Health Services. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, pp. 55, 94-96, 183.

Tolma, E.L. (Univ Okla), Cheney, M.K., Troup, P., and Hann, N. (2009). Designing the Process Evaluation for the Collaborative Planning of a Local Turning Point Partnership. Health Promot Pract. 10(4):537-548. 

Tones, K. (1990). Why theorise? Ideology in health education. Health Education Journal 49(1): 2-6. 

Tortolero, S.R., Markham, C.M., Peskin, M.F., Shegog, R., Addy, R.C., Escobar-Chaves, S.L., & Baumler, E.R. (2010). It’s your game: Keep it real: Delaying sexual behavior with an effective middle school program. Jour. of Adolescent Health, 46(2): 169-179.

Tramm, R., McCarthy, A., Yates, P. (2012). Using the PRECEDE-Proceed model of health program planning in breast cancer nursing research. J. Adv. Nurs. 68(8): 1870-1880.

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Turner, L.W., Sutherland, M., Harris, G.J., Barber, M. (1995). Cardiovascular health promotion in North Florida African-American churches. Health Values: The Journal of Health Behavior, Education & Promotion 19(2):3-9.

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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Planned Approach to Community Health: Guide for the Local Coordinator. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [The PATCH manual was continuously updated online by CDC until 2004, as it was gradually replaced by a new generation of community health planning tools]. For the full PATCH manual, which is now out of print , click here. 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1981). Promoting Health in Special Populations. Washington, D.C.: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; reprinted in Journal of Public Health Policy 8 (1987): 369-423.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1988). CDC and Minority Communities Stopping the Spread of HIV Infection and AIDS. Atlanta: Office of the Deputy Director (AIDS), Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, National Conference on the Prevention of HIV Infection and AIDS among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States, esp. section D.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1996). Planned Approach to Community Health: Guide for the Local Coordinator. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ISBN 0-16-048399-9. [The PATCH manual was continuously updated online by CDC until 2004, as it was gradually replaced by a new generation of community health planning tools]. For the full PATCH manual, which is now out of print, click here. 

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van den Broek, Jacques (Royal Tropical Institute, Wibautstraat 137 j, 1097 DN Amsterdam, The Netherlands), O’Donoghue, J., Ishengoma, A., Masao, H. & Mbega, M. (1998).  Evaluation of a sustained 7-year health education campaign on leprosy in Rufiji District, Tanzania. Lepr Rev, 69(1): 57-74.

van der Kleij, R.M., Crone, M.R., Reis, R., & Paulussen, T.G. (2016). Critical stakeholder determinants to the implementation of intersectoral community approaches targeting childhood obesity. Health Educ Res., 31(6): 697-715. 

van der Weijden, T., Grol, R. P. T. M., Schouten, B. J. & Knottnerus, J. A. (1998).   Barriers to working according to cholesterol guidelines: A randomized controlled trial on implementation of national guidelines in 20 general practices. European Journal of Public Health, 8 (2): 113-118. [Free Full Text]

van Hoek, E., Bouwman, L.I., Koelen, M.A., Lutt, M.A., Feskens, E.J., Janse, A.J., (2016). Development of a Dutch intervention for obese young children. Health Promot Int. pii: dav115. [Free Full Text]

Van Veenendaal, H. (Bosscherweg 36, 6219 AC Maastricht, The Netherlands), Grinspun, D.R., Adriaanse, H.P.  (1996). Educational needs of stroke survivors and their family members, as perceived by themselves and by health professionals. Patient Education and Counseling 28(3): 265-276. [Free Full Text]

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Veenendaal, H.V., Grinspun, D.R., & Adriaanse, H. P. (1996). Educational needs of stroke survivors and their family members, as perceived by themselves and by healthcare professionals. Patient Education and Counseling 28(3): 265-276.

Vertinsky, P.A. (Faculty of Education, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC) & Mangham, C. (1991). Making it Fit: Matching Substance-Abuse Prevention Strategies. Victoria, BC: Alcohol and Drug Programs, Ministry of Health, British Columbia.

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Villas, P. (Dept. Health & Kinesiology, Univ. Texas-Pan American, 1201 W. Univ. Dr., Edinburg, TX 78539), Cardenas, M. & Jameson, C. (1994). Instrument development using the PRECEDE Model to distinguish users/triers from non-users of alcoholic beverages. Wellness Perspectives: Research, Theory and Practice 10(2):46-53.

Villas, P., Mottinger, S.G. & Cardenas, M.(1996). PRECEDE model utilization in differentiating users and nonusers of alcohol. Journal of Wellness Perspectives, 12 (3): 113-122.

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Walker, E.A. (Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Belfer 701, Bronx, New York 10461), Basch, C. E., Howard, C. J., Zybert, P. M., Kromholz, W. N. & Shamoon, H. (1997). Incentives and barriers to retinopathy screening among African-Americans with diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 11 (5): 298-306. [Free Full Text]

Walsh, J.R., White, A.A., Kattelmann, K.K. (2014). Using PRECEDE to develop a weight management program for disadvantaged young adults. J Nutr Educ Behav., 46(2):S1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2013.11.005. 

Wang, Kuo-chang (Graduate Institute at Health Education, National Taiwan Normal University). (1997). Educational and behavioral factors influencing the adolescent unintentional injuries in the PRECEDE model. Journal of Taiwan Normal University 42: 75-93. Online full-text in Chinese, at

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Wang, V.L., Terry, P., Flynn, B.S. et al. (1979). Multiple indicators of continuing medical education priorities for chronic lung diseases in Appalachia. Journal of Medical Education 54: 803-11.

Ward, W.B., Levine, D.M., Green, L.W. et al. (1980). Controlling high blood pressure through the application of behavioral principles in community health education. Prev. Med 9(3):458. [This abstract of a community health education project is detailed in the case study below (Ward et al., 1982) and in a paper by Morisky et. al. (1981).]

Ward, W.B., Levine, D.M., Morisky, D., Bone, L.R., Ward, E., Soff, G., McKinney, R. (1982). Controlling high blood+ pressure in inner city Baltimore through community health education. In Carlaw, Raymond W. (ed.). Perspectives on Community Health Education: A Series of Case Studies. Vol 1: United States. Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing Co., Chap. 4, pp. 73-97.

Wasilewski, R.M. (Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Science, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA., Mateo, P. and Sidorovsky, P. (2007). Preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders within supermarket cashiers: an ergonomic training program based on the theoretical framework of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation 28(1): 23-31. [Free Full Text]

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Weber, C.K., Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S. & Kok, G. (1998). Intervention mapping: Use of theory and data in the development of a fruit and vegetable nutrition program for Girl Scouts. Journal of Nutrition Education, 30 (4): 188-195. [Free Full Text]

Wechsler, H., Basch, C. E., Zybert, P. & Shea, S. (1998). Promoting the selection of low-fat milk in elementary school cafeterias in an inner-city Latino community: Evaluation of an intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 88 (3): 427-433. [Free Full Text]

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Weir, C., McLeskey, N., Brunker, C., Brooks, D., and Supiano, M.A. (2011). The role of information technology in translating educational interventions into practice: an analysis using the PRECEDE/PROCEED model. J Am Med Inform Assoc., 18(6): 827-34. doi: 10.1136/amiajnl-2010-000076. [Free Full Text]

Weiss, J.R. (College of Nursing, Nursing/Pharmacy Building, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131-1061), Wallerstein, N., MacLean, T. (1995). Organizational development of a university-based interdisciplinary health promotion project. American Journal of Health Promotion 10(1): 37-48.

Welk, G.J. (1999). The Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: A conceptual bridge between theory and practice. Quest 51(1): 5-23.

Wells, B.L., DePue, J.D., Lasater, T.M., Carleton, R.A. (1988). A report on church site weight control. Health Education Research 3(3): 305-16. See also, Lasater, T.M. et al. (1990). [Free Full Text]

West, J.H., Hall, P.C., Hanson, C.L., Barnes, M.D., Giraud-Carrier, C., & Barrett, J. (2012). There’s an app for that: content analysis of paid health and fitness apps. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(3), e72. doi:10.2196/jmir.1977. [Free Full Text]

White, M.C., Tulsky, J.P., Menendez, E., Arai, S., Goldenson, J., Kawamura, L.M. (Dept of Community Health Systems, UCSF School of Nursing). (2005). Improving tuberculosis therapy completion after jail: Translation of research to practice. Health Education Research 20(2): 163-174. [Free Full Text]

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Whyte, N. (RNABC, 2855 Arbutus St., Vancouver, BC V6J 3Y8), and Berland, A. (Dec. 1993). The Role of Hospital Nurses in Health Promotion: A Collaborative Survey of British Columbia Hospital Nurses. Vancouver: Registered Nurses Assn. of British Columbia and Vancouver General Hosp., Pub.28. [See summary: Health promotion in acute care settings: Redefining a nursing tradition. (March-April, 1994). Nursing BC, pp. 21-22.]

Wiggers, J.H. and Sanson-Fisher,R. (Discipline of Behavioural Science in Relation to Med., Faculty of Med., Univ. of Newcastle, Locked Bag No. 10, Wallsend NSW 2287, Australia) (1994). General practitioners as agents of health risk behaviour change: opportunities for behavioural science in patient smoking cessation. Behaviour Change 11(3): 167-176.

Willemsen, M. C. (1997). Kicking the habit: The effectiveness of smoking cessation programs in Dutch worksites. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maastricht, the Netherlands. [Free Full Text]

Williams, L.S. (1986). AIDS risk reduction: a community health education intervention for minority high risk group members. Health Education Quarterly 13(4): 407-21. [Free Full Text]

Williams, P. L., Innis, S. M., Vogel, A. M. P., & Stephen, L. J. (1999). Factors influencing infant feeding practices of mothers in Vancouver. Canadian Journal of Public Health 90(2): 114-119. [Free Full Text]

Williams, R.M. (1990). Rx: social reconnaissance. Foundation News 31(4): 24-9.

Williams, S.L. and Mummery, W.K. (2015). We can do that! Collaborative assessment of school environments to promote healthy adolescent nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Health Educ Res. 30(2):272-284.

Williams, S.L. and Mummery, W.K. (2011). Links Between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics. Health Educ Behav. 38(5):510-520

Wilson, Richard W. (1986). The PRECEDE model for mental health education. Journal of Human Behavior and Learning 3(2):34-41.

Wilson, Ronald W. & Iverson, D.C. (1982). Federal data bases for health education research. Health Education 13(3): 30-4.

Windsor, R. A. (2015). Evaluation of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Programs: Improving Population Health Through Evidence-Based Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 60-97. [Describes a case study of Rimer B, Orleans CT, Fleisher L, et al. (1989) of “Clear Horizons: A Quit Smoking Guide, Especially for those 50 and Over. Philadelphia: Fox Chase Cancer Center.]

Windsor, R.A. (1984). Planning and evaluation of public health education programs in rural settings: theory into practice. In HP Cleary, JM Kichen, PG Ensor, (eds.), Advancing Health Through Education: A Case Study Approach. Palo Alto: Mayfield, pp. 273-84.

Windsor, R.A. (1986). An application of the PRECEDE model for planning and evaluating education methods for pregnant smokers. Hygie: International Journal of Health Education 5(3): 38-44.

Windsor, R.A., and Cutter, G. (1983). A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program for pregnant women: study interventions, methods, and design. In Proceedings of the Fifth World Conference on Smoking and Health, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Windsor, R.A., Cutter, G., Morris, J., Reese, Y., Adams, B., and Bartlett, E. (1985). Effectiveness of self-help smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women in public health maternity clinics: a randomized trial. American Journal of Public Health 75(12):1389-1392. [Free Full Text]

Windsor, R., Lowe, J., Perkins, L.,et al  (1993). Health education for pregnant smokers: its behavioral impact and cost benefit. American Journal of Public Health, 83(2): 201-6. [Free Full Text]

Windsor, R., Woodby, L., Miller, T. et al (2000). Effectiveness of AHCPR Clinical Practice Guideline and Patient Education Methods for Pregnant Smokers in Medicaid Maternity Care. Am J. OB/Gyn, 182(1 Pt 1): 68-75.

Winnett, R.A. (Virginia Polytech Inst & State Univ, Ctr Res Hlth Behav, Dept Psychol, Blacksburg, VA 24061), Altman, D.G. and King, A.C. (1990). Conceptual and strategic foundations for effective media campaigns for preventing the spread of HIV infection. Evaluation and Program Planning 13(1):91-104.

Winett, R. A. (1995). A framework for health promotion and disease prevention programs. American Psychologist, 50(5): 341-350.

Wismer, B.A., Moskowitz, J.M., Min, K., Chen, A.M., Ahn, Y., Cho, S., Jun, S., Lew, A., Pak, Y.M., Wong, J.M., & Tager, I.B. (2001).  Interim assessment of a community intervention to improve breast and cervical cancer screening among Korean American Women.  Journal of Public Health Management Practice, 7(2): 61-70.

Wismer, B. A., Moskowitz, J. M., Chen, A. M., Kang, S. H., Novotny, T. E., Min, K., Lew, R. & Tager, I. B. (1998).  Rates and independent correlates of pap smear testing among Korean-American women. American Journal of Public Health, 88 (4): 656-660. [Free Full Text]

Wismer, B.A., Moskowitz, J.M., Chen, A.M., Kang, S.H., Novotny, T.E. Min, K., Lew, R. & Tager, I.B. (1998). Mammography and clinical breast examination among Korean American women in two California counties. Preventive Medicine, 27(1): 144-151.

Wolters, F.A., Adriaanse, H.P., & O’Toole, B.J. (1999). ‘Making a Special Effort for the Children’ Working with the Facts for Life Program in Guyana.

Wong, M.L , Ng, J.Y., Chan, R.K.W, Chio, M.T.W., Lim, R.B.T., & Koh, D. (2017). Randomized controlled trial of abstinence and safter sex intervention for adolescents in Singapore: 6-month follow-up. Health Education Research 32(3): 233-243

Wong M.L. (Assoc Prof, Dept of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Fac of Med, National Univ of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119260;, Chan, R., Wee, S. (2000). Sex workers’ perspectives on condom use for oral sex with clients: a qualitative study. Health Education and Behavior 27(4): 502-516. 

Wong, M.L., Chan, K.W.R., Koh, D . (1998). A sustainable behavioral intervention to increase condom use and reduce gonorrhea among sex workers in Singapore: 2-Year follow-up. Preventive Medicine, 27(6): 891-900. 

Wong, M.L., Chan, R., Lee, J., Koh, D., Wong, C. (1996). Controlled evaluation of a behavioural intervention programme on condom use and gonorrhoea incidence among sex workers in Singapore. Health Education Research. 11(4); 423-432. 

Wong M.L. (Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511), Archibald, C., Chan, K.W.R, Goh, A., Tan, T.C.,  Goh, C.L. (1994). Condom use negotiation among sex workers in Singapore: findings from qualitative research. Health Education Research. 9(1): 57-67.

Wong, M.L., Chan, R., Koh, D., Wong, C.M. (1994).  Theory and action for effective condom promotion: illustrations from a behavior intervention project for sex workers in Singapore. International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 15(4); 405-421.

Wong, M.L., Alsagoff, F., Koh, D. (1992). Health promotion ­ a further field to conquer. Singapore Medical Journal. 33(4): 341-346. [Free Full Text]

Wong, T. Y. (John Hopkins University, School of Public Health, P. O. Box 358, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205) & Seet, B. (1997). A behavioral analysis of eye protection use by soldiers. Military Medicine, 162 (11): 744-748.

Woolard, R. F. (For the UBC Task Force on Healthy and Sustainable Communities: Boothroyd, P., Green, L., Hertzman, C., Lynam, J., Manson Singer, S., and Rees, W.).  (1994). Choices for a sustainable future.  Health Care Forum Journal 37(3): 30-34.

Worden, J.K., Flynn, B.S., Geller, B.M., et al. (1988). Development of a smoking prevention mass-media program using diagnostic and formative research. Preventive Medicine 17(5): 531-58.

Worden, J. K. (Office of Health Promotion Research, Univ. Vermont, 235 Rowell Hall, Burlington, VT 05405), Solomon, L.J ., Flynn, B.S., et al (1990). A community-wide program in breast self-examination training and maintenance.  Preventive Medicine 19(3): 254-69.

Worden, J. K. , Flynn, B.S. , Solomon, L.J., Secker-Walker, R. H. , Badger, G. J. , Carpenter, J. H. (1996). Using mass media to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescent girls. Health Education Quarterly, 23(4): 453-468. (See Worden et al, 1988, for more details of the application, & Flynn, et al., 1992, for results.)

Workman, Stephen (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia) (1989). The PRECEDE model applied: a comparison of two communities. Proceedings of the XIII World Conference on Health Education, Houston, 1988, Vol. I, Houston: U.S. Host Committee for International Union for Health Education, P.O.Box 20186, W-902 RAS Bldg., Houston, TX, p. 131, abstract no. 4208-1.

World Health Assembly (1982). New Policies for Health Education in Primary Health Care: Background Document for the Technical Discussions of the Thirty-sixth World Health Assembly. Geneva: World Health Organization, 661 TD/HED/82.1.

World Health Assembly (1985). New Policies for Health Education in Primary Health Care: Technical Discussions of the 36th World Health Assembly. Geneva: World Health Organization.

World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Research, Training, and Eradication of Dracunculiasis (1991). Guidelines for Health Education and Community Mobilization in Dracunculiasis Eradication Programs. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Global 2000, Carter Center, Inc. Esp. Annex 4, adapted from Silverfine et al., 1990.

Wortel, E., deGeus, G.H., Kok, G., and van Woerkum, C. (1994). Injury control in pre-school children: a review of parental safety measures and the behavioural determinants. Health Education Research 9(2): 201-213.

Wortel, E., de Vries, H., de Geus, G.H. (1995). Lessons learned from a community campaign on child safety in The Netherlands. Family and Community Health; 18(3) 60-77.

Wouters, N., Stadlander, M., Andriaanse, H., Knottnerus, A., De Witte, L., and Kok, G. J. (Univ. Limburg, Maastricht, the Netherlands) (1986). The use of a health education planning model to design and implement health education interventions concerning AIDS. AIDS-Forschung (AIFO) 1: 615-619. [WHO Working Papers].

Wright, A., McGorry, P.D., Harris, M.G., Jorm, A.F., and Pennell, K. (2006). Development and evaluation of a youth mental health community awareness campaign - The Compass Strategy. BMC Public Health 6(1): p. 215. [Free Full Text]

Wu J.L., Wang, L.H., Rauyajin, O., et al. (2002). Contraceptive use behavior among never married young women who are seeking pregnancy termination in Beijing. Chinese Medical Journal-Peking 115 (6): 851-855. [Free Full Text]

Wu, Edwin (Medical Reinsurance, Gerling Global Co., Singapore; (2000). Managing Health Claims Effectively.  Singapore: Gerling Global Re.

Wyness, M.A. (School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, T206 2211 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5 (1990).  Evaluation of an educational program for patients taking Warfarin.  Jour Adv Nurs, 15(9): 1052 - 1063.


Yamada, T., Chen, C., Zeng, W., Levine, B., & Carter, J. (2018). Global Perspectives of Different Healthcare Systems and Health: Income, Education, Health Disparity, Health Behaviors and Public Health in China, Japan and USA. Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Care, 5(2), 039. [Free Full Text]

Yamada, T., Chen, C-C., Murata, C., Hirai, H., Ojima, T., Kondo, K., and Harris, J.R. III. (2015). Access Disparity and Health Inequality of the Elderly: Unmet Needs and Delayed Healthcare. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(2), 1745-1772. [Free Full Text]

Ye, Y. (2013). The Role of Illness Factors and Patient Satisfaction in Using Online Health Support Groups. Health Communication. doi:10.1080/10410236.2012.757526.

Yeo, M., Berzins, S. and Addington, D. (2007). Development of an early psychosis public education program using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Health Educ. Res., 22(5): 639-47. [Free Full Text]

Yeo, M. (1998). Drug-related illness in older women: Perceptions of factors affecting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug self-management practices. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary, Alberta.

Yingling, L., Trocino, L. (1997). Strategies to integrate patient and family education into patient care redesign. AACN Clinical Issues, 8(2), 246-52. [Orlando Regional Healthcare System, Florida, USA.]

Yoshida, T. (Takemi Fellow, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115) (1992). The PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Health Care (Hoken NO KAGAKU in Japanese) 34(2): 870-875.

Young, B., and Howison, M. (St.Joseph Mercy Hosp., Ann Arbor) (March-April 1980). Structure and process of an ostomy patient education program. Journal of Entherostomal Therapy 7(2):22-38

Young, L. . (1997). Re-considering usual health practices: Family influences on individual health-related decisions in response to heart-health messages. Vancouver, BC: UBC, School of Nursing / Institute of Health Promotion Research. [Condensed version of unpublished PhD dissertation, Vancouver, University of British Columbia]

Younoszai, T. M., Lohrmann, D. K., Seefeldt, C. A., & Greene, R. (1999). Trends from 1987 to 1991 in alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents exposed to a school district-wide prevention program. Journal of Drug Education, 29 (1): 77-94.

Zapka, J.G. (School of Public Health, Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003) and BW Averill (1979). Self care for colds: a cost-effective alternative to upper respiratory infection management. American Journal of Public Health 69(8):814-6. [Free Full Text]

Zapka, J.G., Chasan, L., Barth, R., Mas, E., and Costanza, M.E. (1992). Emphasizing screening activities in a community health center: a case study of a breast cancer screening project. J Ambulatory Care Manage 15(1):38-47.

Zapka, J.G., Costanza, M.E., Harris, D.R., Hosmer, D., Stoddard, A., Barth, R., and Gaw, V. (1993). Impact of a breast cancer screening community intervention. Prev Med 22(1):34-53. [See also Zapla, J.G. et al (1993) - below]

Zapka, J.G., Harris, D.R., Hosmer, D.,  Costanza, M.E., Mas, E., Barth, R. (1993). Effect of a community health center intervention on breast cancer screening among Hispanic American women. Health Services Research. 28(2):223-35. [Free Full Text]

Zapka, J.G., Hosmer, D., Costanza, M.E., Harris, D.R., and Stoddard, A. (1992). Changes in mammography use: economic, need, and service factors. American Journal of Public Health 82(10):1345-1351. [Free Full Text]

Zapka, J.G. and Mamon, J.A. (1982). Integration of theory, practitioner standards, literature findings and baseline data: a case study in planning breast self-examination education. Health Education Quarterly 9(4): 330-56.

Zapka, J.G. and Mamon, J.A. (1986). Breast self-examination in young women. II. Characteristics associated with proficiency. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2(2): 70-8.

Zapka, J.G., Stoddard, A.M., Costanza, M.E. and Green, H.L. (1989). Breast cancer screening by mammography: Utilization and associated factors. Am J Public Health 79(11):1499-1502. [Free Full Text]

Zaza, C. (1993). Prevention of musicians' playing related health problems: Rationale and recommendations for action. Medical Problems of Performing Artists 8 (4): 117-121.

Zendehtalab, H.P. (2012). The effect of a program designed based on PRECEDE-PROCEED model on adolescents’ mental health and their parents’ participation. Evidence based care Journal. 2(1):45 - 54. [Free Full Text - in Persian language]

Zhang, D. (Center for Health Education, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China), and Qiu, Z. (1993). School-based tobacco-use prevention--People's Republic of China, May 21, 1993, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 42(19):370-371,377. [This article does not mention how the PRECEDE-PROCEED model was applied, but it was planned through World Bank consultation of Marshall Kreuter using the model and training staff in use of the model.]

Zigheymat F., Naderi, Z., Ebadi, A., Kachuei, M.S., Ameli, J., & Niknam Z. (2009). Effect of education based on Precede-Proceed Model on knowledge, attitude and behaviour of epilepsy patients. Journal of Behavioural Sciences 3(3): 223-229.

Zimmerman, R.K. (Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Clin Epidemiol, Pittsburgh, PA 15261), Nowalk, M.P., Bardella, I.J., Fine, M.J., Janosky, J.E., Santibanez, T.A., Wilson, S.A., Raymund, M. (2004). Physician and practice factors related to influenza vaccination among the elderly. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26(1): 1-10. [Free Full Text]

Zuckerman, A. E. (Dept.Community & Family Medicine, Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007), Olevsky-Peleg, E., Bush, P.J., Horowitz, C., Davidson, F.R., Brown, D.G., & Walter, H. (1989). Cardiovascular risk factors among Black schoolchildren: comparisons among four Know Your Body Studies. Preventive Medicine 18(1):113-132. [The KYB projects were based on the PRECEDE model (Bush et al., 1989; Walter, 1989)]

Zuckerman, M. J. (Division of Gastroenterology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 4800 Alberta Avenue, El Paso, TX 79905), Guerra, L.G., Drossman, D.A., Foland, J.A., Gregory, G.G. (1996). Health-care-seeking behaviors related to bowel complaints - Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 41(1): 77-82.

Zuilhof, W., & Maas Van der, P. (1998). HIV prevention for clients of male sex workers: an experiment in planned action. International Conference on AIDS 12:918 (abstract no. 29/43367).

Some websites about the model (Google lists 6,400,000 websites for "Precede-Proceed model"):

In addition to the foregoing applications and elaborations of the PRECEDE and/or PRECEDE-PROCEED model, Glasgow et al have adapted as part of the RE-AIM framework for evaluation of interventions some of the Table 7-6 (Green & Kreuter, 1999 3rd edition, p. 251) comparative calculations of inputs and outputs for purposes of assessing external validity, which were based on Green & Lewis,1986, Measurement and Evaulation in Health Education and Health Promotion. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co. See, e.g.,

"We use the RE-AIM framework to structure our review. This framework organizes and integrates issues important for evaluating the impact of health promotion interventions identified by Green (2001), Green & Stoto (1997), and others, and is designed to place balanced emphasis on internal and external validity by addressing five criteria important for translation of research findings." (p. 63)

Green, L.W. (Oct 2009). The field-building role of a journal about participatory medicine and health, and the evidence needed. J Participat Med. (Launch Issue). Full text online here

Glasgow, R.E., Bull, S.S., Gillette, C., Klesges, L.M., Dzewaltowski, D.A. (2002). Behavior change intervention research in healthcare settings: A review of recent reports with emphasis on external validity. Am J Prev Med. 23(1):62-69.

Green, L.W., Glasgow, R.E., Atkins, D., Stange, K. (2009). Making Evidence from Research More Relevant, Useful, and Actionable in Policy, Program Planning, and Practice: Slips "Twixt Cup and Lip".


Information on PRECEDE/PROCEED from the Work Group for Community Health and Development at the University of Kansas. 



Published Applications of Intervention Mapping **

** The Intervention Mapping model (Bartholomew K, et al. Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2012), now in its 3rd edition, has used PRECEDE as the framework for its initial “needs assessment” phase  of intervention mapping. Published applications of this extended model of planning are found on a website at http://www. node/1712


Visit these pages often, as they are updated frequently.   

                                         Last updated: 03/15/21


NOTE: The references are grouped alphabetically by the first author's surname.
To search a reference using keywords, use the browser's "Find..." command from the "Edit" menu.
Applications of PRECEDE-PROCEED published after the 3rd edition of Health Promotion Planning (1999) appear in blue. See Endnotes for the 4th edition for further analysis of this recent literature.

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