If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*
CHAPTER 11: APPLICATIONS IN THE HEALTH CARE SETTINGS
Table of Contents
Picking a Bone With Vitamin A. (Washington Post, Feb. 3, 2003) - According to a newly published study in the New England Journal of Medicine, high levels of vitamin A are linked to bone fractures.
New U.S. Guidelines Stress First Colon Screening. (Reuters Health) - New U.S. guidelines on colon screening stress the importance of the first screening after the 50th birthday, over 3 year follow-up screening after the removal of polyps.
HMO Kaiser Plans to Put Its Medical Records Online. (Wall Street
Journal, February 4, 2003) - Kaiser Permanente has announced plans to spend $1.8
billion to automate its patient files.
Patients Switch Doctors After Shabby Treatment. (Wall Street
Journal - Harris Interactive Poll, February 5, 2003) - A poll conducted by the
Wall Street Journal sampled the public's views on bad experiences with doctors
and whether these experiences lead to a change in doctors.
Amery, W.K. (1999). Coming full circle in pharmacovigilance: Communicating
safety information to patients through patient packageinserts.
PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND DRUG SAFETY 8 (2): 121-129.
ABSTRACT: Despite the success of health education programs for patients with asthma, several researchers have found that patients are reluctant to enroll in and complete a program designed to help them manage their condition. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence asthma patients' willingness to pay (WTP) for and willingness to give time (WTGT) to an asthma self-management program. The patient sample consisted of 116 adult asthma patients (age range, 18 to 34 years) from 2 affiliated sites: a county teaching hospital with ambulatory clinics and a staff-model health maintenance organization. To determine WTP and WTGT, patients were presented with a scenario in which the components of an 8-week asthma management program were described. Patients were then asked how much they would be willing to pay for and how much time they would be willing to spend on the program. Regression analyses were used to determine what effect the following factors had on WTP and WTGT with respect to an asthma self-management program: sociodemographic factors; predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors; level of asthma self-management; and health care utilization. Mean patient WTP was $29.50 for an 8-week asthma education program. Several factors appeared to influence this amount. Patients who were willing to pay more for a program that would help them manage their asthma exhibited suboptimal behaviors during asthma attacks, had greater perceived access to health care resources, received less educational information from health care providers, had previously participated in a self-management program, and had indicated an interest in participating in a self-management program. This model was statistically significant (P <0.0001), with 35% of the variation in WTP scores explained by the independent variables. Patients reported that they were willing to spend a mean of 5.8 hours per week on an 8-week asthma self-management program. Patients who were willing to spend more time on an asthma self-management program had indicated an interest in participating in such a program, had a higher number of comorbidities, or had more emergency department visits. This model was statistically significant (P = 0.0018), with 18% of the variance explained. This study identified several factors that may affect WTP and WTGT in relation to an asthma self-management program. This information may be helpful in identifying candidates for educational programs. Black, M. M. (1999). Commentary: feeding problems: an ecological perspective. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY 24 (3): 217-219, June.
For this issue of the Journal, go to: http://jpepsy.oupjournals.org/cgi/reprint/24/3/217.pdf.
Braveman, P., Egerter, S., & Marchi, K. (1999). The prevalence of low
income among childbearing women in California: Implications for the private and public
sectors. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 868-874.
Brown, R., Butow, P.N., Boyer, M.J., & Tattersall, M.H.N. (1999). Promoting
patient participation in the cancer consultation: evaluation of a prompt sheet and
coaching in question asking. BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER 80 (1-2): 242-248.
Buetow, S.A. (1999). Unsolicited GP advice against smoking: To give or not to
give? JOURNAL OF HEALTH COMMUNICATION 4 (1): 67-74.
ABSTRACT: http://www3.oup.co.uk/eurpub/hdb/Volume_09/Issue_02 . Chaney, J. M., Mullins, L. L., Uretsky, D. L., Pace, T. M., Werden, D, & Hartman, V. L. (1999). An experimental examination of learned helplessness in older adolescents and young adults with long-standing asthma. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY 24 (3): 259-270, June.
For this issue of the Journal, go to: http://jpepsy.oupjournals.org/cgi/reprint/24/3/259.pdf. Cheng, T.L., DeWitt, T.G., Savageau, J.A., & O'Connor, K.G. (1999). Determinants of counseling in primary care pediatric practice - Physician attitudes about time, money, and health issues. ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 153 (6): 629-635.
ABSTRACT: Objectives: To assess pediatrician goals and practice in preventive counseling, and to use social learning theory to examine physician attitudes about preventive health issues, time, and reimbursement to explain physician counseling behavior. Design: Random sample survey of American Academy of Pediatrics fellows. Participants: A total of 1620 pediatricians were surveyed with a return rate of 72%. The 556 pediatricians who had finished training and who currently performed child health supervision were included. Methods: Pediatricians were asked about their goals in 6 areas of health supervision: biomedical issues, development, behavior, family functioning, safety education, and supportive interpersonal interaction. They were also asked about the prevalence of counseling, importance of specific topics, their self-efficacy, outcome expectation in these areas, and their concerns about time and reimbursement for preventive counseling. Results: Assurance of physical health and normal development were the most important goals of child health supervision among the pediatricians surveyed. Goals involving behavioral, family, and safety issues were less important and less likely to be addressed in practice. Most did not regularly discuss family stress, substance abuse, gun safety, and television. In these areas, physicians had less confidence they could provide guidance and lower expectation that they could prevent problems. Only 17% felt that they receive adequate reimbursement for preventive counseling. Most have adequate time (53%) and receive adequate respect (57%) for their preventive efforts. Physicians who were more concerned about time for preventive counseling reported less overall counseling (r=-0.28, P<.001). Concern about reimbursement was not associated with reported counseling. Multiple regression analysis found that the primary predictors of physician counseling were an issue's importance, a physician's perceived self-efficacy, and perceived effectiveness of counseling, while concerns about time and reimbursement were secondary. Conclusions: Physician goals in child health supervision were primarily biomedical, with psychosocial and safety issues of lesser importance. Concern about time for preventive counseling was associated with less reported counseling. Physician attitudes regarding the importance of a health issue and their confidence and effectiveness in counseling were more predictive of physician practice than their attitudes about time and reimbursement for preventive care. Desnick, L.., Taplin, S., Taylor, V., Coole, D., & Urban, N. (1999). Clinical breast examination in primary care: Perceptions and predictors among three specialties. JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH 8 (3): 389-397.
ABSTRACT: To assess predictors of reported performance of screening clinical breast examination (CBE) by internists, family physicians, and obstetrician/gynecologists, we surveyed members of these specialties in four counties of Washington State. We contacted all physicians in the counties and identified 334 providers who saw women ages 50-75 and provided primary care as their principal activity. Seventy-five percent (252 of 334) responded. Physicians were mailed a survey and contacted for telephone completion if they did not respond in writing. The survey inquired about their current performance of CBE and factors that might predispose, enable, or reinforce its use. Differences across specialties were assessed using the chi-square statistic. Factors associated with reported performance of screening CBE in greater than or equal to 90% of women were evaluated using logistic regression. Fifty-one percent of physicians reported that they perform regular CBE on greater than or equal to 90% of their patients, although the proportion varied across specialty type. Beliefs about the benefit of CBE were positive and similar across specialties. Twelve percent of male physicians, but no female physicians, reported that women's embarrassment affected their use of screening CBE. In a multivariate model, male gender, family practice specialty, and the perception of patient embarrassment were all associated with lower reported rates of performing regular CBE (p <0.05). Work to increase the performance of CBE should consider the role of male physician embarrassment and family physician training. Ways to facilitate delivery of preventive care and factors influencing the women themselves may also be important to increased use of CBE. Diehr, P., Yanez, D., Ash, A., Hornbrook, M., & Lin, D.Y. (1999). Methods for Analyzing Health Care Utilization and Costs. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 125-158.
Durham, M. L. (1998). Mental health and managed care. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 493-505. For abstract, go to:http://publhealth.annualreviews.org/cgi/content/abstract/19/1/493 Farmer, K. C. (1999). Methods for measuring and monitoring medication regimen adherence in clinical trials and clinical practice. CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS 21 (6): 1074-1090, June.
ABSTRACT: Researchers and clinicians have used numerous methods in their attempts to adequately assess patient compliance (adherence) with medication regimens and to identify noncompliant patients. Large variations have been reported in the extent of noncompliance in individual patients and large populations. In addition, nonadherence has often been poorly defined. Direct measures of adherence include drug assays of blood or urine, use of drug markers with the target medication, and direct observation of the patient receiving the medication. Indirect measures of adherence imply that the medication has been used by the patient; these measures include various forms of self-reporting by the patient, medication measurement (pill count), use of electronic monitoring devices, and review of prescription records and claims. Compliance measures should be assessed on the basis of their validity (sensitivity and specificity or statistical correlation) and the reference standard used. Many early studies used pill counts as a reference standard, but electronic monitoring devices such as the Medication Event Monitoring System have replaced pill counts as the reference standard. The choice of a method for measuring adherence to a medication regimen should be based on the usefulness and reliability of the method in light of the researcher's or clinician's goals. Specific methods may be more applicable to certain situations, depending on the type of adherence being assessed, the precision required, and the intended application of the results.
Farris, K. B., & Schopflocher, D. P. (1999). Between intention and behavior: an application of community pharmacists' assessment of pharmaceutical care. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 49 (1): 55-66, July.
Fisher, L. D. (1999). Advances in Clinical Trails in the Twentieth Century.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 109-124.
Fishman, P. A., & Wagner, E. H. (1998). Managed care data and public health: The experience of group health cooperative of Puget Sound. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 477-491. For abstract, go to: http://publhealth.annualreviews.org/cgi/content/abstract/19/1/477Franche, R. L., & Mikail, S. F. (1999). The impact of perinatal loss on adjustment to subsequent pregnancy. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 48 (11): 1613-1623.
ABSTRACT: This study compares the emotional adjustment of pregnant couples with and without a history of perinatal loss. We assessed thirty-one pregnant women with a history of perinatal loss and 31 pregnant women with an unremarkable reproductive history between their 10th and 24th week of gestation. Partners were recruited. Twenty-eight men were in the loss group and 23 men in the comparison group. Couples with a history of loss reported significantly more depressive symptomatology and pregnancy-specific anxiety than couples in the comparison group. Women reported more depressive symptomatology than men. Results: Regression analyses revealed that for the group with a previous loss. depressive symptomatology was significantly associated with self-criticism, interpersonal dependency and number of previous losses. For the comparison group, depressive symptomatology was significantly associated dyadic adjustment. Pregnancy-specific anxiety of women with a previous loss was associated with their belief that their behavior affects fetal health; for women in the comparison group, pregnancy-specific anxiety was associated with the belief that health professionals' behavior affects fetal health. Implications for practice of health care professionals: The importance of early intervention to reduce distress is highlighted by the finding that alterations in mood are apparent in the early stages of pregnancy for both women and men who have experienced a previous perinatal loss. Carefully reducing personal responsibility for fetal health in women with a previous loss may reduce their pregnancy-specific anxiety, but women with an unremarkable obstetrical history may benefit from an approach diminishing their perception of the power that medical staff has on fetal health. Freund, D., Lave, J., Clancy, C., Hawker, G., Hasselblad, V., Keller, R., Schneiter, E., & Wright, J. (1999). Patient Outcomes Research Teams: Contribution to Outcomes and Effectiveness Research. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 337-360.
Goldberg, B. W. (1998). Managed care and public health departments: Who is responsible for the health of the population? ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 527-537. For abstract, go to: http://biomedical.annualreviews.org/current/16.shtmlGreen, L. W. (1999). What can we generalize from research on patient education and clinical health promotion to physician counseling on diet? EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 53 (Suppl. 2): S9-S18.
AUTHORS ABSTRACT: Objective: This paper explores the status of knowledge development from clinical trials and other studies of patient education and clinical health promotion. Design: It asks what this cumulative literature has to offer dietary counseling of patients by family doctors. A series of meta-analyses of drug education and preventive health education research in clinical settings provide a starting framework for guidelines on dietary counseling. Conclusions: Smoking cessation studies, in particular, have mounted in quantity and quality to the greatest extent and offer the clearest statement on what can be achieved, under what conditions, and with what support beyond the physician's counseling session or sessions. The Precede-Proceed Model offers a further guide to assuring the comprehensiveness of approaches to dietary change - enabling and reinforcing the change, not just predisposing it through admonitions and altering of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. The specific evidence supporting the application of a patient counseling algorithm based on the Precede-Proceed model is reviewed here.
Griffin, J.F., Hogan, J.W., Buechner, J.S., Leddy, T. M. (1999). The
effect of a Medicaid managed care program on the adequacy of prenatal care utilization in
Rhode Island. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (4): 497-501.
ABSTRACT: "This article describes the Persian Gulf combat hospital community of the 410th [Evacuation Hospital of the US Army Reserve] as it evolved, dissolved, and was evaluated in terms of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model as a community that attained and maintained a high quality of life for both community members and patients during its 'life' in the barren desert of Saudi Arabia..."(p.52). The quality of life of the 400 uprooted personnel is described in detail in the social diagnosis, including stressors, fears, physiologic and physical strains such as sleep deprivation, sand storms, extremes temperatures, and lack of privacy and control over personal life. The epidemiologic diagnosis includes 9 "wounded in action" factors, 6 diseases and nonbattle injuries, and battle fatigue. These analyses produced 12 desired social and quality-of-life outcomes and 11 health goals. Phase 3 produced a list of 12 behavioral and environmental concerns, with safety identified as the number one risk factor. Each of the subsequent phases is described in graphic and fascinating detail. The author concludes that the Precede-Proceed "model provides an excellent framework in which to organize and document data in assessing a target population for any reason. It can then be applied for planning, implementing and evaluating interventions, not only for health promotion planning but also for any other types of interventions that could impact on the quality of life and the health outcomes of a population, community, or home setting. This article echoes previous ones in support of this framework for not only nursing interventions, but also for interdisciplinary community-based interventions and interactions as well. The author has found it to be invaluable in both an academic setting for teaching graduate students a process for and application of an advanced level of community assessment, planning, and evaluation both nationally and internationally when one needs to look at the targeted population or setting from the 'ground up'. The readers are challenged to apply this framework to home health care settings and further add to the diversity and applicability of the model" (p. 64).
Haslam, C. (1999). Maternal factors, obstetric history and
smoking stage of change. Journal of Public Health Medicine 21(2): 185-191.
ABSTRACT: Objective. In rheumatoid arthritis, education programmes successfully impart knowledge but, notwithstanding issues of empowerment, this knowledge has to be translated into behavioural change to have a chance of improving disease outcome. Arguably, behavioural change must also occur early if outcomes are to be improved. For these reasons: we planned a study of patient education in early disease, with radiological damage and quality of life as the main outcome variables. Methods. We performed a randomized controlled trial in people with rheumatoid arthritis of <5 yr duration. The main intervention was a 4 week education programme, each weekly session lasting 2 h. Assessments were made at entry, at 4 weeks and at 12 months. The main outcome variables were the modified Larsen radiological score for the hands and the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Secondary outcome variables were the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Ritchie Articular Index (RAI), Patient Knowledge Questionnaire (PKQ), Compliance Questionnaire (CQ), plasma viscosity (PV), pharmaceutical changes and consulting behaviour. Results. The patient numbers were 34 (10 male, 24 female) for the control group and 43 (16 male, 27 female) for the education group. The groups were matched for age (56.5 yr for control, 55 yr for education), disease duration (3.5 yr vs 3.0 yr) and duration of second-line drug therapy (14 months vs 12 months). We found no significant difference between the groups for Larsen scores at 12 months, although scores for the education group were lower (39.5 vs 43.0, P = 0.13). The 'social functioning' and 'general health perception' subscales of the SF-36 showed a significant improvement in the education group, but no significant differences between groups were seen. No significant differences were found for the HAQ, RAI, PV and CQ, but the education group had more disease-specific knowledge than the control group at 12 months (PKQ scores: 17 vs 21, P = 0.0002). No differences were found for out-patient visits and in-patient admissions, but the education group had slightly more changes in second-line drugs during the study (0.43 changes/person in the control group, 0.51 changes/person in the education group). Conclusions. We found no significant difference between the groups in our primary outcome measures, but a trend in favour of the education group was found in radiological progression. Further studies of this kind, using larger patient numbers, are required since the difference may result from improved self-care, better compliance with joint protection strategies and, possibly, improved drug compliance. Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., vant Hot, M. A., & Fieren, C. J. (1999). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of nutrition guidance by primary care physicians. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 53 (Suppl. 2): S35-S43.
ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate in primary care physicians (PCPs) the determinants of a nutrition guidance practice ('noticing patients' overweight and guidance of treatment'), as well as their mechanism of action, in a cross-sectional and a longitudinal approach. Design: Mixed longitudinal design. Five years follow up study of a previous cross-sectional study in October 1992. Subjects: A representative sample of 675 Dutch PCPs, in practice for 5 up to 20y. Interventions: A shortened version of the Wageningen PCPs Nutritional Practices Questionnaire was mailed to the subjects in August 1997. Main outcome measure: To obtain with the LISREL-program a model of the mechanism of action of determinants of the dependent variable 'noticing patients' overweight and guidance of treatment' with an adequate fit of the empirical data, both in the cross-sectional and in the longitudinal approach. Results: The same set of predisposing factors and intermediary factors explains the dependent variable both in two different representative cross-sectional study populations of PCPs, and in a cohort cross-sectional study at two points in time. Two dynamic LISREL-models were developed (the 'determinant-longitudinal approach' and the 'early behavior longitudinal approach') which explain the dependent variable. The latter model has, as added value, a gain in explained variance. In 5 y time, the dependent variable decreased significantly (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study reconfirms that PCPs' nutritional guidance practices are determined partly directly by predisposing factors, and indirectly via driving forces and barriers. However this study also reveals that an important nutrition guidance practice of PCPs, 'noticing patients' overweight and guidance of treatment', shows a significant decrease over the last 5 y. At the same time, two of the four predisposing factors and two of the three driving factors also decreased significantly. As research findings indicate that the role of diet in health and disease becomes of greater influence PCPs need to be activated to apply their responsibility in this field within a multi-faceted approach.
Holzemer, W.L., Corless, I.B., Nokes, K.M., Turner, J.G., Brown, M.A., Powell-Cope,
G.M., Inouye, J., Henry, S.B., Nicholas, P.K., Portillo, C.J. (1999). Predictors
of self-reported adherence in persons living with HIV disease. AIDS PATIENT CARE
AND STDs 13 (3): 185-197.
Horne, R., Weinman, J., & Hankins, M. (1999). The beliefs about medicines
questionnaire: The development and evaluation of a new method for assessing the cognitive
representation of medication.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of different interventions to improve the delivery of preventive services in primary care. Methods. MEDLINE searches and manual searches of 21 scientific journals and the Cochrane Effective Professional and Organization of Care of trials were used to identify relevant studies. Randomized controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies were included if they focused on interventions designed to improve preventive activities by primary care clinicians. Two researchers independently assessed the quality of the studies and extracted data for use in constructing descriptive overviews. Results. The 58 studies included comprised 86 comparisons between intervention and control groups. Postintervention differences between intervention and control groups varied widely within and across categories of interventions. Most interventions were found to be effective in some studies, but not effective in other studies. Conclusions. Effective interventions to increase preventive activities in primary care are available. Detailed studies are needed to identify factors that influence the effectiveness of different interventions. Jelalian, E., & Saelens, B. E. (1999). Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: pediatric obesity. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY 24 (3): 223-248, June.
For this issue of the Journal, go to: http://jpepsy.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/24/3/223.
Jirojwong, S., Dunt, D., & Goldsworthy, D. (1999). Social support and
antenatal clinic attendance among Thai pregnant women in Hatyai, a city in southern
Thailand. JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING 29 (2): 395-406.
Kegler, M.C., Malcoe, L.H., Kegler, S.R., Lynch, R.A., Tolliver, R. (1999). Caregiver
beliefs and behaviors in the prevention of childhood lead poisoning. FAMILY &
COMMUNITY HEALTH 22 (1): 50-65.
For this issue of the Journal, go to: http://jpepsy.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/24/3/193.
Kok, G. (1999). Targeted prevention for people with HIV/AIDS:
feasible and desirable? PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING 36 (3): 239-246.
The Journals Home Page is at: THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of countywide Medicaid managed care on service use at community clinics. Methods. Clinic use before and after introduction of Medicaid plans in one county was compared with that in a group of comparable counties without such plans. Results. There were significant declines of 40% to 45% in the volumes of Medicaid clients, encounters, and revenues at clinics with the introduction of Medicaid plans. Declines of 23% in uninsured clients and encounters did not differ significantly. Conclusions. The introduction of Medicaid managed care with multiple commercial plans can have significant negative effects on nonprofit community clinics.
Krieger, J., Collier, C., Song, L., & Martin, D. (1999). Linking
community-based blood pressure measurement to clinical care: A randomized controlled trial
of outreach and tracking by community health workers. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC
HEALTH 89 (6): 856-86.
Lipton, H. L., Kreling, D. H.; Collins, T., & Hertz, K. C. (1999). Pharmacy
Benefit Management Companies: Dimensions of Performance. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC
HEALTH 20: 361-402.
Luft, H.S. (1998). Medical and managed care. ANNUAL REVIEW OF
PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 459-475.
ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify determinants of nutrition guidance practices of general practitioner-trainees (GP-trainees), to investigate whether these determinants differ from those found by experienced general practitioners; to reveal educational directions towards the development of computer-based instruction on nutrition. Design: Cross-sectional study by means of validated questionnaires. Subjects: All CTP-trainees in training at the eight university departments for vocational training in the Netherlands in September, 1998 (n = 985). Main outcome measures: Reliability of determinants of nutrition guidance practices was calculated by means of Crohnbach's alpha. The mechanism of action of determinants was identified by means of linear structural relationship analysis (LISREL) using a model developed for GPs. Results: Crohnbach's alphas for factors ranged from 0.58-0.90. The empirical GP-trainee-data fitted with the corresponding GP-model on the mechanism of action. Conclusions: The same predisposing factors, driving forces and barriers as found with GPs were identified with GP-trainees. Comparing the GP-and GP-trainee-models, only minor differences were found in the path coefficients between factors. Lack of nutrition training and education proved to be of great influence on the extent of nutrition information given. The GP-trainee-model will be of use in developing computer-based instruction on nutrition. It is expected that GPs may also benefit from this instruction.
Mainous, A. G. III, Hueston, W. J., Love, M. M., & Griffith, C. H.
III. (1999). Access to care for the uninsured: Is access to a physician enough?
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 910-912.
McDonnell, R., Johnson, Z., Doyle, A. & Sayers, G. (1999). Determinants
of folic acid knowledge and use among antenatal women. Journal of Public Health
Medicine 21(2): 145-149.
Nawaz, H., Adams, M.L., & Katz, D.L. (1999). Weight loss
counseling by health care providers. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5):
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple evaluation tool to assess methodological rigor of the literature on patient compliance with medications, and to apply the tool to a sample of the literature. METHODS: A computerized search of the MEDLINE database (January 1980-December 1996) was performed. All English-language articles on compliance with medications were identified, using the MeSH terms patient-compliance and drug-therapy. A 10% sample was then randomly selected for review, Methodological rigor was assessed on eight standards: study design, specification of patient sample, power analysis, specification of disease, specification of therapeutic regimen, duration of follow-up, definition of compliance, and compliance measurement. The raw scores of the eight standards were then combined in three summary scores, standardized from 0 to 100: study design, disease-related features, and compliance issues. RESULTS: Seventy-two articles from 719 identified were reviewed. The majority of the research articles were descriptive (63.9%), and patients in these studies were selected mainly from a convenience sample (41.7%). Just nine studies were multicenter studies, and three employed power analysis. The compliance definition was replicable in 41.7% of the studies. In 22 articles neither the compliance measure nor the criteria were stated. One-quarter of the studies (18) used a nonvalidated measure of compliance. Only two studies reached a score of 6 in the compliance measure, and eight studies used two different measures of compliance simultaneously. The median values in the summary scores were: study design 8.3, disease 42.9, compliance issues 50. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of the compliance research was generally poor. These low scores reflect very important shortcomings in the methodology, such oversights make it difficult for the reader to critically assess the validity of the conclusions.
Powell-Griner, E., Bolen, J., & Bland, S. (1999). Health
care coverage and use of preventive services among the near elderly in the United States.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 882-886.
Ratner, P., Johnson, J., Bottorf, J. (1999). Smoking cessation
in the clinical setting. Chap. 1 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan, P.,
Ratner, P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y., Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D. (Eds.),
SMOKING CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS. Vancouver:
University of British Columbia Institute of Health Promotion Research, for the BC Ministry
ABSTRACT: Recently, most state legislatures and Congress have passed laws mandating insurance coverage for a minimum period of inpatient care following delivery. This study analyzed the likely cost implications of one state's law. To view the complete abstract, go to: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/89/6/922.
The Journals Home Page is: http://www.ajph.org/ . Riekert, K. A., & Drotar, D. (1999). Who participates in research on adherence to treatment in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus? Implications and recommendations for research. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY 24 (3): 253-258, June.
For this issue of the Journal, go to: http://jpepsy.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/24/3/253. Rimer, B. K., Conaway, M., Lyna, P., Glassman, B., Yarnall, K. S. H., Lipkus, I., & Barber, L. T. (1999). The impact of tailored interventions on a community health center population. PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING 37 (2): 125-140.
Rosenbach, M. L., & Gavin, N. I. (1998). Early and periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment and managed care. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 507-525. For abstract, go to: http://publhealth.annualreviews.org/cgi/content/abstract/19/1/507Rowland, D., Salganicoff, A., & Keenan, P. S. (1999). The Key to the Door: Medicaid's Role in Improving Health Care for Women and Children. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 403.
Ryan, A. A. (1999). Medication compliance and older people: a
review of the literature. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING STUDIES 36 (2):
Schwartz, M.D., Rimer, B.K., Daly, M., Sands, C., & Lerman, C.
(1999). A randomized trial of breast cancer risk counseling: The impact on
self-reported mammography use. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 924-926.
Shannon, W., Buller-Taylor, T., Green, L.W. (1999). BC Doctors
Stop Smoking Program: Results of the Spring 1998 retrospective evaluation. Chap.
7 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan, P., Ratner, P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y.,
Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D. (Eds.), SMOKING CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE
LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Institute
of Health Promotion Research, for the BC Ministry of Health.
ABSTRACT: This study sought to identify predictors of dental care use in HIV-infected women. For the complete abstract, go to: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/89/6/834. The Journals Home Page is at: http://www.ajph.org/. SjÖstrom, M., Karlsson, A. B., Katti, G., Yngve, A., Green, L. W., Bygren, L. O. (1999). A four week residential program for primary health care patients to control obesity and related heart risk factors: Effective application of principles of learning and lifestyle change. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 53 (Suppl. 2): S72-S77.
ABSTRACT: Objective: To test the short and long-term effectiveness of a four week residential program for primary health care patients to control obesity and related risk factors for card-vascular disease (CVD), especially blood pressure (BP). Design: Prospective clinical study, with follow up after 1 and 5 y. Setting: Vindeln Patient Education Centre, Vindeln, and Department of Social Medicine, University of Umea, Sweden. Subjects: Approximately 2500 individuals, with two or more of the traditional risk factors for CVD, participated in the program. This report describes a subsample of 100 consecutive patients, 52+/-9 y, 53 men, with obesity and/or high BP. Intervention: Four week residential program with lectures and group discussions as well as practical sessions in smaller groups (meal preparations, physical exercise, etc). The patients were followed-up medically in their home area. Outcome measures: Weight and blood pressure. Results: Dramatic reductions of weight and, especially, of blood pressure (BP) occurred during the residential weeks, and the reductions were pronounced also after 1 y. After 5 y, the total mean weight among men with initial BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m(2) was still 5 kg lower, and diastolic and systolic BP among those with hypertension was 15 and 20 mm Hg lower, respectively, than before the program. Conclusions: The full-time participation in the residential program and the enrollment and commitment of the patients may explain the clinical outcome. A level of predisposition greater than that required of most weight- and BP-control programs was confirmed and a great preventive or therapeutic potential was indicated. The study illustrates an effective application of the Precede-Proceed model of health promotion planning. Stark, L. J. (1999). Commentary: beyond feeding problems: the challenge of meeting dietary recommendations in the treatment of chronic diseases in pediatrics. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY 24 (3): 221-222, June.
For this issue of the Journal, go to: http://jpepsy.oupjournals.org/cgi/reprint/24/3/221.pdf. Svikis, D.S., Pickens, R.W., Schweitzer, W., Johnson, E., Haug, N. (1999). Weekly patterns of drug treatment attendance. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 752-755.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study examined weekly patterns of drug treatment attendance in relation to date of welfare payment receipt and reason for treatment absence. Methods. Treatment attendance by Medicaid-eligible pregnant women who were drug dependent was examined by calendar week over a 29-month period. Results. Time series analyses showed that attendance was lower during week 1 than week 4. Drug use was the most frequently reported reason for treatment absence during week 1 (25%) but was not reported as a reason during week 3. Conclusion. Drug-dependent out-patients had increased absences associated with illicit drug use during the first week of the month when welfare payments were received. The generalizability of the findings is unknown. Sword, W. (1999). A socio-ecological approach to understanding barriers to prenatal care for women of low income. JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING 29 (5): 1170-1177.
ABSTRACT: This paper critically examines the notion of barriers as conceptualized in the literature and suggests an expanded orientation to more fully appreciate its complexity. This alternative approach not only takes into account factors and processes relevant to the individual that create constraints to utilization, but also acknowledges influences on the design and delivery of health care. These latter considerations determine the availability and characteristics of programmes and services that may or may not encourage or enable participation by persons of law income. A socio-ecological model is proposed that compels health care practitioners and researchers to acknowledge the many influences on utilization behaviour. The literature on barriers to prenatal care is subsequently reviewed and evaluated, with consideration given to the range of behavioural determinants suggested by the model. Finally, a case is made for qualitative methods for inquiry to further enhance knowledge about factors and processes influencing use of the health care system, including prenatal care. It is argued that these approaches lead to enhanced appreciation of behaviour as: a social product and are consistent with the ideology of health promotion. Ulmi, S., McGowan, P., Gray, D., & Savoy, D. (1999). Moving beyond information: Evaluation of a nutrition education tool based on a theoretical model. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 53 (Suppl. 2): S49-S53.
ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigated the relative effectiveness of a nutrition education brochure based on a theoretical model versus a more traditional information-based brochure in getting subjects to accurately assess daily calcium intake, make a plan to increase intake if needed, and to implement the plan. Design: A randomized trial involving 216 women between the ages of 19-49y. Subjects were randomly assigned to a group which received educational materials containing an interactive brochure designed using the Motivation Generating model (Calcium Calculator(R)), or to a group which received a calcium information brochure (An Appetite for Good Health). Within a two week period the women were contacted by telephone to assess use of materials, calcium intake assessment information, and plans for dietary change. Setting: Subjects were recruited at five fitness centers in the Vancouver area. The research was conducted by the Institute of Health Promotion Research at the University of British Columbia. Results: Results indicated significantly greater numbers of subjects conducting self- assessment and increased group accuracy for calcium intake assessment in subjects using the interactive brochure. Conclusion: Use of a theoretical model designed to create behavior change such as the Motivation Generating Model can increase specific behaviors which may lead to improvements in dietary consumption.
Venturini, F., Nichol, M.B., Sung, J.C.Y., Bailey, K.L., Cody, M., &
McCombs, J.S. (1999). Compliance with sulfonylureas in a health maintenance
organization: A pharmacy record-based study. ANNALS OF PHARMACOTHERAPY 33 (3):
ABSTRACT: This study describes factors influencing infant feeding choices of 434 mothers with 9-month-old infants in Vancouver. Consistent with Social Cognitive Theory, both internal personal and socio-environmental factors influence infant feeding choices. Mothers attributed the choice to breastfeed primarily to personal choice, whereas the choice to formula feed was attributed to socio-environmental factors. Among mothers who breastfed <3 months, the choice to ean was primarily attributed to concern for baby's nutrition; compared to returning to work, concern about milk supply and concern for baby's nutrition among those who breastfed greater than or equal to 3 to <6 months; and returning to work and personal choice among those who breastfed greater than or equal to 6 months. Among Caucasian mothers, the choice to wean was primarily attributed to returning to work, compared to concern for baby's nutrition among non-Caucasian mothers. Initiatives to facilitate further advances in breastfeeding promotion could address three areas; 1) prenatal intentions, 2) early postpartum concerns, and 3) later issues surrounding returning to work and infant nutrition.
McCraig, L. F. (1999). National Hospital Ambulatory
Medical Care Survey: 1997 Outpatient Department Summary. Advance data from vital
and health statistics; no. 307. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Prenatal Discussion of HIV Testing and Maternal HIV Testing ---
14 States, 1996--1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48(19), May 21,
Wired health http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/wired/ "Remembering the Victims of AIDS" is the first installment in HealthPromotion Online's new monthly magazine, Wired Health. Every month, new articles will feature different programs and events about health promotion. If you have any questions or comments, or you would like to contribute a story idea, contact the editor.
Web sites on smoking cessation:
Action on Smoking & Health
American Heart Association
American Lung Association
Americans for Nonsmokers Rights
Arizona Tobacco Education & Prevention Program
Breed's Tobacco Activism Guide (annotated links)
Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
Cable News Network (CNN) - Tobacco
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Florida Tobacco Education Resources
Food and Drug Administration
Friends of Tobacco
International Union Against Cancer - Globalink
House Committee on Commerce
Investor Responsibility Research Center
Maryland Dept of Health
Mass. Tobacco Control Program
Minnesota Attorney General - Tobacco Trial
Minnesota Blue Cross - Tobacco Trial
Reuters News Service
Save Lives, Not Tobacco
Smokescreen Action Network
State Tobacco Information Center (STIC)
Tobacco BBS (extensive links)
Tobacco Control Resource Center
Tobacco Control Supersite (links by topic)
Tobacco Resolution (tobacco industry documents)
Univ Calif SF - Tob Archives
USA Today - Tobacco
Washington Doctors Ought to Care (DOC)
World Health Organization
Interactive web site
Interactive kiosk-based smoking cessation program in English and Spanish. Tailors itself to the user on many characteristics (incl. gender, race/ethnicity, and age). You can see a glimpse at http://www.orcashealth.com/html/gh3.html
Kick the Smoking Habit - http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/index.htm - This publication is part of a set of booklets that present key steps that Latinos can take to reduce their chances of having a heart attack or stroke. Written in a friendly English/Spanish side-by-side style, the booklets present facts and dispel myths. The set includes the following titles: Take Steps--Prevent High Blood Pressure; Cut Down on Salt and Sodium; Learn Your Cholesterol Number; Protect Your Heart--Lower Your Blood Cholesterol; Watch Your Weight; Cut Down on Fat--Not on Taste; Stay Active and Feel Better; Kick the Smoking Habit.
The US DHHS Agency for Health Care Policy and Research has Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation. http://www.ahcpr.gov/consumer/index.html#smoking