If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

CHAPTER 10:
APPLICATIONS IN SCHOOL SETTINGS

Table of Contents

Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones

Archived Headlines

Supplementary References

Other References

Supplementary Websites


Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones


Archived Headlines


SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES

    Journal References

Altschuld, J.W., Kumar, D.D., Smith, D.W., & Goodway, J.D. (1999). School-based educational innovations: Case illustrations of context-sensitive evaluations. FAMILY & COMMUNITY HEALTH 22 (1): 66-79.
    ABSTRACT: School-based educational innovations (new ideas and products) impact the qualify of services offered individuals, families, and communities. Factors embedded in the context of a school often dictate whether innovations are adopted and implemented. To that end, the assessment of educational innovations should involve not only whether change occurred but also issues such as why change did or did not occur as a result of a program and its meaning to the participants. These issues can be addressed by expanding evaluation plans to include the context in which an innovation is embedded. In support of a context-sensitive evaluation model, the authors discuss three school-based health or physical education and science program assessment studies and an overall evaluation model. Methodological insights and implications for school and community-based studies are presented and include planning, conducting, recording, and interpreting context-sensitive evaluations.

An, L.C., O'Malley, P.M., Schulenberg, J.E., Bachman, J.G., & Johnston, L.D. (1999). Changes at the high end of risk in cigarette smoking among US high school seniors, 1976-1995. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 699-705.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study identified high school seniors at low, moderate, and high risk for cigarette use to examine changes in the prevalence of daily smoking within risk groups from 1976 to 1995. Methods. Data were taken from the Monitoring the Future Project's national surveys of high school seniors. Risk classification was based on grade-point average, truancy, nights out per week, and religious commitment. Logistic regression models were used to estimate trends for all seniors and separately for White (n = 244 221), African American (n=41 005), and Hispanic (n = 18 457) male and female subgroups. Results. Risk group distribution (low = 45%, moderate = 30%, high =25%) changed little over time. Between 1976 and 1990, greater absolute declines in smoking occurred among high-risk students (17 percentage points) than among low-risk students (6 percentage points). Particularly large declines occurred among high-risk African Americans and Hispanics. Smoking increased in all risk groups in the 1990s. Conclusions. Among high school seniors, a large part of the overall change in smoking occurred among high-risk youth. Policies and programs to reduce smoking among youth must have broad appeal, especially to those at the higher end of the risk spectrum.

Buller, D.B., & Borland, R. (1999). Skin cancer prevention for children: A critical review. HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR 26 (3): 317-343.
    ABSTRACT: Increasing sun protection for children may reduce their risk for skin cancer, so many health authorities recommend comprehensive sun safety for children. Sun protection of children in North America and Europe is generally lower than desired and lower than in Australia. This article provides a critical review of evaluations on the effects of 24 sun protection programs for children under age 14. Programs are classified based on the target population, setting, and features. Most programs improved sun safety knowledge, but changes in sun protection attitude and behaviors were smaller. Multiunit presentations were more effective than short-duration presentations. Peer education was effective but needs further evaluation. Some programs for parents have been shown to increase sun protection for children. Strategies to improve sun safety policies need further study. A few community-wide programs have effectively improved sun protection. Future research should address innovative strategies and issues of design and measurement. There is no gold standard for measuring sun protection behavior, but self-report, prospective diaries, and observational techniques show small positive correlations.

Corwin, S. J., Sargent, R. J., Rheaume, C. E., Saunders, R. P. (1999). Dietary Behaviors among Fourth Graders: A Social Cognitive Theory Study Approach. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR 23 (3): 182-197 .
    ABSTRACT: http://www.aahb.siu.edu/ajhb/1999/23-3-3.htm.

Denman, S. (1999). Health promoting schools in England - a way forward in development. Journal of Public Health Medicine 21(2): 215-220.
    ABSTRACT: http://www.oup.co.uk/pubmed/hdb/Volume_21/Issue_02/210215.sgm.abs.html

Doyle, EI; Beatty, CF; Shaw, MW. (1999). Using cooperative learning groups to develop health- related cultural awareness. JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH 69 (2), pp.73-76.

George, A. (1999). Smoking cessation in university and college students. Chap. 3 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan, P., Ratner, P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y., Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D. (Eds.), SMOKING CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Institute of Health Promotion Research, for the BC Ministry of Health.
    A systematic review of the research literature on smoking cessation effectiveness of programs in colleges and universities. http://www.commhealth.ihpr.ubc.ca/mohscr/Ch3colle.PDF

Gittelsohn, J., Evans, M., Story, M., Davis, S.M., Metcalfe, L., Helitzer, D.L., & Clay, T.E. (1999). Multisite formative assessment for the Pathways study to prevent obesity in American Indian schoolchildren. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 69 (4 SUPPL): 767S-772S.
    ABSTRACT: We describe the formative assessment process, using an approach based on social learning theory, for the development of a school-based obesity-prevention intervention into which cultural perspectives are integrated. The feasibility phase of the Pathways study was conducted in multiple settings in 6 American Indian nations. The Pathways formative assessment collected both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data identified key social and environmental issues and enabled local people to express their own needs and views. The quantitative, structured data permitted comparison across sites. Both types of data were integrated by using a conceptual and procedural model. The formative assessment results were used to identify and rank the behavioral risk factors that were to become the focus of the Pathways intervention and to provide guidance on developing common intervention strategies that would be culturally appropriate and acceptable to all sites.

Kandakai, T. L., Price, J. H., Telljohann, S. K., & Wilson, C. A. (1999). Mothers' perceptions of factors influencing violence in schools. JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH 69 (5): 189-195.
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated mothers' perceptions of factors contributing to school violence. Of 345 mothers, 225 (65%) from urban public schools and 120 (35%) from suburban public schools, significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the enabling factors subscale for school location. Urban school mothers were significantly more likely than suburban mothers to attribute violence problems at their child's school to the lack of dress codes, violent messages in rap music, and poor parent/teacher communication. Significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the reinforcing factor subscale for school location, income, family structure, and race. Mothers of low- and middle-income, single parents, and African Americans were much more optimistic about the possibility that violence prevention programs for students, parents, and teachers would work well to stop or reduce school violence than were higher-income, married and White mothers. These mothers also were more likely to believe it was acceptable for their child to fight at school than were their counterparts.

Lai, S.C., & Cohen, M.N. (1999). Promoting lifestyle changes. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING 99 (4): 63-67.

 

Lovato, C.Y., & Shoveller, J. (1999). Youth smoking cessation in school settings. Chap. 2 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan, P., Ratner, P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y., Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D. (Eds.), SMOKING CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Institute of Health Promotion Research, for the BC Ministry of Health.
    A systematic review of the research literature on smoking cessation effectiveness of school-based programs. http://www.commhealth.ihpr.ubc.ca/mohscr/Ch2schoo.PDF

Lowe, J.B., Balanda, K.P., Stanton, W.R., & Gillespie, A. (1999). Evaluation of a three-year school-based intervention to increase adolescents sun protection. HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR 26 (3): 396-408.
    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a school-based intervention was evaluated using a randomized controlled trial in Australia. In consecutive grades (8, 9, and 10), students in the intervention group received components of a program that addressed issues related to the need to protect yourself from the sun, behavioral strategies related to using sun-protective measures, personal and social images of having a tan, the use of sun-safe clothing, and how to change their schools through forms of structural change. Pre-and postintervention measures among junior high school students showed greatest improvement in the intervention group's knowledge scores and minimal changes in sun protection behavior from Grade 8 to Grade 9, which were not maintained through Grade 10. Results of the study highlight some limitations of school-based interventions for changing sun protection behaviors.

 

McBride, N., Midford, R., & Cameron, I. (1999). An empirical model for school health promotion: the Western Australian school health project model. HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL 14 (1): 17-25.
    ABSTRACT: Models of school health promotion simplify and support the complex process of encouraging schools to adopt health promotion as part of their organizational practice by outlining phases and areas that bear on adoption and scope of activity. Models provide a value conceptual framework on which to base action and a standard against which to measure success. The Western Australian School Health (WASH) model is an empirically designed model that can assist both internal and external agents seeking to inter est schools in developing comprehensive school health promotion programs The WASH Model schematically represents the main elements of the WASH Project's process of initiating and developing health promotion with Western Australian schools. The model is based on the project's practical implementation experience (1992-1995) as an external intervention with its own specific health promotion agenda operating in a setting that requires a participative approach to maximize outcomes. The model draws on system theory related to organizational change processes and on previous models of school health promotion. The WASH Project, which used this model in its interaction with schools, was able to demonstrate change in the level of health promotion activity and structural support in participating schools Accordingly the model provides a tested framework on which to base approaches and activity for school health promotion initiation, development and continuity.

 

McCall, D., Hill, B., & Johnston, M. (1999). Youth involvement in public decision-making: A report on nine case studies. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 90(3).
    Go to: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/childhood-youth/spsc/

Murray, N. G., Kelder, S. H., Parcel, G. S., Frankowski, R., & Orpinas, P. (1999). Padres Trabajando por la Paz: A randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14(3): 421-426.
    ABSTRACT: http://her.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/14/3/421 .

Neugebauer, R., Wasserman, G.A., Fisher, P.W., Kline, J., Geller, P.A., & Miller, L.S. (1999). Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-age children. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 758-761.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This report examines the reliability and validity of Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of the cardinal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods. We measured exposure to community violence through the reports of children and their parents and then administered Darryl to a sample of 110 children aged 7 to 9 residing in urban neighborhoods with high crime rates. Results. Darryl's reliability is excellent overall and is acceptable for the reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales, considered separately. Child reports of exposure to community violence were significantly associated with childl reports of PTSD symptoms. Conclusions. Darryl possesses acceptable psychometric properties in assample of children with frequent exposure to community violence.

Smet, B., Maes, L., De Clercq, L., Haryanti, K., & Winarno, R.D. (1999). The health behavior in school-aged children study in Semarang, Indonesia: methodological problems in cross-cultural research.
    ABSTRACT: Since the 'Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study was implemented by three European countries in 1982, it has been adopted by over 25 countries, including Canada and Australia. It is generally expected that African and Asian countries will follow. This paper reviews some methodological constraints in adapting the HBSC study in Indonesia. Although the international HBSC team has reported methodological problems in the cross-national study, no attempt to extend the original European study to South-east Asia has been described before. Cultural, religious, economical and social differences create specific obstacles as well as challenges. Next to problems related to adaptation of the questionnaire, we experienced more structural problems both in its preparation and implementation. Lack of technical infrastructure and communication facilities can serve as an example This might be a problem insofar it affects the results. It is argued that for some behaviors such as smoking, cross-national comparability is probably not a problem. For others, e.g. use of alcohol, comparability of the data should be treated with caution. Smoking is one of the most compromising health-risk behaviors among male youngsters in Indonesia, with about 25% regular smokers (at least once a week) among 15-year-old boys. Alcohol use is less common, but data are probably less reliable because of the social and religious taboos on alcohol use and confusion about alcoholic drinks. Move efforts should be made in order to examine validity of the HBSC study in non-Western countries. Furthermore, insofar developing countries will participate in this study in the near future, it is recommended that specific strategies are elaborated. These include derailed rules for translation and adaptation of the standard questionnaire, and the development of specific culture-relevant additional packages.

 

Shuey, D. A., Babishangire, B. B., Omiat, S., & Bagarukayo, H. (1999). Increased sexual abstinence among in-school adolescents as a result of school health education in Soroti district, Uganda. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14(3): 411-419.
    ABSTRACT: http://her.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/14/3/411 .

Younoszai, T.M., Lohrmann, D.K., Seefeldt, C.A., & Greene, R. (1999). Trends from 1987 to 1991 in alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents exposed to a school district-wide prevention. JOURNAL OF DRUG EDUCATION 29 (1): 77-94.
    ABSTRACT: This study involved a school-based prevention program initiated to reduce alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents in the Troy School District in the Detroit area. One purpose was to describe the current ATOD situation by investigating changes in reported ATOD use from 1987 to 1991. Another purpose was to explore and identify the most salient risk and protective factors present. In 1987, 1,490 students (comprising grades 8 and 11) and in 1991, 3,171 students (comprising grades 8 to 12) completed questionnaires. Significant decreases were found for use of most drugs with the exception of alcohol. Involvement in problem behaviors was identified as the most salient risk factor, while having a member of a non-using peer group was the most salient protective factor. Implications for the design of subsequent intervention programs are discussed.

    Other References

 

Federal Interagency Forum on Child & Family Statistics. (1999). AMERICA'S CHILDREN: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Education.
        The full report is at: http://childstats.gov/ac1999/toc.asp
Released in July, it's the third annual report on the condition of America's children. Six contextual measures that describe the changing population and family context in which children are living, and 23 indicators of well-being in the areas of economic security, health, behavior and social environment, and education. This third annual report presents a special feature on Children Who Have Difficulty Performing Everyday Activities.

SUPPLEMENTARY WEBSITES

School Climate: "A healthy school climate contributes to effective teaching and learning. These instruments for assessing climate can help schools make informed and meaningful changes for the better." (Quote by: H. Jerome Freiberg at the University of Houston) School Climate/Culture by definition is the sum of the values, cultures, safety practices, and organizational structures within a school that cause it to function and react in particular ways. Some schools are said to have a nurturing environment that recognizes children and treats them as individuals; others may have the feel of authoritarian structures where rules are strictly enforced and hierarchical control is strong. Teaching practices, diversity, and the relationships among administrators, teachers, parents, and students contribute to school climate. Although the two terms are somewhat interchangeable, school climate refers mostly to the school's effects on students, while school culture refers more to the way teachers and other staff members work together. (This definition was taken from the book, "The Language of Learning" by J. Lynn McBrien and Ronald S. Brandt).
    Following are some ASCD resources and that relate to school climate/culture:

  • Empowering Teachers: What Successful Principals Do. Corwin Press, 1994. 166 pages. Based on feedback and observations from teachers, the authors explore how principals create school climates that inspire all teachers to become active agents of school improvement: building trust among staff, organizational structures that support shared governance, beliefs that lead to teachers#'#39; professional growth and improvement, and ways to encourage more autonomous and innovative teachers.
  • ASCD Topic Pack -- Classroom Management / Positive School Climate. This Topic Pack includes numerous full-text articles on classroom management/positive school climate, carefully chosen from "Educational Leadership," "Education Update," and other ASCD publications; a list of ASCD resources on classroom  management/positive school climate, including books, videotapes, and audiotapes, with brief descriptions; ERIC digest summaries and a list of ERIC documents on classroom management/positive school climate, along with information on how to obtain articles from ERIC; a bibliography of journal articles on classroom management/positive school climate; and a list of selected Internet resources on classroom management/positive school climate.
  • Educational Leadership, Volume 56, Number 1, Sept 1998,"Measuring School Climate: Let Me Count the Ways," by H. Jerome Freiberg
  • Educational Leadership, Volume 56, Number 4, Dec/Jan 1999, "Block Scheduling Can Enhance School Climate," by Thomas L. Shortt and Yvonne V. Thayer

TeenWire - http://www.teenwire.com/index.asp - A searchable site for teens that presents information about adolescents and their issues including relationships, sexuality, and pregnancy. There is an archive of all of the questions asked. The Warehouse has articles about dating, love, sex, birth control, infections and diseases, abortion, sexual orientation, parents and friends, feelings, and more. World Views presents teen issues from other parts of the world. Hothouse is a teen-written zine. Sponsored by Planned Parenthood Federation of America. – Subjects: teenagers | health | reproduction | sex instruction.

Hop, Skip, and Jump: What Makes Your Body Move?    http://www.coreknowledge.org/
    A five day teaching unit from the Core Knowledge web site in which primary students examine the muscular, skeletal and nervous systems. Lessons employ centers, higher order thinking skills, and cooperative learning activities.

Journal Writing, from Education World - http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr144.shtml - Teachers of grades 2-12 generally agree that journal writing is a powerful teaching tool, but something they dread because of the many excuses students give them. This site contains not only ideas for prompting the student writer but also teacher-tested ideas that have worked with students. Some of the topics explored are: Journals Focus Students and Build Skills, Safe Writing, Developing Personal Relationships Through Journal Writing, Unexpected Benefits, and Getting Kids to Write.

Tips 4 Kids : The number of young smokers has increased by 388,000 this year already. This site is an attempt to lower this number. The table of contents includes: 6 Facts about Kids and Smoking, The Real Deal about Tobacco, Up in Smoke, Is Smokeless Tobacco Safer Than Cigarettes, Be an Ad Buster, Smoke Free from Coast to Coast, and 10 things You Can do to Make Your World Smoke-free. The graphics are colourful and attractive, and the text is clear and easy to read. This site would be useful for teachers who need the latest information dealing with the youth smoking problem. Each of the links are interesting and informative, something that is needed to engage your students. The SGR 4 Kids is hosted by Center for Disease Control and is suitable for students in grades 4-12 and is located at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/tips4youth.htm

AIDS Care for Children, Adolescents Site. http://www.pedhivaids.org .  NPHRC is a non-profit that serves professionals who care for children, adolescents, and families with HIV infection and AIDS. The Center offers education, consultation, technical assistance, and training for health and social service professionals.

Online Learning-Adbusters / Adbusters Cultural Jammers Headquarters. http://www.adbusters.org .  Such notorious conditions in advertisement as Joe Camel have attracted attention to the media, who covered the story for a short time before heading on to other national events to boost ratings and rake in money. Adbusters is tired of this; they believe the media is one of the many corrupt branches of the country that needs to be replaced. Adbusters is the new-generation of media which is not interested in making money. This non-profit organization runs its own magazine covering stories they think are important and that contain what they call "Spoof Ads" - advertisements discouraging the product. For instance, their spoof of the sophisticated Joe Camel is Joe Chemo, a camel hooked up to an IV and facing his last days from a tobacco overdose. Adbusters is a site that promotes free speech and anti-advertising.

Australian School Health Initiatives http://www.hlth.qut.edu.au/ph/ahpsa/

The American Journal of Health Behavior, January 1999 issue, carries a biographical sketch and photo of one of the leading figures in school health promotion, Dr. Cheryl Perry, of the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. Access the journal web pages at: http://www.aahb.siu.edu/ajhb/1999/23-1-8.htm

 

Most U.S. Playgrounds Unsafe http://www.momsrefuge.com/news/9904/index.html#11 A majority of America's playgrounds at schools, parks and child care centers are unfit for children and, on average, barely receive a passing grade, according to a year-long study by the National Program for Playground Safety.

Child and Youth Health have started a new website for young people from 12 to 25 years. http://www.cyh.com This has social, sexual, psychological and physical health information which is written in Youth-friendly language - could be useful to support curriculum as well as for young people themselves. Also see the parenting/child health topics which cover many behavioral and health issues for children and young people.

Helping Students Deal with a Move - http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr134.shtml - Student Mobility: Helping Children Cope With a Moving Experience. "Moving scares you at first; it might even make you sad. All your friends are in one place, and you're in another. I was scared when I moved. I worried if I would even make new friends and if anyone would like me...." Those are the words of eighth grader Jenne Terre, but they sum up the feelings and experiences of many children who move each year. Whether it is across town or across the country, moving can be very stressful. Moving can greatly affect a child's concentration and behavior in school, and children may have trouble articulating their feelings. But teachers can help alleviate some of the stress that surrounds an impending move.