APPLICATIONS IN SCHOOL SETTINGS
Table of Contents
Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones
Headlines, Timelines, &
Altschuld, J.W., Kumar, D.D., Smith, D.W., & Goodway, J.D. (1999). School-based
educational innovations: Case illustrations of context-sensitive evaluations.
FAMILY & COMMUNITY HEALTH 22 (1): 66-79.
ABSTRACT: School-based educational innovations (new ideas and products)
impact the qualify of services offered individuals, families, and communities. Factors
embedded in the context of a school often dictate whether innovations are adopted and
implemented. To that end, the assessment of educational innovations should involve not
only whether change occurred but also issues such as why change did or did not occur as a
result of a program and its meaning to the participants. These issues can be addressed by
expanding evaluation plans to include the context in which an innovation is embedded. In
support of a context-sensitive evaluation model, the authors discuss three school-based
health or physical education and science program assessment studies and an overall
evaluation model. Methodological insights and implications for school and community-based
studies are presented and include planning, conducting, recording, and interpreting
An, L.C., O'Malley, P.M., Schulenberg, J.E., Bachman, J.G., &
Johnston, L.D. (1999). Changes at the high end of risk in cigarette smoking among
US high school seniors, 1976-1995. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5):
Buller, D.B., & Borland, R. (1999). Skin cancer
prevention for children: A critical review. HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR 26
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study identified high school seniors at low,
moderate, and high risk for cigarette use to examine changes in the prevalence of daily
smoking within risk groups from 1976 to 1995. Methods. Data were taken from the Monitoring
the Future Project's national surveys of high school seniors. Risk classification was
based on grade-point average, truancy, nights out per week, and religious commitment.
Logistic regression models were used to estimate trends for all seniors and separately for
White (n = 244 221), African American (n=41 005), and Hispanic (n = 18 457) male and
female subgroups. Results. Risk group distribution (low = 45%, moderate = 30%, high =25%)
changed little over time. Between 1976 and 1990, greater absolute declines in smoking
occurred among high-risk students (17 percentage points) than among low-risk students (6
percentage points). Particularly large declines occurred among high-risk African Americans
and Hispanics. Smoking increased in all risk groups in the 1990s. Conclusions. Among high
school seniors, a large part of the overall change in smoking occurred among high-risk
youth. Policies and programs to reduce smoking among youth must have broad appeal,
especially to those at the higher end of the risk spectrum.
ABSTRACT: Increasing sun protection for children may reduce their risk
for skin cancer, so many health authorities recommend comprehensive sun safety for
children. Sun protection of children in North America and Europe is generally lower than
desired and lower than in Australia. This article provides a critical review of
evaluations on the effects of 24 sun protection programs for children under age 14.
Programs are classified based on the target population, setting, and features. Most
programs improved sun safety knowledge, but changes in sun protection attitude and
behaviors were smaller. Multiunit presentations were more effective than short-duration
presentations. Peer education was effective but needs further evaluation. Some programs
for parents have been shown to increase sun protection for children. Strategies to improve
sun safety policies need further study. A few community-wide programs have effectively
improved sun protection. Future research should address innovative strategies and issues
of design and measurement. There is no gold standard for measuring sun protection
behavior, but self-report, prospective diaries, and observational techniques show small
Corwin, S. J., Sargent, R. J., Rheaume, C. E., Saunders, R. P.
(1999). Dietary Behaviors among Fourth Graders: A Social Cognitive Theory Study
Approach. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR 23 (3): 182-197 .
Denman, S. (1999). Health promoting schools in England - a way
forward in development. Journal of Public Health Medicine 21(2): 215-220.
Doyle, EI; Beatty, CF; Shaw, MW. (1999). Using
cooperative learning groups to develop health- related cultural awareness.
JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH 69 (2), pp.73-76.
George, A. (1999). Smoking cessation in university and
college students. Chap. 3 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan, P., Ratner,
P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y., Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D. (Eds.), SMOKING
CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS. Vancouver: University
of British Columbia Institute of Health Promotion Research, for the BC Ministry of Health.
A systematic review of the research literature on smoking cessation
effectiveness of programs in colleges and universities. http://www.commhealth.ihpr.ubc.ca/mohscr/Ch3colle.PDF
Gittelsohn, J., Evans, M., Story, M., Davis, S.M., Metcalfe, L., Helitzer, D.L., &
Clay, T.E. (1999). Multisite formative assessment for the Pathways study to
prevent obesity in American Indian schoolchildren. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL
NUTRITION 69 (4 SUPPL): 767S-772S.
Kandakai, T. L., Price, J. H., Telljohann, S. K., & Wilson,
C. A. (1999). Mothers' perceptions of factors influencing violence in schools.
JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH 69 (5): 189-195.
ABSTRACT: We describe the formative assessment process, using an
approach based on social learning theory, for the development of a school-based
obesity-prevention intervention into which cultural perspectives are integrated. The
feasibility phase of the Pathways study was conducted in multiple settings in 6 American
Indian nations. The Pathways formative assessment collected both qualitative and
quantitative data. The qualitative data identified key social and environmental issues and
enabled local people to express their own needs and views. The quantitative, structured
data permitted comparison across sites. Both types of data were integrated by using a
conceptual and procedural model. The formative assessment results were used to identify
and rank the behavioral risk factors that were to become the focus of the Pathways
intervention and to provide guidance on developing common intervention strategies that
would be culturally appropriate and acceptable to all sites.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated mothers' perceptions of factors
contributing to school violence. Of 345 mothers, 225 (65%) from urban public schools and
120 (35%) from suburban public schools, significant differences in perceptions of school
violence were found on the enabling factors subscale for school location. Urban school
mothers were significantly more likely than suburban mothers to attribute violence
problems at their child's school to the lack of dress codes, violent messages in rap
music, and poor parent/teacher communication. Significant differences in perceptions of
school violence were found on the reinforcing factor subscale for school location, income,
family structure, and race. Mothers of low- and middle-income, single parents, and African
Americans were much more optimistic about the possibility that violence prevention
programs for students, parents, and teachers would work well to stop or reduce school
violence than were higher-income, married and White mothers. These mothers also were more
likely to believe it was acceptable for their child to fight at school than were their
Lai, S.C., & Cohen, M.N. (1999). Promoting lifestyle
changes. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING 99 (4): 63-67.
Lovato, C.Y., & Shoveller, J. (1999). Youth smoking
cessation in school settings. Chap. 2 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan,
P., Ratner, P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y., Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D.
(Eds.), SMOKING CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS.
Vancouver: University of British Columbia Institute of Health Promotion Research, for the
BC Ministry of Health.
A systematic review of the research literature on smoking cessation
effectiveness of school-based programs. http://www.commhealth.ihpr.ubc.ca/mohscr/Ch2schoo.PDF
Lowe, J.B., Balanda, K.P., Stanton, W.R., & Gillespie, A. (1999). Evaluation
of a three-year school-based intervention to increase adolescents sun protection.
HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR 26 (3): 396-408.
ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a school-based intervention was evaluated
using a randomized controlled trial in Australia. In consecutive grades (8, 9, and 10),
students in the intervention group received components of a program that addressed issues
related to the need to protect yourself from the sun, behavioral strategies related to
using sun-protective measures, personal and social images of having a tan, the use of
sun-safe clothing, and how to change their schools through forms of structural change.
Pre-and postintervention measures among junior high school students showed greatest
improvement in the intervention group's knowledge scores and minimal changes in sun
protection behavior from Grade 8 to Grade 9, which were not maintained through Grade 10.
Results of the study highlight some limitations of school-based interventions for changing
sun protection behaviors.
McBride, N., Midford, R., & Cameron, I. (1999). An empirical model for
school health promotion: the Western Australian school health project model.
HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL 14 (1): 17-25.
ABSTRACT: Models of school health promotion simplify and support the
complex process of encouraging schools to adopt health promotion as part of their
organizational practice by outlining phases and areas that bear on adoption and scope of
activity. Models provide a value conceptual framework on which to base action and a
standard against which to measure success. The Western Australian School Health (WASH)
model is an empirically designed model that can assist both internal and external agents
seeking to inter est schools in developing comprehensive school health promotion programs
The WASH Model schematically represents the main elements of the WASH Project's process of
initiating and developing health promotion with Western Australian schools. The model is
based on the project's practical implementation experience (1992-1995) as an external
intervention with its own specific health promotion agenda operating in a setting that
requires a participative approach to maximize outcomes. The model draws on system theory
related to organizational change processes and on previous models of school health
promotion. The WASH Project, which used this model in its interaction with schools, was
able to demonstrate change in the level of health promotion activity and structural
support in participating schools Accordingly the model provides a tested framework on
which to base approaches and activity for school health promotion initiation, development
McCall, D., Hill, B., & Johnston, M. (1999). Youth
involvement in public decision-making: A report on nine case studies. CANADIAN
JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 90(3).
Go to: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/childhood-youth/spsc/
Murray, N. G., Kelder, S. H., Parcel, G. S., Frankowski, R., & Orpinas, P. (1999). Padres
Trabajando por la Paz: A randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent
violence among middle school children. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14(3): 421-426.
Neugebauer, R., Wasserman, G.A., Fisher, P.W., Kline, J., Geller, P.A., & Miller,
L.S. (1999). Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress
symptoms in school-age children. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5):
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This report examines the reliability and validity
of Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of the cardinal symptoms of posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD). Methods. We measured exposure to community violence through the reports
of children and their parents and then administered Darryl to a sample of 110 children
aged 7 to 9 residing in urban neighborhoods with high crime rates. Results. Darryl's
reliability is excellent overall and is acceptable for the reexperiencing, avoidance, and
arousal subscales, considered separately. Child reports of exposure to community violence
were significantly associated with childl reports of PTSD symptoms. Conclusions. Darryl
possesses acceptable psychometric properties in assample of children with frequent
exposure to community violence.
Smet, B., Maes, L., De Clercq, L., Haryanti, K., & Winarno, R.D. (1999). The
health behavior in school-aged children study in Semarang, Indonesia: methodological
problems in cross-cultural research.
ABSTRACT: Since the 'Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)
study was implemented by three European countries in 1982, it has been adopted by over 25
countries, including Canada and Australia. It is generally expected that African and Asian
countries will follow. This paper reviews some methodological constraints in adapting the
HBSC study in Indonesia. Although the international HBSC team has reported methodological
problems in the cross-national study, no attempt to extend the original European study to
South-east Asia has been described before. Cultural, religious, economical and social
differences create specific obstacles as well as challenges. Next to problems related to
adaptation of the questionnaire, we experienced more structural problems both in its
preparation and implementation. Lack of technical infrastructure and communication
facilities can serve as an example This might be a problem insofar it affects the results.
It is argued that for some behaviors such as smoking, cross-national comparability is
probably not a problem. For others, e.g. use of alcohol, comparability of the data should
be treated with caution. Smoking is one of the most compromising health-risk behaviors
among male youngsters in Indonesia, with about 25% regular smokers (at least once a week)
among 15-year-old boys. Alcohol use is less common, but data are probably less reliable
because of the social and religious taboos on alcohol use and confusion about alcoholic
drinks. Move efforts should be made in order to examine validity of the HBSC study in
non-Western countries. Furthermore, insofar developing countries will participate in this
study in the near future, it is recommended that specific strategies are elaborated. These
include derailed rules for translation and adaptation of the standard questionnaire, and
the development of specific culture-relevant additional packages.
Shuey, D. A., Babishangire, B. B., Omiat, S., & Bagarukayo,
H. (1999). Increased sexual abstinence among in-school adolescents as a result of
school health education in Soroti district, Uganda. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH
Younoszai, T.M., Lohrmann, D.K., Seefeldt, C.A., & Greene, R. (1999). Trends
from 1987 to 1991 in alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents exposed
to a school district-wide prevention. JOURNAL OF DRUG EDUCATION 29 (1): 77-94.
ABSTRACT: This study involved a school-based prevention program
initiated to reduce alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents in the
Troy School District in the Detroit area. One purpose was to describe the current ATOD
situation by investigating changes in reported ATOD use from 1987 to 1991. Another purpose
was to explore and identify the most salient risk and protective factors present. In 1987,
1,490 students (comprising grades 8 and 11) and in 1991, 3,171 students (comprising grades
8 to 12) completed questionnaires. Significant decreases were found for use of most drugs
with the exception of alcohol. Involvement in problem behaviors was identified as the most
salient risk factor, while having a member of a non-using peer group was the most salient
protective factor. Implications for the design of subsequent intervention programs are
Federal Interagency Forum on Child & Family Statistics.
(1999). AMERICA'S CHILDREN: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 1999.
Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Education.
The full report is at: http://childstats.gov/ac1999/toc.asp
Released in July, it's the third annual report on the condition of America's children. Six
contextual measures that describe the changing population and family context in which
children are living, and 23 indicators of well-being in the areas of economic security,
health, behavior and social environment, and education. This third annual report presents
a special feature on Children Who Have Difficulty Performing Everyday Activities.
School Climate: "A healthy school climate
contributes to effective teaching and learning. These instruments for assessing climate
can help schools make informed and meaningful changes for the better." (Quote by: H.
Jerome Freiberg at the University of Houston) School Climate/Culture by definition is the
sum of the values, cultures, safety practices, and organizational structures within a
school that cause it to function and react in particular ways. Some schools are said to
have a nurturing environment that recognizes children and treats them as individuals;
others may have the feel of authoritarian structures where rules are strictly enforced and
hierarchical control is strong. Teaching practices, diversity, and the relationships among
administrators, teachers, parents, and students contribute to school climate. Although the
two terms are somewhat interchangeable, school climate refers mostly to the school's
effects on students, while school culture refers more to the way teachers and other staff
members work together. (This definition was taken from the book, "The Language of
Learning" by J. Lynn McBrien and Ronald S. Brandt).
Following are some ASCD resources and that relate to school
- Empowering Teachers: What Successful Principals Do. Corwin Press, 1994.
166 pages. Based on feedback and observations from teachers, the authors explore how
principals create school climates that inspire all teachers to become active agents of
school improvement: building trust among staff, organizational structures that support
shared governance, beliefs that lead to teachers#'#39; professional growth and
improvement, and ways to encourage more autonomous and innovative teachers.
- ASCD Topic Pack -- Classroom Management / Positive School Climate. This
Topic Pack includes numerous full-text articles on classroom management/positive school
climate, carefully chosen from "Educational Leadership," "Education
Update," and other ASCD publications; a list of ASCD resources on classroom
management/positive school climate, including books, videotapes, and audiotapes, with
brief descriptions; ERIC digest summaries and a list of ERIC documents on classroom
management/positive school climate, along with information on how to obtain articles from
ERIC; a bibliography of journal articles on classroom management/positive school climate;
and a list of selected Internet resources on classroom management/positive school climate.
- Educational Leadership, Volume 56, Number 1, Sept 1998,"Measuring
School Climate: Let Me Count the Ways," by H. Jerome Freiberg
- Educational Leadership, Volume 56, Number 4, Dec/Jan 1999,
"Block Scheduling Can Enhance School Climate," by Thomas L. Shortt and Yvonne V.
TeenWire - http://www.teenwire.com/index.asp - A
searchable site for teens that presents information about adolescents and their issues
including relationships, sexuality, and pregnancy. There is an archive of all of the
questions asked. The Warehouse has articles about dating, love, sex, birth control,
infections and diseases, abortion, sexual orientation, parents and friends, feelings, and
more. World Views presents teen issues from other parts of the world. Hothouse is a
teen-written zine. Sponsored by Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Subjects:
teenagers | health | reproduction | sex instruction.
Hop, Skip, and Jump: What Makes Your Body Move?
A five day teaching unit from the Core Knowledge web site in which
primary students examine the muscular, skeletal and nervous systems. Lessons employ
centers, higher order thinking skills, and cooperative learning activities.
Journal Writing, from Education World - http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr144.shtml
- Teachers of grades 2-12 generally agree that journal writing is a powerful teaching
tool, but something they dread because of the many excuses students give them. This site
contains not only ideas for prompting the student writer but also teacher-tested ideas
that have worked with students. Some of the topics explored are: Journals Focus Students
and Build Skills, Safe Writing, Developing Personal Relationships Through Journal Writing,
Unexpected Benefits, and Getting Kids to Write.
Tips 4 Kids : The number of young smokers has
increased by 388,000 this year already. This site is an attempt to lower this number. The
table of contents includes: 6 Facts about Kids and Smoking, The Real Deal
about Tobacco, Up in Smoke, Is Smokeless Tobacco Safer Than Cigarettes, Be an Ad Buster,
Smoke Free from Coast to Coast, and 10 things You Can do to Make Your World Smoke-free.
The graphics are colourful and attractive, and the text is clear and easy to read. This
site would be useful for teachers who need the latest information dealing with the youth
smoking problem. Each of the links are interesting and informative, something that is
needed to engage your students. The SGR 4 Kids is hosted by Center for Disease Control and
is suitable for students in grades 4-12 and is located at:
AIDS Care for Children, Adolescents Site. http://www.pedhivaids.org . NPHRC is a
non-profit that serves professionals who care for children, adolescents, and families with
HIV infection and AIDS. The Center offers education, consultation, technical assistance,
and training for health and social service professionals.
Online Learning-Adbusters / Adbusters Cultural Jammers Headquarters. http://www.adbusters.org . Such notorious
conditions in advertisement as Joe Camel have attracted attention to the media, who
covered the story for a short time before heading on to other national events to boost
ratings and rake in money. Adbusters is tired of this; they believe the media is one of
the many corrupt branches of the country that needs to be replaced. Adbusters is the
new-generation of media which is not interested in making money. This non-profit
organization runs its own magazine covering stories they think are important and that
contain what they call "Spoof Ads" - advertisements discouraging the product.
For instance, their spoof of the sophisticated Joe Camel is Joe Chemo, a camel hooked up
to an IV and facing his last days from a tobacco overdose. Adbusters is a site that
promotes free speech and anti-advertising.
Australian School Health Initiatives
The American Journal of Health Behavior,
January 1999 issue, carries a biographical sketch and photo of one of the leading figures
in school health promotion, Dr. Cheryl Perry, of the University of Minnesota School of
Public Health. Access the journal web pages at:
Most U.S. Playgrounds Unsafe http://www.momsrefuge.com/news/9904/index.html#11
A majority of America's playgrounds at schools, parks and child care centers are unfit for
children and, on average, barely receive a passing grade, according to a year-long study
by the National Program for Playground Safety.
Child and Youth Health have started a new website for young people from 12 to 25 years.
http://www.cyh.com This has social, sexual,
psychological and physical health information which is written in Youth-friendly language
- could be useful to support curriculum as well as for young people themselves. Also see
the parenting/child health topics which cover many behavioral and health issues for
children and young people.
Helping Students Deal with a Move - http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr134.shtml
- Student Mobility: Helping Children Cope With a Moving Experience. "Moving scares
you at first; it might even make you sad. All your friends are in one place, and you're in
another. I was scared when I moved. I worried if I would even make new friends and if
anyone would like me...." Those are the words of eighth grader Jenne Terre, but they
sum up the feelings and experiences of many children who move each year. Whether it is
across town or across the country, moving can be very stressful. Moving can greatly affect
a child's concentration and behavior in school, and children may have trouble articulating
their feelings. But teachers can help alleviate some of the stress that surrounds an