If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

CHAPTER 8:
APPLICATIONS IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS

Table of Contents

Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones

Archived Headlines

Supplementary References

Supplementary Websites


Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones

TV Shows Aimed at Blacks Carry More Junk-Food Ads.  (Reuters Health, February 27, 2003) - According to a recently published study, primetime television shows with predominantly African American characters contain more junk-food ads and overweight characters than other primetime shows.

 


Archived Headlines



SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES

Braden, S., & Mayo, M. (1999). Culture, community development and representation. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL 34(3): 191-204, July.
    ABSTRACT: http://www3.oup.co.uk/cdj/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_03

De Grasse, C. E., O'Connor, A. M., Boulet, J., Edwards, N., Bryant, H., Breithaupt, K. (1999). Changes in Canadian women's mammography rates since the implementation of mass screening programs. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 927-929.
    The Journal’s Home Page is: THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study reports on Canadian mammography rates between 1990, when mass screening programs were launched, and 1994/95. Methods. Mammography rates from 2 national surveys were compared according to the presence of a provincial screening program. Results. Mammography rates among women aged 50 to 69 years (the targeted group) increased significantly, by 16%; increases were twice as high in provinces with screening programs, Among women in their 40s (nontargeted group), the changes were insignificant and independent of screening program status. Conclusions. Screening programs appear to have influenced the mammography rates of targeted women aged 50 to 69 years.

Fullilove, M.T., Green, L., & Fullilove, R.E. III. (1999). Building momentum: An ethnographic study of inner-city redevelopment. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 840-844.
    The Journal’s Home Page is at: THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.
    ABSTRACT: One factor contributing to the decay of inner-city areas, and to consequent excess mortality, is the massive loss of housing. For complete abstract, go to: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/89/6/840
.

Harvey, P. W. J., Steele, J., & Jeffery, R. W.  (1998). The Development and Evaluation of Lighten Up, an Australian Community-based Weight Management Program. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION 13 (1): 8-11.

Hutin, Y. J. F., Bell, B. P., Marshall, K. L. E., Schaben, C. P., Dart, M., Quinlisk, M. P., & Shapiro, C. N. (1999). Identifying target groups for a potential vaccination program during a hepatitis A communitywide outbreak. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 918-921.
    The Journal’s Home Page is: THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study sought to identify groups for targeted vaccination during a communitywide hepatitis A outbreak in 1996. Methods. Residents of the Sioux City, Iowa, metropolitan area reported with hepatitis A between September 1995 and August 1996 were sampled and compared with population-based controls. Results. In comparison with SI controls, the 40 case patients were more likely to inject methamphetamine, to attend emergency rooms more often than other health care facilities, and to have a family member who used the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Conclusions. Groups at increased risk of hepatitis A can be identified and accessed for vaccination during communitywide outbreaks.

Israel, B. A., Schulz, A. J., Parker, E. A., & Becker, A. B.  Review of community-based research: Assessing Partnership Approaches to Improve Public Health. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 173-202.  ABSTRACT

Khan, N. A. (1999). Community cooperation in a voluntary environmental project: some lessons from Swansea, Wales. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL 34(3): 205-218, July.
    ABSTRACT: http://www3.oup.co.uk/cdj/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_03

McGowan, P., & Green, L.W. (1999). Community and home self-help approaches to smoking cessation. Chap. 5 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan, P., Ratner, P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y., Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D. (Eds.), SMOKING CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Institute of Health Promotion Research, for the BC Ministry of Health.
   A systematic review of the research literature on ways in which self-help materials and supports can strengthen the effectiveness of smoking cessation. http://www.commhealth.ihpr.ubc.ca/mohscr/Ch5commu.PDF

Mitchell, S. A., & Olds, R. S. (1999). Psychological and perceived situational predictors of physical activity: a cross-sectional analysis. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14 (3): 305-313.
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify psychological and self-reported situational factors that are associated with degree of involvement in moderate-intensity physical activity at various stages of adult life. The study is grounded in Personal Investment Theory which proposes that personal incentives, sense of self and perceived options determine behavior. Participants aged 18 and above, selected by random-digit dialing, were invited to participate in a study on physical activity habits. Of 251 who agreed to participate, 41.4% were male (N =104) and 58.6% were female (N = 147), These participants were asked the number of days per week that they engaged in physical activity which accumulated a total of 30 min or more. The 140 participants who indicated one or more days of activity answered questions concerning personal incentives for physical activity, sense of self and perceived barriers. Stepwise multiple regression analyses and discriminant function analysis indicated that Personal Investment Theory is able to predict up to 29% of the variance associated with voluntary participation in moderate-intensity physical activity. Discussion focuses on implications for physical activity programs for citizens at different stages of their adult life.

Motteux, N., Nel, E., Rowntree, K., & Binns, T. (1999). Exploring community environmental knowledge through participatory methods in the Kat River valley, South Africa. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL 34(3): 227-231, July.
    ABSTRACT: http://www3.oup.co.uk/cdj/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_03

Onyx, J., & Dovey, K. (1999). Cohabitation in the time of cholera: praxis in the community sector in the era of corporate capitalism. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL 34(3): 179-190, July.
    ABSTRACT: http://www3.oup.co.uk/cdj/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_03

Paskett, E.D., Tatum, C.M., D'Agostino, R. Jr, Rushing, J., Velez, R., Michielutte, R., Dignan, M. (1999). Community-based interventions to improve breast and cervical cancer screening: Results of the Forsyth County Cancer Screening (FoCaS) Project. CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION 8 (5): 453-459.
    ABSTRACT: The FoCaS (Forsyth County Cancer Screening) Project was one of sis projects funded by the National Cancer Institute "Public Health Approaches to Breast and Cervical Cancer" initiative. The goal of this project was to improve the use of breast and cervical cancer screening among low-income, predominately African-American, women age 40 and older. Strategies implemented in the intervention city included public health clinic in-reach strategies (chart reminders, exam room prompts, in-service meetings, and patient-directed literature) and community outreach strategies (educational sessions, literature distribution, community events, media, and church programs). Baseline and follow-up data from independent cross-sectional samples in both the intervention and comparison cities were used to evaluate the effects of the intervention program. A total of 248 women were surveyed at baseline, and 302 women were surveyed 3 years later at follow-up. The proportion of women reporting regular use of mammography increased (31 to 56%; P <0.001) in the intervention city. In the comparison city, a nonsignificant (ns) increase in mammography utilization was observed (33 to 40%; P =ns), Pap smear screening rates also improved in the intervention city (73 to 87%; P = 0.003) but declined in the comparison city (67 to 60%; P =ns), These relationships hold in multivariate models. The results suggest that a multifaceted intervention can improve screening rates in low-income populations. These results have important implications for community-based research and efforts in underserved populations.

Ramirez, A.G., Villarreal, R., McAlister, A., Gallion, K.J., Suarez, L., & Gomez, P. (1999). Advancing the role of participatory communication in the diffusion of cancer screening among Hispanics. JOURNAL OF HEALTH COMMUNICATION 4 (1): 31-36.
    ABSTRACT: Based on previously demonstrated methods, a cancer prevention program combining media and interpersonal communication was conducted in a Texas border city (Brownnsville) in 1995-1996. To evaluate the program a quasi-experimental panel design study followed 107 women in a program site and 105 women in a comparison site from 1994 to 1996. Women in the program site reported an increase in levels of Pap screening adherence.

Savaya, R., Moreno, N., Lipschitz, O., Arset, N. (1999). The application of a model of systematic planned practice to participatory community work. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL 34(3): 240-251, July.
    ABSTRACT: http://www3.oup.co.uk/cdj/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_03

Schuftan, C. (1999). Sustainable development beyond ethical pronouncements: the role of civil society and networking. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL 34(3): 232-239, July.
    ABSTRACT: http://www3.oup.co.uk/cdj/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_03

Sherwood, N. E., Morton, N., Jeffery, R. W., French, S. A., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Falkner, N. H. (1998).  Consumer Preferences in Format and Type of Community-based Weight Control Programs. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION 13 (1): 12-18.

Sorensen, G., Emmons, K., Hunt, M. K., & Johnston, D.  (1998). Implications of the results of community intervention trials. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 379-416.
    ABSTRACT

Sparks, R., & Green, L.W. (1999). Mass media in support of smoking cessation. Chap. 4 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan, P., Ratner, P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y., Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D. (Eds.), SMOKING CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Institute of Health Promotion Research, for the BC Ministry of Health.
    A systematic review of the research literature on ways in which the mass media can enhance smoking cessation effectiveness. http://www.commhealth.ihpr.ubc.ca/mohscr/Chap4media.PDF

Szwarcwald, C. L., Bastos, F.I., Viacava, F., & de Andrade, C. L. T. (1999). Income inequality and homicide rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 845-850.
    The Journal’s Home Page is at: THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study determined the effect of income inequality on homicide rates in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted an ecological study at 2 geographical levels, municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro and administrative regions in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The association between homicide and income inequality was tested by multiple regression procedures, with adjustment for other socioeconomic indicators. Results. For the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, no association between homicide and income concentration was found, an outcome that can be explained by the municipalities' different degrees of urbanization. However, for the administrative regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the 2 income inequality indicators were strongly correlated with the outcome variable (P < .01). Higher homicide rates were found precisely in the sector of the city that has the greatest concentration of slum residents and the highest degree of income inequality. Conclusions. The findings suggest that social policies specifically aimed at low-income urban youth, particularly programs to reduce the harmful effects of relative deprivation, may have an important impact on the homicide rate.

 

SUPPLEMENTARY WEBSITES

WHO Collaborating Centre on Community Safety Promotion, Karolinska Institute.  http://www.fafo.no/
        Includes the history and publications of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre, Safe Community News, a list and description of formally designated safe communities with basic demographic information on each, criteria for safe communities; affiliated Safe Community Support Centers; upcoming conferences; travelling seminars; networks; a description of the Swedish Bicycle Helmet Initiative; conceptual and operational aspects of safety and safety promotion; descriptions of the Centre's safety promotion and injury prevention research, their International M.P.H. Course on Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention and their International Ph.D. Course on Safety Promotion Research and scholarships.

The Safe Communities Foundation, funded by five Canadian banks and four large industries, and the governments of Ontario and Alberta, this public-private sector partnership since 1996 has developed safe communities programs and tools to reduce workplace, home, and recreational injuries.
http://www.safecommunities.ca

VincentWeb (short for, Violence and INjury Control through Education,
Networking and Training on the world wide Web
)
is a free distance learning
course that offers an introduction to injury control and violence prevention. Continuing education units are available from the UNC School of Public Health and the Society for Public Health Education for a modest fee.
    The course features materials presented during the June 1997 videoconference, "Getting Started in Injury Control and Violence Prevention," in a web-based format that expands upon and supplements the televised program. Contributors include Sue Mallonee, Mark Rosenberg, Carol Runyan, Steve Teret, Janice Yuwiler, Jackie Moore, and Bob Parker.
    This course is intended to help local-level practitioners begin the process of developing an injury prevention effort. Though it is geared primarily to newcomers to the field, there are many elements that would be useful to people with injury control experience.
    Visit VincentWeb at: http://www.sph.unc.edu/vincentweb

Website on Public Service Announcements, how to prepare them and get them placed, and bibliographies on research about whether they work. It is maintained by a commercial organization but there is little self-promotion. Go to: www.psaresearch.com

AEGIS - http://www.aegis.com/ Excellent overall source for AIDS and HIV related information. Compiles articles about AIDS/HIV from international news sources, medical journals, patient newsletters, and other dependable sources daily. Archived articles may be searched and retrieved. AIDS related law sources, chat rooms, bulletin boards, and an extensive list of links are among the many other resources offered through this site.

Local Media Support Strategies - Norway - Fafo is developing a framework for assessing when and how support of local media should be considered to facilitate conflict-resolution processes. Though local media can play a key role in both the process of democratisation and the resolution of ethnic and political conflicts, little has been done to develop guidelines for determining under what circumstances such support can be most helpful. The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs requested this work, which may lead to a larger Norwegian initiative to develop capacity in this area. Http://www.fafo.no/ Contact Lena Endresen lena.endresen@fafo.no 

"Media Community" is a platform for media practitioners, users and institutions in developing countries. The community is primarily 15,000 media professionals who participated in programmes and workshops of the Radio Nederland Training Centre. The community uses the internet, including free E-mail and bulletin board discussions, to allow members to learn, discuss and get support in their media-production related work. http://www.mediacommunity.org/

The WHO Collaborating Centre for Research on Healthy Cities: http://www.gvo.unimaas.nl/who-city/news8.html

The Association for the Study and Development of Community: 12522 Hialeah Way, Gaithersburg, MD 20878; 301.519.0722 (voice); 301.519.0724 (fax); www.CapableCommunity.com