If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

CHAPTER 6:
ADMINISTRATIVE AND POLICY ASSESSMENT: TURNING THE CORNER FROM PRECEDE TO PROCEED

Table of Contents

Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones

Archived Headlines

Supplementary Resources

Books and Reviews

Other References

Supplementary Websites


Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones


Archived Headlines



SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES

 

    Journal References

Armstrong, B., Cohall, A. T., Vaughan, R. D. Scott, M., Tiezzi, L., McCarthy, J. F. (1999). Involving men in reproductive health: The young men's clinic. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 902-905.
    The Journal’s Home Page is at: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This report describes the population of young men who use the Young Men's Clinic in New York City, presents a profile of their reproductive behaviors, and describes the clinic's model of service delivery Methods. Data were gathered through a routine clinic visit form administered by clinic stair. Results. The clinic sees approximately 1200 predominately Dominican young men each year from a wide range of clinical and mental health services. Two thirds of clients had ever been sexually active, three quarters had ever used birth control, and 69% had used birth control at their last sexual encounter. Conclusions. The Young Men's Clinic may serve as a model for health care delivery to adolescent and young adult males.

Baum, A., & Cohen, L. (1998). Successful behavioral interventions to prevent cancer: The Example of Skin Cancer. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 319-333.
    ABSTRACT

Burke, V., Giangiulio, N., Gillam, H. F., Beilin, L. J., Houghton, S., Milligan, R. A. K. (1999). Health promotion in couples adapting to a shared lifestyle. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14 (2): 269-288.  
    ABSTRACT: In a pilot health promotion program for couples, we aimed to build on re-evaluation of attitudes to health occurring early in marriage, and social support provided by partners, to address the weight gain and physical inactivity which may follow marriage, A randomized controlled trial lasting 16 weeks used six modules focusing on nutrition and physical activity but including information about alcohol and smoking. Thirty-four of 39 couples enrolled completed the study. Self-efficacy for diet and physical activity increased significantly in the program group while ranking of barriers to healthy behaviours decreased and ranking of beliefs about the benefits of health behaviours increased relative to controls. Intake of fat, take-away foods and alcohol decreased, and consumption of fruit, vegetables and reduced-fat foods increased significantly in the program group, Physical activity in the program group increased by the equivalent of 50 min of brisk walking weekly but did not differ significantly from controls. Cholesterol fell significantly by 6% more in the program group than controls, In focus groups, participants unanimously found the program valuable. Health promotion programs designed for couples can achieve short-term changes in behaviour and risk factors. Larger trials with longer-term monitoring, incorporating feedback from focus groups and cost-benefit analysis, are in progress.

Curtin, T. R. C., & Nelson, E. A. S. (1999). Economic and health efficiency of education funding policy. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 48 (11): 1599-1611.   

DeJong, W., & ingson, R. (1998). Strategies to reduce driving under the influence of alcohol.   ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 359-378.
    ABSTRACT

Donahue, D. M. (1999). Service-learning for preservice teachers: ethical dilemmas for practice. TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION 15(6): 685-695, June 21, 1999.

Dugbatey, K. (1999). National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980-1990). SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 49 (2): 223-239, July.

Dunn, T. G., & Shriner, C. (1999). Deliberate practice in teaching: what teachers do for self-improvement. TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION 15(6): 631-651.

Ghaith, G. & Shaaban, K. (1999). The relationship between perceptions of teaching concerns, teacher efficacy, and selected teacher characteristics. TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION 15(5): 487-496.

Iannantuono, A., & Eyles, J. (1999). Environmental health metanarratives: an analysis of policy making in Ontario, Canada. HEALTH AND PLACE 5 (2): 139-156.
    The Journal's website is: http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/jnlnr/03092 .

Jones, B. D. (1999). Bounded rationality. ANNUAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 2: 297-321.
 
    
ABSTRACT

Lerer, L. B. (1999). Health impact assessment. HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING 14 (2): 198-203, June.
    ABSTRACT: There is growing concern about the environmental, social and health consequences of development projects. Environmental impact assessment (EIA), which aims to address this concern, is often conducted with little input from the health sector. Quantifying the health benefits and risks of a project or policy requires an innovative synthesis of socio-demographic, environmental health, epidemiological and health systems data. This article provides a simple framework for health impact assessment (HIA), a method for describing and measuring the impact of a project or policy on health and wellbeing, and designing appropriate interventions. The key components of HIA are: review of available data; research and identification of priority health issues through the use of rapid assessment methods; design of a health action plan with stakeholder consultation; implementation of interventions and the monitoring of long-term health impacts. HIA can assist in ensuring that development and policies are 'health promoting' and that the health sector plays a meaningful role in EIA.

Lerner, B. H. (1999). Great expectations: Historical perspectives on genetic breast cancer testing. AMERICAN JOURNAL PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 938-944.
    The Journal’s Home Page is: http://www.apha.org/news/publications/journal/AJPH2.html.
    ABSTRACT: Women who test positive for a genetic breast cancer marker may have more than a 50% chance of developing the disease. Although past screening technologies have sought to identify actual breast cancers, as opposed to predisposition, the history of screening may help predict the societal response to genetic testing. For decades, educational messages have encouraged women to find breast cancers as early as possible. Such messages have fostered the popular assumption that immediately discovered and treated breast cancers are necessarily more curable. Research, however, has shown that screening improves the prognosis of some-but not all-breast cancers, and also that it may lead to unnecessary interventions. The dichotomy between the advertised value of early detection and its actual utility has caused particular controversy in the United States, where the cultural climate emphasizes the importance of obtaining all possible medical information and acting on it. Conclusion: Early detection has probably helped to lower overall breast cancer mortality. But it has proven hard to praise aggressive screening without exaggerating its merits. Women considering genetic breast cancer testing should weigh the benefits and limitations of early knowledge.

McColl, A., Gabbay, J., & Roderick, P.  (1998). Improving health outcomes - a review of case studies from English health authorities. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 302-311.
   
ABSTRACT

Mckinney, M., Sexton, T., Meyerson, M. J. (1999). Validating the Efficacy-Based Change Model. TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION 15(5): 471-485.

Meek, G. A., & Behets, D. (1999). Physical education teachers' concerns towards teaching. TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION 15(5): 497-505.

Oldenburg, B., Glanz, K., & Ffrench, M. (1999). The application of staging models to the understanding of health behavior change and the promotion of health. PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH 14 (3): 503-516.
    ABSTRACT: Health behaviour change programs should be based not only on relevant and demonstrably effective strategies, but also on relevant theories or models. Models such as Social Learning Theory/Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model of Change, for example, may be applied independently or together in a way that may lead to improved intervention outcomes. This paper examines staged approaches to health behaviour change and promoting health, and illustrates how key concepts and variables from other models can be used in conjunction with such a framework to develop more tailored and targeted strategies. An overview of the literature in this field is provided, as well as a description of several case studies where interventions based on matching of theories or models have been successful. The potential for extension of the application of such theories from an individual framework to multiple levels, and at an organizational level or environmental level are explored, whereby the potential reach of intervention programs beyond a relatively small number of individuals is increased while still maintaining acceptable program exposure.

Ostrom, E. (1999). Coping with tragedies of the commons. ANNUAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 2: 493-535.
    
ABSTRACT

Pierce, J. P., Gilpin, E. A., Berry, C. C. (1998). Has the California Tobacco Control Program Reduced Smoking?  JAMA - JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 280(10):  893-899, SEP 09.

Reppucci, N. D., Woolard, J. D., & Fried, C. S. (1999). Social, community, and preventive interventions. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY 50: 387-418.
    ABSTRACT

Rivara, F. P., Thompson, D. C., Patterson, M. Q., & Thompson, R. S. (1998). Preventioin of bicycle-related injuries: Helmets, Education, and Legislation. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 293-318.
    ABSTRACT

Shepperd, S., & Iliffe, S. (1998).  The effectiveness of hospital at home compared with in-patient hospital care: a systematic review.  JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 344-350.
    ABSTRACT

Shiffman, S., Mason, K. M. & Henningfield, J. E. (1998). Tobacco dependence treatments: Review and Prospectus.  ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 335-358.
    ABSTRACT

Wade, R. C., Anderson, J. B., Yarbrough, D. B., Pickeral, T., Erickson, J. B., & Kromer, T. (1999). Novice teachers' experiences of community service-learning. TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION 15(6): 667-684, June 21, 1999.

Weick, K. E., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Organizational change and development. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY 50: 361-386.
   
ABSTRACT

    Books and Reviews

APHA Advocates' Handbook: A Guide for Effective Public Health Advocacy (Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 1998). This advocacy handbook is designed to assist the public health professional in individual and coalition advocacy efforts and to provide resources for influencing the legislative and regulatory processes; advocating public health at the national state, and community level; working with new partners in coalition; utilizing the media; and learning more about how APHA affects public health policy. Advocacy Success Stories are provided to share examples of how public health professionals are making a difference as public health advocates. This handbook is an excellent resource for public health professionals who wish to be effective at advocacy -- to educate the public and policy makers about public health. Includes: What is Advocacy: Why Do it?; Advocacy Techniques and Tools; Directory of the US Congress; Public Health-Related Committees of the US Congress; Guidelines for Federal and State Employees; Health Website Directory. 170 pages, 3 ring-binder (Stock No. 800/WB). Order on http://www.apha.org/media/orderinfo.htm $25.00 Nonmembers $20.00 APHA Members

    Other References

Donated Television Airplay of Colorectal Cancer Education Public Service Announcements --- United States, 1999--2002.  Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52(10), March 14, 2003.
   

For the UK White Paper on A Healthier Nation, with health objectives, July 1999, go to: http://www.doh.gov.uk/ohn.htm
    A part of the report is on reducing health inequalities. An executive summary of this and the full document in PDF format are available at: http://www.doh.gov.uk/ohn/inequalities.htm

World No-Tobacco Day --- May 31, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48(19), May 21, 1999. 

Illegal Sales of Cigarettes to Minors --- Ciudad Juárez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48(19), May 21, 1999.
 

Determination of Nicotine, pH, and Moisture Content of Six U.S. Commercial Moist Snuff Products --- Florida, January-February 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48(19), May 21, 1999. 
   

SUPPLEMENTARY WEBSITES

U.S. SURGEON GENERAL LAUNCHES MEN'S HEALTH RESOURCES AT HEALTHFINDER.GOV (Washington, DC, June 8, 1999) - Surgeon General David Satcher today unveiled new features and services oriented to men's heath at www.healthfinder.gov, the government gateway Web site for health information. Healthfinder(r) brings under one umbrella the vast health information resources of the federal government and its many partners. Healthfinder(r) offers a broad range of reliable consumer resources and serves, on average, more than 350,000 consumers each month - more than 5.3 million visitors since it was launched.

Health Education Board Scotland. HEBS Research Centre
http://www.hebs.scot.nhs.uk/research
Country of Origin: United Kingdom - Scotland.
The HEBS Research Centre gives access to a range of published researchdocuments from HEBS, and provides the latest information about researchevents in HEBS and elsewhere. The website also contains links to research in other national and international organizations.

Standards for advertising and social marketing. All advertisers (public, private and non-profit) have an obligation to adhere to the standards determined by the industry for creative strategy and execution. In Canada, the Advertising Standards Council (ASC) has clear guidelines on what is acceptable advertising or social marketing messages and methods as they relate to characterization of specific groups, how advertising may be targeted to specific groups like children, and how certain product categories must be handled. See the Canadian ASC guidelines at www.adstandards.com.

You Are What You Eat - http://www.thinkquest.org/library/lib/site_sum.html?lib_id454&team_id=11163 - This guide to nutrition includes a food database along with food counter and food planner tools; an introduction to why nutrition is important; information on food labels, eating out, value of diets and starting an exercise program; and, profiles of vitamins and minerals.

"MEDIA BEAT": This web site covers selected articles from news media coverage of communication, development and change trends, programs and policies, especially in developing countries. Articles compiled by The Communication Initiative in their summarised, full and archived forms can be found at: http://www.comminit.com/drum_beat.html . Because the length of some URL's means that they run to two lines, it may be necessary to copy and paste to the address bar on your browser. Media Beat is produced through THE COMMUNICATION INITIATIVE partnership - The Rockefeller Foundation, UNICEF, USAID, WHO, BBC World Service, CIDA, Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs, The European Union, Soul City, The Panos Institute, UNAIDS. Examples of new items about the media and development in developing countries on the "Media Beat" web site:
1. Health Messages Through Drama, Song And Dance - (Victoria, Seychelles Nation - June 9, 1999)- A newly-formed youth group, the Youth Action Group (YAG), which is affiliated to the Alliance of Solidarity for the Family (ASFF), enthralled an audience during the team's premiere public performance. The members of the group passed on messages relating to adolescent reproductive health through well articulated dances and humorous plays.
http://www.seychelles-online.com.sc/f_NATION/todays.htm .
2. The Caribbean And Poverty - (Cana News Agency - Washington, US Cana June 9, 1999)- St Kitts and Nevis Ambassador to the Organisation of American States (OAS), Dr Osbert Liburd says that poverty eradication and creation of a social safety net were important for the Caribbean. He told the OAS Monday that tertiary education is a vital means of lifting the region's people out of poverty. http://www.cananews.com/news.htm .
3. US Assistance - (Addis Abada, Ethiopia, June 4, 1999) -The United States "will continue assistance to NGOs (non- governmental organizations) in project based assistance, but non-project based assistance has been suspended ... for the time being." Ms. Susan Rice, Assistant Secretary of State, for African Affairs of the United States, spoke these words on the continuing conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea.  Addis Tribune.

 

DATABASE OF FOOD AND NUTRITION SOFTWARE. Maintained by the Food and Nutrition Information Center of the National Agricultural Library, United States Department of Agriculture, 1998.
http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/extext/000053.html#xtocid2381846.

The Benton Foundation works to realize the social benefits made possible by the public interest use of communications.   http://www.benton.org  or  contact Larry Kirkman at larryk@benton.org                                                                             

Women's Net is designed to enable South African women to use the Internet to find the people, issues, resources and tools needed for women's social action.  http://www.womensnet.org.za  or  contact Rebecca Holmes at rholmes@sn.apc.org                                                  

SANGONeT - a regional electronic information and communications network for development and human rights workers in Southern Africa.  http://sn.apc.org/ or email info@sn.apc.org  

The Community Networks Group is a research forum to examine the current and future role of information infrastructure by and for communities. It provides data and analyses to and from partnerships with equipment manufacturers, service providers, government groups and the media. For more information, visit http://opensource.mit.edu/pipermail/discuss/2002-May/thread.html#97

UNAIDS' "Best Practice Collection" is a collection of documents and materials regarding HIV/AIDS programming information and advocacy.  Access to press releases, fact sheets and the Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic issued in Dec. 1997.  For more information, visit http://www.unaids.org/highband/bpc/whatis.html

WWW.GUIDELINE.GOV -- NEW RESOURCE FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONALS - The National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) www.guideline.gov was launched on January 14, 1999. This is an internet-based source of information on evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. There is no charge for this service. It was developed by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) in partnership with the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American Association of Health Plan (AAHP). Submissions for the NGC will continue on an ongoing basis.

The Rockefeller Foundation Network on Development Communication has developed a series of slide presentations available on the World Wide Web. The slides outline the considerations in assessing organizational, community and communications capabilities and needs around the following considerations:
    1. Improving the effectiveness of the contribution communication can make to development requires an assessment of trends in both communications structures and development agenda and priorities. The Network's analysis is based on a number of observations: information technologies, media liberalization and fragmentation, and economic and cultural globalization have created new communications environments in developing countries; there is still an information chasm between South and North and between elites and the general population in the South; and, the development agenda increasingly emphasizes long term actions people can take relevant to their own circumstances, as reflected in the growing call for sustainability, capacity building and participation and an increased focus on gender and culture. These trends heighten the need and create a positive environment for communication for social change policies and interventions. Full Presentation: http://www.comminit.com/power_point/comm_dev
    2. While recognizing the value of communication strategies focused on individual behavior change, there is a need for communication strategies and activities to move: "from [present focus on] people as objects of change... to people and communities as agents of their own change; from the design and communication of 'messages'... to fostering dialogue and debate; from a focus on individual behaviors... to a focus on social norms, policies, culture and a supportive environment".
    3. Therefore the Communication for Social Change approach is to view communication as "a process of public and private dialogue through which people define who they are, what they want, and how they can get it". The emphasis is on "supporting improvements to the lives of the politically and economically marginalized ... informed by principles of tolerance, self-determination, equity, social justice and active participation for all". Full Presentation: http://www.comminit.com/other_presentations/cfsc_pres
    4.The Network draws its analysis and direction from a variety of programming    experiences.
    5. Community Radio - 'Pulsar' was initiated in 1996 to provide community radio stations in Latin America with stories and information relevant to civil society. Pulsar's central focus is the right to communicate. It strives to increase the credibility and impact of community radio in order to promote pluralism and participation at local, national and regional levels. http://www.pulsar.org/

The March 1999 issue of the British Medical Journal carries a report on the implementation process of putting Cochrane evidence into practice for children with acute otitis media; substantial reduction in antibiotic use has resulted. For details, the BMJ site is
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/318/7185/715   .

Social marketing resources 
http://www.social-marketing.com
    Social-Marketing.com contains online information resources for social marketing. The website provides information on social marketing and health communications, and contains a library section and links to free publications.

Video and related resources for planning communications and social marketing aspects of a health promotion program:

  • The Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs Media/ Materials Clearinghouse, http://www.jhuccp.org/mmc/
  • Television Bureau of Canada Resources and Video Services, www.tvb.ca/videolib.htm
  • Harvard Business School Publishing at www.hbsp.harvard.edu
  • The Drum Beat/Communications Initiative Network on international programs and developing countries, www.comminit.com
  • The Academy for Educational Development publication "Thinking like a Marketer" from the University of South Florida at (813) 974-4867.

GUIDE TO FEDERAL PROGRAMS AND SERVICES FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH. (1999). Produced biennially, the Guide to Federal Programs and Services for Children and Youth is a unique reference that regroups federal programs and services related to children and youth. Intended for parents, caregivers, organizations, educational institutions, and agencies working with young people, the Guide is organized thematically (health, families, research, etc.). The Guide to Federal Programs and Services for Children and Youth is available free of charge in print format and on the Internet on Health Canada's Childhood and Youth Web site at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/childhood-youth. To obtain a copy, please contact the:
Childhood and Youth Division
Health Promotion and Programs Branch
Health Canada
Address Locator: 1909C2
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1B4
Telephone: (613) 957-3436
Facsimile: (613) 952-1556
E-mail: children@www.hc-sc.gc.ca

ADVOCACY. An alphabetical listing of all the U.S. Senators are available at: http://www.senate.gov/contacting/index.cfm If you don't know the names of your Senators, you may click on the icon "By State" and locate your Senators by your state name. The following is a MODEL LETTER to advocate Senate action:

The Honorable (senator name)
U.S. Senate
Washington, D.C. 20510

Dear Senator (name):

I understand the Senate is currently voting on...[name of the bill or the issue, e.g., managed care reform issues]. As a constituent and a member of...[name one or more of your affiliations that would lend greater weight to your opinion, e.g., the American Public Health Association], I am writing to urge your support for [identify the specific section or the whole bill, e.g., "each reform provision that will come before you for a vote"]. At a minimum, please vote "yes" for the following: [If it is not a simple yes or no for the whole bill, list the specific provisions for which you encourage a "yes" vote, and each for which you advocate a "no" vote].