If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*
EDUCATIONAL AND ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIOR AND ENVIRONMENTS
Table of Contents
Power Point Slides:
Zerhouni Says Brain Research Is Key To Future Health Behavior Success (Health Behavior News Service, March 3, 2003) - National Institutes of Health Director Elias Zerhouni predicts that brain and behavior studies, along with efforts to target disease at the molecular level, are the future of medical research that emphasizes prevention as much as cures.
Doctor Fights for Warnings On Viagra's Ads and Labels (Wall Street
Journal, March 3, 2003) - Since last year, 43 new cases of syphilis and 14 new
HIV infections have been diagnosed in Viagra users in San Francisco. This
occurrence has provides evidence that Viagra use may be associated with unsafe
Abraham, C., Clift, S., & Grabowski, P. Cognitive predictors of adherence to malaria prophylaxis regimens on return from a malarious region: a prospective study. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 48 (11): 1641-1654.Aaral, S.O., Hughes, J.P., Stoner, B., Whittington, W., Handsfield, H.H., Anderson, R.M., & Holmes, K.K. (1999). Sexual mixing patterns in the spread of gonococcal and chlamydial infections. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 825-833.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study sought to define, among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees, (1) patterns of sex partner selection, (2) relative risks for gonococcal or Chlamydial infection associated with each mixing pattern, and (3) selected links and potential and actual bridge populations. Methods. Mixing matrices were computed based on characteristics of the study participants and their partners. Risk of infection was determined in study participants with various types of partners, and odds ratios were used to estimate relative risk of infection for discordant vs concordant partnerships. Results. Partnerships discordant in terms of race/ethnicity, age, education, and number of partners were associated with significant risk for gonorrhea and Chlamydial infection. In low-prevalence subpopulations, within-subpopulation mixing was associated with Chlamydial infection, and direct links with high-prevalence subpopulations were associated with gonorrhea. Conclusions. Mixing patterns influence the risk of specific infections, and they should be included in risk assessments for individuals and in the design of screening, health education, and partner notification strategies for populations. Bermudez, J. (1999). Personality and health-protective behavior. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY 13 (2), p.83-103.
ABSTRACT: Over the last decades much research has been devoted to the analysis of psychosocial factors associated with the development of health problems. However, less attention has been paid to mechanisms explaining why people keep engaging in risky behaviors and do not develop, instead, those habits that could increase their quality of life; To answer these questions, this review article follows two lines of research. The main hypothesis of the first line is that there are personality characteristics that predispose the development of certain patterns of behavior. The second line is focused on the analysis of the psychological processes that, together with situational factors, explain what behavior is initiated and how it is maintained or changed. The main purpose of this paper is to review these two lines of research: what their main contributions are and what the problems they face are. Block, D. E., Hutton, S. J., & Braun, B. (1999). Health Concerns of Adults: Qualitative Data of the Bridge to Health Survey. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR 23 (3):163-171 .
Brug, J., Steenhuis, I., van Assema, P., Glanz, K., De Vries, H. (1999). Computer-tailored
nutrition education: differences between two interventions. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14 (2): 249-256.
Gascoigne, P., Mason, M.D., & Roberts, E. (1999). Factors affecting presentation and delay in patients with testicular cancer: Results of a qualitative study. PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY 8 (2): 144-154.
ABSTRACT: A qualitative study was undertaken with men treated for testicular tumors, to ascertain how they interpreted their symptoms and the factors which influenced a decision to consult a physician. The research was undertaken with six men who had been diagnosed as having testicular tumors. Interviews were also conducted with four wives and one mother. The findings showed that giving men information on testicular cancer may not guarantee early presentation. Symptoms were not generally attributed to cancer and the one patient who practiced self-examination had delayed seeking help for 6 months. The extent to which symptoms affected the patient's lifestyle was also a factor in the decision-making process, as was the checking of symptoms with other family members. Wives were often pivotal in persuading men to seek help. The discovery of testicular symptoms produced emotional responses which included embarrassment and fear of both cancer and castration. There was evidence of strong feelings of masculine identity bound up with the appearance of 'normal' genitals. Provider-delay was identified in four cases and was associated with misattribution of symptoms by physicians and the failure to initiate specialist referral. Delay was under-recorded in the hospital notes in all cases where presentation was not immediate. Gilbert, L. K. (1999). The female condom (TM) (FC) in the US: Lessons learned. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): A1-A28.
ABSTRACT: Prior to the introduction of the female condom (TM) (FC) no effective, safe, reversible, female-controlled contraceptive methods that prevented both unintended pregnancy and STDs, including HIV existed. FC was invented in the mid-1980's and approved by the FDA in 1993. FC is a polyurethane sheath with rings on each end, one to insert into the vagina and the other to provide coverage for the external genitalia. FC is durable, odorless, long-lasting, and impermeable to temperature, humidity, and oil-and water-based lubricants. While many people are allergic to latex acid/or nonoxynol-9, FC causes few, if any allergic reactions or other vaginal irritation, cytotoxicity, or mutagenicity. Contraceptive efficacy studies in the US found that FC compared favorably with other female barrier options, the ranges varying widely dependent upon correct and consistent usage. FC tested in vitro and in vivo was found to be impenetrable to trichomoniasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, hepatitis B virus, Phi X174 and HIV. Participants in FC acceptability studies reported the following benefits: caused no side effects (not systemic), required no health care services to fit, prescribe, refill, insert or remove, required no partner consent; and provided a feeling of safety It could be inserted in advance of sexual activity; allowed more sexual spontaneity and intercourse before full erection of the penis; covered internal and external genitalia; and, warmed to body temperature. Further, it was reported to feel natural and clean, had no odor or taste, was soft, non-drying, and nonconstricting, enhanced sexual stimulation ,and reduced painful intercourse. Finally, it increased women's bargaining power, provided incremental gains from expanded contraceptive choices, and was easily reversible. Acceptability of FC increased with increased use of the method. Reported obstacles to FC use included: aesthetics, insertion difficulties, discomfort, dislodgment, reduced sensation, and partner objections. Among higher risk populations, such as teens, substance abusers, and commercial sex workers (CSW), FC has additional benefits and obstacles. Recommendations for the future include education programs for health care/FC providers, potential FC users and their partners. Ongoing research is needed regarding STD prevention, reuse (one approach to reduce cost), operations research (effective ways to integrate FC into prevention programs), other uses (such as anal intercourse) and special population use (such as postmenopausal women).
Glik, D. C., Kronenfeld, J. J., Jackson, K., & Zhang, W. (1999). Comparison
of Traffic Accident and Chronic Disease Risk Perception. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
HEALTH BEHAVIOR 23 (3): 198-209.
Miller, D.R., Geller, A.C., Wood, M.C., Lew, R.A., & Koh,
H.K. (1999). The Falmouth safe skin project: Evaluation of a
community program to promote sun protection in youth.
HEALTH EDUCATION &
BEHAVIOR 26 (3): 369-384.
Mitchell, S. A. & Olds, R. S. (1999). Psychological
and perceived situational predictors of physical activity: a cross-sectional analysis.
HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14(3): 305-313.
Poppius, E., Tenkanen, L., Kalimo, R., & Heinsalmi, P. (1999). The sense of coherence, occupation and the risk of coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 49 (1): 109-120, July.
Reisen, C. A., & Poppen, P. J. Partner-specific risk
perception: A new conceptualization of perceived vulnerability to STDs. JOURNAL
OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 29 (4): 667-684.
Secker-Walker, R. H., Vacek, P. M., Hooper, G. J., Plante, D. A.,
& Detsky, A. S. (1999). Screening for Breast Cancer: Time, Travel, and
Out-of-Pocket Expenses. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 702-708.
Smith, B., Sullivan, E., Bauman, A., Powell-Davies, G., & Mitchell,
J. (1999). Lay beliefs about the preventability of major health conditions.
HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14(3): 315-325.
Turner, G. & Shepherd, J. (1999). A method in search
of a theory: peer education and health promotion. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14 (2): 235-247.
Uetrecht, C. L., Greenberg, M., Dwyer, J. J. M., Sutherland, S., &
Tobin, S. (1999). Factors Influencing Vegetable and Fruit Use: Implications for
Promotion. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR 23 (3): 172-181.
Huff, Robert, & Kline, Michael (Eds.). Promoting
Health in Multicultural Populations: A Handbook for Practitioners.
Sage Publishing Co., 1999.
Salovey, P, Rothman A and Rodin J. (1998). "Health
behavior" In D Gilbert, S Fisk and G Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of Social
Psychology. The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.: Boston.
Denison, J. (1996). Behavior change: a summary of four major
theories. An AIDSCAP Behavioral Research Report.
For more information on how to talk with your kids about drugs, ask for a free copy of "Growing Up Drug-Free A Parents Guide to Prevention." Call the Office of National Drug Control Policy at 1-800-788-2800, or visit www.projectknow.com or www.drugfreeamerica.org
Some websites with search capacity for social marketing
analyses of audience characteristics ("psychographics") relevant to message
More health and health-behavioral determinants + psychographics at Healthstyles developed by Porter Novelli http://www.porternovelli.com/pnwesite/pnwebsite.nsf/index?openpage
More demographic + media + consumer habits using PRIZM clustering. See NDS website at http://www.accessgear.com/partners/ipartners_program.html