BEHAVIORAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
Table of Contents
Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones
Headlines, Timelines, &
, K. (1999). Alternative Medicines Gain in Popularity, Merit Closer Scrutiny.
JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 1104-1105.
J. G., Freedman-Doan, P., O'Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., & Segal, D. R. (1999). Changing
patterns of drug use among US military recruits before and after enlistment.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 672-677.
Baker, D., & North, K. (1999). Does
employment improve the health of lone mothers? SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 49 (1):
ABSTRACT: Objectives. The US armed forces adopted "zero
tolerance" policies concerning illicit drug use in 1980 and later developed policies
to discourage tobacco and alcohol abuse. This article examines drug use among young
active-duty recruits both before and after enlistment compared with non-military
age-mates, and documents historical shifts in such drug use across 2 decades. Methods.
Analyses employed longitudinal panel data from 20 nationally representative samples of
high school seniors (cohorts of 1976-1995), each surveyed just before graduation and again
within 2 years. Separate analyses for men (n = 12 082) and women (n = 15 345) contrasted
those who entered military service college, and civilian employment. Results. Illicit drug
use declined more among young military recruits than among their civilian counterparts.
Analyses of male recruits at multiple time periods showed (1) declines in the prevalence
of marijuana use and cocaine use after the initiation of routine military drug testing and
(2) lower proportions of smokers of half a pack or more of cigarettes per day who entered
service after the initiation of tobacco bans during basic training. Conclusions. Recent
military drug policies appear to deter illicit drug use among enlistees and discourage
some smokers from enlisting.
Bauman, A., Smith, B., Stoker, L., Bellew, B., & Booth, M. (1999). Geographical
influences upon physical activity participation: evidence of a 'coastal effect'. AUSTRALIAN AND NEW
ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 23 (3):
ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the association between geographical
proximity to the coast and physical activity participation levels. Method: Using
stratified random sampling, a telephone survey was carried out in 1994 with 1000 adults in
each of the 16 health service regions in New South Wales (N = 16178). Physical activity
levels were measured through self-report of the frequency and duration of walking,
moderate and vigorous activities in the two weeks preceding the survey. Logistic
regression modeling was carried out to examine the association between physical activity
and 'coastal' location of residence, adjusting for age, sex, employment status, education
level and country of birth. Results: After adjusting for other demographic factors,
respondents who lived in a coastal postcode were 23% less likely to be classified as
sedentary, 27% more likely to report levels of activity considered adequate for health,
and 38% more likely to report high (vigorous) levels of physical activity than those who
lived inland. Each of these associations was significant at the 0.05 level. Conclusions:
Characteristics of the physical environment in coastal postcodes are related to physical
activity participation. Implications: Physical environments may contribute to physical
activity participation. Further efforts to conceptualize and measure these environmental
influences is warranted. Public health efforts to promote physical activity should
consider aspects of the physical environment as part of any intervention.
Berlow, E. L. (1999). Strong effects of weak interactions in ecological
398 (6725), MAR 25.
Bernstein, M. S., Morabia, A., & Sloutskis, D. (1999). Definition and
prevalence of sedentarism in an urban population.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC
HEALTH 89 (6): 862-867.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. The present study sought to formulate a precise
definition of sedentarism and to identify activities performed by active people that could
serve as effective preventive goals. Methods. A population-based sample of 919 residents
of Geneva, Switzerland, aged 35 to 74 years, completed a 24-hour recall. Sedentary people
were defined as those expending less than 10% of their daily energy in the performance of
moderate- and high-intensity activities (at least 4 times the basal metabolism rate).
Results. The rates of sedentarism were 79.5% in men and 87.2% in women. Among Sedentary
and active men, average daily energy expenditures were 2600 kcal (95% confidence interval
[CI] = 2552, 2648) and 3226 kcal (95% CI = 3110, 3346), respectively; the corresponding
averages for women were 2092 kcal (95% CI = 2064, 2120) and 2356 kcal (95% CI = 2279,
2440). The main moderate- and high-intensity activities among active people were sports
(tennis, gymnastics, skiing), walking, climbing stairs, gardening, and (for men only)
occupational activities. Conclusions. The definition of sedentarism outlined in this
article can be reproduced in other populations, allows comparisons across studies, and
provides preventive guidelines in that the activities most frequently performed by active
people arts the ones most likely to be adopted by their sedentary peers.
Burton, M. V., Warren, R., Price, D., & Earl, H. (1998). Psychological
predictors of attendance at annual breast screening examinations. BRITISH JOURNAL
OF CANCER 77 (11): 2014-2019.
ABSTRACT: This retrospective analysis of psychological predictors of
attendance studied the women from the annual screening arm of the United Kingdom
Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research (UKCCCR) trial of annual screening mammography
for the early detection of breast cancer. Some women attended screening at the first
invitation in year 1 (attendees), others did not attend for screening at any time
(non-attendees), whereas a third group delayed attending until year 2 (ambivalent
attendees). A total of 147 women were recruited to the study: 80 attendees, 28
non-attendees and 39 ambivalent attendees. It proved extremely difficult to contact
non-attendees to take part in the study. Non-attendees were significantly more depressed
on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; had experienced more miscarriages,
stillbirths or terminations of pregnancy; were less knowledgeable about mammography; and
were displeased to have received an invitation to screening. Whereas non-attendees are
unlikely ever to attend breast screening because of their long-standing altitudes and
preferred coping styles, ambivalent attendees may become more amenable to screening with
the passage of time. In this study such women were persuaded to attend in year 2 with a
simple, cost-effective intervention: an additional invitation letter after a year.
Chochinov, A. (1998). Alcohol "on board," man
overboard--boating fatalities in Canada. CANADIAN
MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL 159(3): 259-261.
Cole, D. C., Eyles, J., Gibson, B. L., & Ross, N. (1999). Links
between humans and ecosystems: the implications of framing for health promotion
strategies. HEALTH PROMOTION
INTERNATIONAL 14 (1): 65-72.
ABSTRACT: To explore potential links between ecosystems and human
health, we set out three ways of seeing or frames: environmental hazards and burden of
illness; ecosystem conditions and human well-being; and environmental justice and human
core values. Each frame provides a basis for making connections but also poses certain
challenges: expanding research methods, linking with other conditions of human well-being
and clarifying value bases. We discuss actions which build on the strengths of the
different frames to deal with the challenges: linking with those seeking greater ecosystem
protection focusing on clean production strategies emphasizing environmental degradation
as one aspect of social justice and building on concerns such as reproduction which are
closer to human core values Health promotion practitioners and policy makers can flexibly
use the frames in arguing for the betterment of both ecosystems and humans.
Ferron, C., Narring, F., Cauderay, M., & Michaud, P. A. (1999). Sport
activity in adolescence: associations with health perceptions and experimental behaviours.
HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14 (2): 225-233.
Fintor, L. (1999). Exercise and
Breast Cancer Risk: Lacking Consensus. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91:
ABSTRACT: Despite the relevance of this research topic from a public
health perspective, there is currently a lack of objective data on European adolescents'
sport activity, notably the associations between their sport habits and their health
attitudes and behaviours, which may have important consequences both in terms of somatic
(cardiovascular) health and mental health. The objective of the present study was to
determine the direction and strength of the associations between the frequency of sport
and health variables; in particular, perceptions of health, self image, substance use and
experimental behaviours. Data were collected as part of the 1993 Swiss Multicentric
Adolescent Survey on Health. In this survey, anonymous self-administered questionnaires
were distributed to a national representative sample of 10000 in-school adolescents (15-20
years of age). Univariate analyses explored the relationships between the level of sport
activity and health variables; then logistic regression analyses examined the strength of
these relationships. According to the results, half of the sample do sports more than
twice a week, boys more often as part of a sports club. Differences between non-athletic
and athletic adolescents describe the latter as having less somatic complaints, more
confidence in their future health, a better body image, a lesser tendency to attempt
suicide, a higher frequency of use of the car seat belt, and a lower use of tobacco, wine
and marijuana. Links between the frequency of sport activity and the locus of control
related to health, general satisfaction with life or sexual behaviours are less strong. It
must be noticed that the cross-sectional data collection precludes the establishment of a
causal relationship between exercise and health behaviours. However, the existing links
underline the coexistence of positive health characteristics and sport activity,
suggesting that an incitement to get involved in physical activity may be a necessary
component of a comprehensive prevention approach among adolescents.
Glanz, K., Lew, R.A., Song, V., & Cook, V.A. (1999). Factors
associated with skin cancer prevention practices in a multiethnic population.
HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR 26 (3):
ABSTRACT: A better understanding of factors influencing sun protection
practices can improve the design and evaluation of skin cancer prevention programs. These
data are from a cross-sectional survey of 756 parents with children in Grades 1 through 3,
and 176 recreation program staff members in a multiethnic population in Hawaii.
Questionnaires asked about skin cancer prevention practices (sunscreen use, covering up,
shade seeking), knowledge, benefits and barriers, policies; and staff norms for
prevention. The most important correlates of children's prevention practices were their
parents' sun protection habits. Multiple regression models-which included knowledge,
beliefs, program policies, and covariates related to sun protection-explained a total of
between 38% and 41% of the variance in children's sun safety habits, 22% to 25% of
parents' habits, and 24% of recreation staff members' sun safety habits. The models were
less successful at predicting the use of hats, shirts, and shade seeking and a composite
sun protection habits index; Parents and caregivers' knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors, as
well as recreation program policies, are strong predictors of sun protection practices
among children in Grades 1 to 3 in a multiethnic sample.
Gill, T. M., Williams, C. S., Robison, J. T., & Tinetti, M. E.
(1999). A population-based study of environmental hazards in the homes of older
persons. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC
HEALTH 89 (4): 553-556.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study sought to estimate the population-
based prevalence of environmental hazards in the homes of older persons and to determine
whether the prevalence of these hazards differs by housing type or by level of disability
in terms of activities of daily living (ADLs). Methods. An environmental assessment was
completed in the homes of 1000 persons 72 years and older. Weighted prevalence rates were
calculated for each of the potential hazards and subsequently compared among subgroups of
participants characterized by housing type and level of ADL disability. Results. Overall,
the prevalence of most environmental hazards was high. Two or more hazards were found in
59% of bathrooms and in 23% to 42% of the other rooms. Nearly all homes had at least 2
potential hazards. Although age-restricted housing was less hazardous than community
housing, older persons who were disabled were no less likely to be exposed to
environmental hazards than older persons who were nondisabled. Conclusions. Environmental
hazards are common in the homes of community- living older persons.
Graham, H., & Der, G. (1999). Smoking and women's health.
Influences on women's smoking status. The contribution of socioeconomic status in
adolescence and adulthood. EUROPEAN
JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 9 (2): 137-141.
Haapanen-Niemi, N., Miilunpalo, S.,
Vuori, I., Pasanen, M., &Oja, P. (1999). The impact of smoking, alcohol
consumption, and physical activity on use of hospital services.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC
HEALTH 89 (5): 691-698.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study investigated the associations of
smoking, excess alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity with the use of hospital
care. Methods. A cohort of 19- to 63-year-old Finnish men (n = 2534) and women (n = 2668)
were followed prospectively for 16 pears. Number of hospital days was extracted from the
national hospital discharge registry, while data concerning exposure variables were
derived from the baseline questionnaire. Results. After adjustment for confounders, male
smokers had 70% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 49%, 95%) and female smokers had 49% (95%
CI = 29%, 71%) more hospital days due to any cause than did those who had never smoked.
Men consuming a moderate amount of alcohol had 21% (95% CI = 10%, 31%) fewer hospital days
due to any cause than did nondrinkers. Men who had the lowest energy expenditure during
leisure-time physical activity had 36% (95% CI = 15%, 63%) more hospital days than the
most active men. The figure for women was 23% (95% CI = 4%, 44%). Conclusions. Smoking was
strongly associated with an increased use of hospital services. The associations of
alcohol consumption and leisure-time physical activity with use of hospital care depended
on the diagnosis under study.
Wharf (Institute of Health Promotion Res., Univ. British Columbia, 6248
Biological Sciences Rd., Vancouver BC V4T 1Z4) and Marjorie MacDonald,
The School-Based Prevention Model: A Training Handbook. Prepared
for the Alcohol and Drug Programs, BC Ministry of Health, by M.A. MacDonald
and Associates, Victoria, BC, Oct. 1992.
reflects the commitment of the BC Ministry of Health's commitment to having
coordinators working in the 54 School-Based Prevention Projects (SBPP) use
the PRECEDE model, adapted to their understanding and backgrounds, in
planning uniquely for and with each school, to achieve participation in
planning among teachers, students and administrators, and to tailor programs
to the needs of each school. UBC carried out evaluation of the SBPP (see
papers by Marjorie MacDonald and Terri Buller-Taylor who also used data from
this project for their doctoral dissertations at UBC).
Hoegh, H.J., Davis, B.D., & Manthe, A.F. (1999). Sun
avoidance practices among non-Hispanic white Californians.
HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR 26 (3):
ABSTRACT: This study measures self-reported sun avoidance practices,
use of protective clothing, and use of sunscreen among 4,749 non-Hispanic white adults
living in households in California. Data are from the California Behavioral Risk Factor
Survey, a population-based telephone survey of health behaviors and attitudes. The
average: respondent spent at least 15 minutes in the sun on 21.4 days out of the last 30
days. Regular use of protective clothing was reported by 30.7%, regular use of sunscreen
by 22.2%, and regular sun avoidance by 17.1% of the respondents. Results varied by month,
gender, skin tone, age, education, and presence of children in the household: Health
strategies should target younger adults (especially men), households with children and
adults with less than a high school education. Because of relatively low rates of sun
avoidance behaviors overall, a general population campaign also is warranted.
Hofford, CW and
Spelman, KA. The community action plan: incorporating health promotion and
wellness into alcohol, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention efforts on
the college campus. Journal of Wellness Perspectives 12(2): 70-79,
The U of Oklahoma Comprehensive Prevention
Program has developed the CommOUnity Action Plan to educate university
groups about wellness and the technology of health promotion, and to
demonstrate how each is related to alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD)
abuse prevention. By using this plan, each group becomes better able to
facilitate their own prevention, health promotion and wellness activities.
The plan framework, based on the Precede-Proceed Model represents an
opportunity for participating campus groups to assess the health status of
their group, design and develop a health enhancing activity, and carry out
that activity with minimal help from the program staff. The program staff
is, subsequently, more free to promote each groupís activities to the rest
of the campus and to facilitate collaboration among diverse
Huang, Y., Macera, C. A., Kronenfeld, J. J. (1998). Physical
fitness, physical activity,and functional limitation in adults aged 40 and older.
MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE
30 (9): 1430-1435.
M. (Univ. Nebraska at Lincoln), Christina Perry-Hunnicutt, Ian M. Newman,
Joe L. Davis, and Janet Crawford, "Use of the Delphi Technique to Support a
Comprehensive Campus Alcohol Abuse Initiative," Journal of Health
Education 24(2):88-96, 1993.
Based in part on Precede-Proceed model.
Joachim, G. (1998). Sources of Variability in the
Reproducibility of Food Frequency Questionnaires. NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Jones, A. P., Bentham, G., Harrison, B. D. W., Jarvis, D., Badminton, R.
M., & Wareham, N. J. (1998). Accessibility and health service
utilization for asthma in Norfolk, England. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20
Knowles, J. (1999). Nicotine
withdrawal and road accidents. NATURE 400 (6740 ), 8 July.
Go to (free-registration required): http://www.nature.com/server-java/Propub/nature/400128A0.abs_frameset
Koivusilta, . L. K. Rimpela, A. H., & Rimpela, M. K. (1999). Health-related
lifestyle in adolescence-origin of social class differences in health? HEALTH
EDUCATION RESEARCH 14(3): 339-355.
Kraft, D. P.
(1988). "The Prevention and Treatment of Alcohol Problems on a College
Campus," Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 34: 37-51.
abstract: Efforts in reduction of alcohol problems at the University of
Massachusetts at Amherst continue to focus on the prevention and treatment
of drinking problems as they build on the understanding gained from 10 years
experience with their Demonstration Alcohol Education Program and with other
campus programs. Prevention of alcohol problems must concentrate on changing
behaviors related to student drinking. Programs need to focus on reducing
alcohol problems, not solely on preventing alcoholism. Intervention
strategies must address both individual and group behaviors. A theoretical
model of behavior change, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein
and Ajzen, 1975) can guide interventions and their subsequent evaluation. At
the University of Massachusetts, the public health model called PRECEDE is
used to suggest systematic ways of changing individual and group forms of
behavior. A schematic model of prevention strategies can be used to generate
ideas for the activities and methods of a program. On an individual basis,
it has been difficult to measure or confirm program effects at the
University. On a group level, important changes have occurred in the
planning of nondrinking parties and the availability of alternative drinks.
Peer confrontation with alcohol abusers has become more frequent. On the
institutional level, consistent alcohol policies and support for those with
alcohol problems has increased. Basic lessons learned from the operation of
this program generally indicated the long-term commitment required, the need
to focus on specific problems rather than general admonitions, and the need
for combinations of regulatory and educational strategies. 18 references.
Laden, F., & Hunter, D. J. (1998). Environmental risk factors and female
breast cancer. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 101-123.
Markens, S., Browner, C. H., &
Press, N. (1999). 'Because of the risks': how US pregnant women account for
refusing prenatal screening. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 49 (3): 359-369,
McNeil, C. (1999). Can Guidelines Be Integrated Into Everyday Practice? The
NCCN in Year 4. JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 753-755.
Nelson, N. J. (1999). Purple Carrots, Margarine Laced With Wood Pulp?
Nutraceuticals Move Into the Supermarket. JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER
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Niaura, R., Marcus, B., Abrams, D. (1998). Exercise, smoking
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MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE
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O'Malley, P.M., & Johnston, L.D. (1999). Drinking and driving among US high
school seniors, 1984-1997.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC
HEALTH 89 (5): 678-684.
Paine, L. L., Lang, J. M., Strobino, D. M., Johnson,
T. R. B., DeJoseph, J. F., Declercq, E. R., Gagnon, D. R., Scupholme, A., & Ross, A.
(1999). Characteristics of nurse-midwife patients and visits, 1991.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC
HEALTH 89 (6): 906-909.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This article reports the prevalence of, and tens
in, driving after drinking and riding in a car with a driver who has been drinking among
American high school seniors, based on data from more than a decade (1984-1997) of annual
national surveys. Methods. Logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of
demographic factors (gender, region of country, population density, parental education and
race/ethnicity) and selected "lifestyle" factors (religious commitment high
school grades, truancy, illicit drug use, evenings out per week, and miles driven per
week). Results. Rates of adolescent driving after drinking and riding with a driver who
had been drinking declined significantly from the mid-1980s to the early or mid-1990s, but
the declines have not continued in recent years. Rates of driving or riding after drinking
were higher among high school seniors who are male, White, living in the western and
northeastern regions of the United States, and living in rural areas. Truancy, number of
evenings out, and illicit drug use all related significantly positively with the dependent
variables, whereas grade point average and religious commitment had a negative
relationship. Miles driven per week related positively to driving after drinking.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study describes the patient populations seen
by and visits made to certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) in the United States. Methods.
Prospective data on 16729 visits were collected from 369 CNMs randomly selected from a
1991 population survey. Population estimates were derived from a multistage survey design
with probability sampling. Results. We estimated that approximately 5.4 million visits
were made to nearly 3000 CNMs nationwide in 1991. Most visits involved maternity care,
although fully 20% were for cafe outside the maternity cycle. Patients considered
vulnerable to poor access or outcomes made 7 of every 10 visits. Conclusions.
Nurse-midwives substantially contribute to the health care of women nationwide, especially
for vulnerable populations.
Pescatello, L. S., & Murphy, D. (1998). Lower intensity physical activity
is advantageous for fat distribution and blood glucose among viscerally obese older
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Roeper, P.J., & Voas, R.B. (1999). Underage drivers are separating drinking
from driving. AMERICAN
JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 755-757.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. From 1985 to 1995, drivers younger than 21 years
experienced a 50% drop in fatal crashes involving alcohol. This study addresses whether
the decrease is explained by young drivers' drinking less or by their separating drinking
from driving. Methods. Nighttime roadside surveys were conducted in 3 communities to test
drivers' breath and administer questionnaires on drinking practices. From 1992 to 1996, 34
898 drivers (21% of whom were younger than 21 years) were interviewed. Results. Although
drivers younger than 21 years were more likely to have consumed 6 or more drinks on at
least 1 occasion during the previous month, a smaller percentage of younger drivers than
of older drivers had blood alcohol concentrations of 0.01 or higher. Conclusions. Younger
drivers are more likely than drivers older than 21 years to separate drinking from
Rylander, R., Axelsson, G., Megevand, Y., Dahlberg, C., Lijeqvist, T., & Sundh, V.
(1999). Dietary habits for non-smoking females living with smokers or non-smokers.
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 9 (2): 142-145.
Sadana, R., & Snow, R. (1999). Balancing
effectiveness, side-effects and work: women's perceptions and experiences with modern
contraceptive technology in Cambodia. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 49 (3):
Shepherd, C. K., Power, K. G., & Carter, H. (1998). Characteristics
of responders and non-responders in an infant feeding study. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC
HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 275-280.
Thomson, C., Currie, C., Todd, J., & Elton, R. (1999). Changes in HIV/AIDS
education, knowledge and attitudes among Scottish 15-16 year olds, 1990-1994: Findings
from the WHO: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC). HEALTH
EDUCATION RESEARCH 14(3): 357-370.
Toobert, D. J. Strycker, L. A. Glasgow, R. E. (1998). Lifestyle Change in
Women with Coronary Heart Disease: What Do We Know? JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S
HEALTH 7(6): 685-700, AUG 01.
Tucker, K. L. Bianchi, L. A., & Bermudez, O. I.
(1998). Adaptation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Diets of
Puerto Rican and Non-Hispanic Adults. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 148(5):
507, SEP 01.
Yen, I., & Syme, S. L. (1999). The Social Environment
and Health: A Discussion of the Epidemiologic Literature. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC
HEALTH 20: 287-308.
You, R. X., Thrift, A. G., McNeil, J. J., Davis, S. M.,& Donnan, G.
A. (1999). Ischemic stroke risk and passive exposure to spouses' cigarette
JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (4): 572-575.
Zhu, S-H., Sun, J., Billings, S.C.,
Choi, W. S., Malarcher, A. (1999). Predictors of smoking cessation in U.S.
adolescents. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE 16 (3): 202-207.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study investigated the association between
ischemic stroke risk and passive exposure to cigarette smoking. Methods. Risk factors
among 452 hospitalized cases of first-episode ischemic stroke were compared with 452 age-
and sex-matched "neighborhood" controls. Results. The risk of stroke was twice
as high for subjects whose spouses smoked as for those whose spouses did not smoke (95%
confidence interval = 1.3, 3.1), after adjustment for the subject's own smoking, heart
disease, hypertension, diabetes, and education level. These results were confirmed when
analysis was limited to those who never smoked. Conclusions. These findings provide
evidence that spousal smoking may be a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke.
Cancer Test Use Among Persons Aged greater than or equal to 50 Years --- United
Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report, 52(10), March 14, 2003.
Infections and Pseudoinfections --- New York, 1996 and 1998. Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Report 48(26), July 9, 1999.
Rubella Outbreak --- Westchester County, New York, 1997--1998.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48(26), July 9, 1999.
Injuries Among Railroad Trespassers --- Georgia, 1990--1996.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48 (25), July 2, 1999.
Trends in HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among High School Students --
Selected U.S. Cities, 1991-1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48 (21),
June 4, 1999.
Cigarette Smoking During the Last Months of Pregnancy Among Women Who Gave
Birth to Live Infants. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48 (20), May 28,
Laboratory Practices for Prenatal Group B Streptococcal
Screening and Reporting. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48 (20), May 28,
Physician Advice and Individual Behaviors About Cardiovascular
Disease Risk Reduction. MMWR 48 (4), February 5, 1999.
Norwalk-Like Viral Gastroenteritis in U.S. Army Trainees ---
Texas, 1998. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48 (11), March
Mass Treatment of Humans Who Drank Unpasteurized Milk from Rabid Cows ---
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Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91: 752,1999.
Smoking increases fire
mortality. A common scenario is of elderly, debilitated, sometimes bed-bound
persons accidentally igniting themselves and/or innocent bystanders with cigarette or
cigarette lighter ignited fires. Much of US, and probably, increasingly China, fire
mortality is made up of the elderly burned in cigarette smoking fires. Much of that data
is at FIRE IN THE UNITED STATES 1985 - 1994 (NINTH EDITION) http://www.usfa.fema.gov/pdf/fius/sec6.pdf
or http://www.nfpa.org .
SMOKING AMONG ASIAN AMERICANS: A National Tobacco Survey. National Asian
Women's Health Organization, 1998. http://www.nawho.org
For descriptions, rationale, methods, and the most recent
findings from the US Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of CDC, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/yrbs/ov.htm
Declining Breast Cancer Mortality: What's Behind It? Tom Reynolds
J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91 750-753