If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

 

CHAPTER 3:
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

Table of Contents

Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones

Endnote References and Resources

Archived Headlines

Supplementary References

Books and Reviews

Other References

Supplementary Websites

New References and Resources for Each Endnote in the 3rd Edition of Health Promotion Planning Book


Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones

World Health Organization Scientists Say Tactics To Fight Virus Are Working.  According to a group of scientists, gathered by the World Health Organization, the SARS has been effectively contained by public health measures taken in countries.


New References and Resources for Each Endnote in the 3rd Edition of Health Promotion Planning Book


Archived Headlines




SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES

Aspinall, P.J. (1999). For debate. Ethnic groups and Our Healthier Nation: whither the information base? JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 21(2): 125-132.
    ABSTRACT

Bartlett, C. J., & Coles, E. C. (1998). Psychological health and well-being: why and how should public health specialists measure it? Part 1: rationale and methods of the investigation, and review of psychiatric epidemiology. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 281-287.
    ABSTRACT

Benichou, J., Chow, W-H., Fraumeni Jr., J. F. (1998). Population Attributable Risk of Renal Cell Cancer in Minnesota.  AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 148 (5): 424.

Caldwell, J. C., Barkat-e-Khuda, Caldwell, B., Pieris, I., & Caldwell, P. (1999). The Bangladesh fertility decline: An interpretation. POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW 25 (1): 67-84,203.
    ABSTRACT: The claim has been made, notably in a 1994 World Bank report, that the Bangladesh fertility decline shows that efficient national family planning programs can achieve major fertility declines even in countries that are very poor, and even if females have a low status and significant socioeconomic change has not occurred. This article challenges this claim on the grounds that Bangladesh did experience major social and economic change, real and perceived, over the last two decades. This proposition is supported by official data and by findings of the authors' 1997 field study in rural southeast Bangladesh. That study demonstrates that most Bangladeshis believe that conditions are very different from the situation a generation ago and that on balance there has been improvement. Most also believe that more decisions must now be made by individuals, and these include decisions to have fewer children. In helping to achieve these new fertility aims, however, the services provided by the family planning program constituted an important input.

Collins, S. E., Haining, R. P., Bowns, I. R., Crofts, D. J., Williams, T. S., Rigby, A. S., & Hall, D. M. B.  (1998). Errors in postcode to enumeration district mapping and their effect on small area analyses of health data. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 325-330.
    ABSTRACT

 Devesa, S. S., Grauman, D. J., Blot, W. J., & Fraumeni, Jr., J. F. (1999). Cancer Surveillance Series: Changing Geographic Patterns of Lung Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950 Through 1994. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 1040-1050.
    ABSTRACT

DeWit, D.J., & Beneteau, B. (1999). Predictors of the prevalence of tobacco use among Francophones and Anglophones in the province of Ontario. HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 14 (2): 209-223.
    ABSTRACT

 Dinse, G. E., Umbach, D. M., Sasco, A. J., Hoel, D. G., & Davis, D. L. (1999). Unexplained Increases in Cancer Incidence in the United States from 1975 to 1994: Possible Sentinel Health Indicators. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 173-210.
    http://publhealth.annualreviews.org/cgi/content/full/20/1/173

 Etzioni, R., Legler, J. M., Feuer, E. J., Merrill, R. M., Cronin, K . A., & Hankey, B. F. (1999). Cancer Surveillance Series: Interpreting Trends in Prostate Cancer? Part III: Quantifying the Link Between Population Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing and Recent Declines in Prostate Cancer Mortality. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 1033-1039.
    http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jnci;91/12/1033

 Feuer, E. J., Merrill, R. M., & Hankey, B. F. (1999). Cancer Surveillance Series: Interpreting Trends in Prostate Cancer? Part II: Cause of Death Misclassification and the Recent Rise and Fall in Prostate Cancer Mortality. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 1025-1032.
    http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jnci;91/12/1025

Fraumeni, Jr., J. F., & Rimer, B. K. (1999). Cancer Surveillance Series: Inauguration. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 1004.
    http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/full/jnci;91/12/1004

Froom, P., Kristal-Boneh, E., Melamed, S., Gofer, D., Benbassat, J., & Ribak, J. (1999). Smoking cessation and body mass index of occupationally active men: The Israeli CORDIS study. THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 718-722.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study estimated weight gain after smoking cessation and identified factors attenuating this gain. Methods. We conducted a prospective follow-up of 1209 male factory workers for 2 to 4 years. The independent variables were smoking habits, age, sports activity, education, alcohol consumption, ethnicity, duration of follow-up, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) at entry. The dependent variable was increase in BMI during follow-up. Results. The mean age-adjusted BMI at entry into the study was 26.6 kg/m(2) among past smokers and 25.4 kg/m(2) among current smokers. There were no differences in BMI between those who quit less than 3 years before entry and those who quit more than 6 years before entry. During follow-up, the average increase in BMI was 0.07 kg/m(2) among never smokers, 0.19 kg/m(2) among smokers who had stopped smoking before entry, 0.24 kg/m(2) among current smokers, and 0.99 kg/m(2) among those who stopped smoking after entry. Cessation of smoking after entry predicted an increased gain in BMI, older age, an higher BMI at entry, sports activity, and alcohol consumption attenuated this gain. Conclusions. The increased rate of weight gain after smoking cessation is transient. However, the weight gained is retained for at least 6 years.

Graubard, B. i., & Korn, E. L. (1999). Analyzing Health Surveys for Cancer-Related Objectives. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 1005-1016.
   
http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jnci;91/12/1005

Hall, V. P. (1999). The Relationship Between Social Support and Health in Gay Men With HIV/AIDS: An Integrative View. JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION OF NURSES IN AIDS CARE 10(3): 74.
    Abstract: A review of literature on the association between social support and health in homosexual men with HIV or AIDS suggests three divisions of research. These include studies that focus on the social networks of homosexual men and the role of significant others for social support; studies that deal with coping and its link to social support; and studies that try to correlate social support with other concepts, such as depression and hope. Because studies have shown that initial levels of support reported by gay men are the best indicators of future support levels, it is important to initiate conversations about both the content and nature of a patient's support. However, some support can actually be detrimental, so it is essential to distinguish between the types available and make the best use of the various kinds in specific situations.

Hankey, B. F., Feuer, E. J., Clegg, L. X., Hayes, R. B., Legler, J. M., Prorok, P. C., Ries, L. A., Merrill, R. M., & Kaplan, R. S. (1999). Cancer Surveillance Series: Interpreting Trends in Prostate Cancer? Part I: Evidence of the Effects of Screening in Recent Prostate Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Survival Rates. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 1017-1024.
    http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jnci;91/12/1017

Hutchinson, M. R., Milhouse, C., & Gapski, M.  (1998). Comparison of injury patterns in elite hockey players using ice versus in-line skates.    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE    30(9): 1371-1374, SEP 01.

 Jones, K., & Klein, H. (1999). Lessons from 12 Years of Comparative Risk Projects. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 159-172.
   
ABSTRACT/FULL-TEXT

Kahn, H. S., Tatham, L. M., Heath Jr., C. W.   (1998). Increased Cancer Mortality Following a History of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.  http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v280n10/abs/jbr80075.html  280(10): 910-912, SEP 09.

 Kaplan, G. A., Haan, M. N., & Wallace, R. B. (1999). Understanding Changing Risk Factor Associations with Increasing Age in Adults. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 89-107.
   
ABSTRACT/FULL-TEXT

Kaplan, M. S., & Geling, O. (1999). Sociodemographic and geographic patterns of firearm suicide in the United States, 1989-1993.  HEALTH AND PLACE 5 (2): 179-185.

Kisely, S.  (1998). More alike than different. Comparing the mental health needs of London and other inner city areas. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 318-324.
    ABSTRACT

 Liao, Y. L., McGee, D. L., Cao, G. C., Cooper, R. S. (1999). Black-white differences in disability and morbidity in the last years of life.  AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY    149 (12): 1097-1103.

Linet, M. S., Ries, L. A. G., Smith, M. A., Tarone, R. E., & Devesa, S. S. (1999). Cancer Surveillance Series: Recent Trends in Childhood Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States1994. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 1051-1058.
   
http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/full/jnci;91/12/1051

Malcoe, L. H., Shaw, G. M., Lammer, E. J., Herman, A. A. (1999). The effect of congenital anomalies on mortality risk in White and Black infants. THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 887-892.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This population-based study examined the effect of all major congenital anomalies on the mortality of White and Black infants by infant sex, birthweight, gestational age, and lethality of the anomaly. The study also determined the total contribution of anomalies to infant mortality. Methods. California Birth Defects Monitoring Program data were merged with linked birth-death files for 278 646 singleton non-Hispanic White and Black infants born in 1983 through 1986. Malformed infants were compared with nonmalformed infants to determine the effect of anomalies on mortality. Results. The presence of any congenital anomaly increased mortality 9.0-fold (95% CI = 7.3, 11.1) for Black infants and 17.8-fold (95% CI = 16.2, 19.6) for White infants. Even "non-lethal" anomalies increased mortality up to 8.9-fold. Overall, anomalies contributed to 33% of White infant deaths, to 19% of Black infant deaths, and to over 60% of deaths among Black and White neonates weighing over 1499 g. Conclusions. The contribution of congenital anomalies to mortality of both low- (<2500 g) and normal-birthweight infants is substantially higher than previously estimated representing a large public health problem for both Black and White infants.

Mansfield, C. J., Wilson, J. L., Kobrinski, E. J., & Mitchell, J. (1999). Premature mortality in the United States: The roles of geographic area, socioeconomic status, household type, and availability of medical care.  THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH  89 (6): 893-898.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study examined premature mortality by county in the United States and assessed its association with metro/urban/rural geographic location, socioeconomic status, household type, and availability of medical care. Methods. Age-adjusted years of potential life lost before 75 years of age were calculated and mapped by county. Predictors of premature mortality were determined by multiple regression analysis. Results. Premature mortality was greatest in rural counties in the Southeast and Southwest. In a model predicting 55% of variation across counties, community structure factors explained more than availability of medical care. The proportions of female-headed households and Black populations were the strongest predictors, followed by variables measuring low education, American Indian population, and chronic unemployment. Greater availability of generalist physicians predicted fewer years of life lost in metropolitan counties but more in rural counties. Conclusions. Community structure factors statistically explain much of the variation in premature mortality. The degree to which premature mortality is predicted by percentage of female-headed households is important for policy-making and delivery of medical care. The relationships described argue strongly for broadening the biomedical model.

McKee, M.,  Sanderson, C., Chenet, L., Vassin, S., & Shkolnikov, V. (1998). Seasonal variation in mortality in Moscow. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 268-274.
    ABSTRACT

McHorney, C. A. (1999). Health Status Assessment Methods for Adults: Past Accomplishments and Future Challenges. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 309-336.
   
ABSTRACT/FULL-TEXT

 Michaud, D. S., Spiegelman, D., Clinton, S. K., Rimm, E. B., Willett, W. C., & Giovannucci, E. L. (1999). Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Incidence of Bladder Cancer in a Male Prospective Cohort. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 605-613.
   
ABSTRACT

Moloo, J., Jackson, K. L., Waller, J. L., McKeown, R. E., Addy, C. L., Cuffe, S. P., Garrison, C. Z. (1998). Xenotransmission of the socioeconomic gradient in health? A population based study. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 317:1686-1686. 
    FULL-TEXT

 Mustard, C. A., Derksen, S., Berthelot, J. M., & Wolfson, M. (1999). Assessing ecologic proxies for household income: a comparison of household and neighbourhood level income measures in the study of population health status.    HEALTH AND PLACE    5 (2): 157-171.

Noseworthy, J. H. (1999). Progress in determining the causes and treatment of multiple sclerosis. NATURE 399 (6738).  
    The Journal's website requires free registration.

 Polednak, A. P. (1999). Melanoma incidence in Connecticut by town of residence. HEALTH AND PLACE 5 (2): 131-137.   

Rich-Edwards, J. W., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Gillman, M. W., Hennekens, C. H., Speizer, F. E., Manson, J. E.. (1999). Birthweight and the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adult Women. ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE 130: 278-284.
    FULL-TEXT

Saunderson, T., Haynes, R., & Langford, I. H. (1998). Urban-rural variations in suicides and undetermined deaths in England and Wales. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 261-267.
    ABSTRACT

Schwartz, S., Susser, E., & Susser, M. (1999). A Future for Epidemiology? ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 15-34.
   
ABSTRACT/FULL-TEXT

Sundquist, J., & Winkleby, M.A. (1999). Cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican American adults: A transcultural analysis of NHANES III, 1988-1994.    THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 723-730.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study examined the extent to which cardiovascular disease risk factors differ among subgroups of Mexican Americans living in the United States. Methods. Using data from a national sample (1988-1994) of 1387 Mexican American women and 1404 Mexican American men, aged 25 to 64 years, we examined an estimate of coronary heart disease mortality risk and 5 primary cardiovascular disease risk factors: systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cigarette smoking, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Differences in risk a ere evaluated by country of birth and primary language spoken. Results. Estimated 10-year coronary heart disease mortality risk per 1000 persons, adjusted for age and education, was highest for US-born Spanish-speaking men and women (27.5 and 11.4, respectively), intermediate for US-born English-speaking men and women (22.5 and 7.0), and lowest for Mexican-born men and women (20.0 and 6.6). A similar pattern of higher risk among US-born Spanish-speaking men and women was demonstrated for each of the 5 cardiovascular disease risk factors. Conclusions. These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of the Mexican American population and identify a new group at substantial risk for cardiovascular disease and in need of effective heart disease prevention programs.

Thomason, M. J., Lord, J., Bain, M. D., Chalmers, R. A., Littlejohns, P., Addison, G. M., Wilcox, A. H., & Seymour, C. A. (1998).  A systematic review of evidence for the appropriateness of neonatal screening programmes for inborn errors of metabolism.  JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 331-343.
    ABSTRACT

Veenstra, G. & Lomas, J. (1999). Home is where the governing is: Social capital and regional health governance. HEALTH AND PLACE 5(1): 1-12.

Walter, S. D.  (1998).  Attributable Risk in Practice.  AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 148 (5): 411.

Wannamethee, S.G., & Shaper, A.G. (1999). Type of alcoholic drink and risk of major coronary heart disease events and all-cause mortality.    THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 685-690.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study examined the effects of beer, spirits, and wine drinking on coronary heart disease (CHD) events (fatal and nonfatal) and all-cause mortality. Methods. Men aged 40 to 59 years (n = 7735) were drawn at random from one general practice in each of 24 British towns and followed up for an average of 16.8 years. Results. Regular drinkers showed a significantly lower relative risk of CHD, but not all-cause mortality, than occasional drinkers, even after adjustment for potential confounders. The benefit for CHD of regular drinking was seen within both beer drinkers and spirit drinkers but not among men who reported wine dl inking. However, all men who reported wine drinking (both occasional and regular) shelved significantly lower age-adjusted risks of CHD and all-cause mortality than men drinking beer or spirits; beer and spirit drinkers showed similar risks. Conclusions. The findings suggest that regular intake of all alcoholic drinks is associated with a lower risk of CHD, but not all-cause mortality, than occasional drinking. A large part, but not all, of the greater benefit seen in wine drinkers relative to other drinkers can be attributed to advantageous lifestyle characteristics (e.g., low rates of smoking and obesity).

Wilkins, K., Parsons, G. F., Gentleman, J. F., & Forbes, W. F. (1999). Deaths due to dementia: An Analysis of Multiple-cause-of-death Data. CHRONIC DISEASES IN CANADA 20 (1): 26-35.
    ABSTRACT/FULL-TEXT

Wood, D., Saarlas, K. N., Inkelas, M., and Matyas, B. T. (1999). Immunization Registries in the United States: Implications for the Practice of Public Health in a Changing Health Care System. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 231-256.
    ABSTRACT/FULL-TEXT

Yusuf, H.R., Rochat, R.W., Baughman, W.S., Gargiullo, P.M., Perkins, B.A., Brantley, M.D., & Stephens, D.S. (1999). Maternal cigarette smoking and invasive meningococcal disease: A cohort study among young children in metropolitan Atlanta, 1989-1996.  THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (5): 712-717.
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study assessed the association between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the risk of invasive meningococcal disease during early childhood. Methods. Using a retrospective cohort stud design, cases from an active surveillance project monitoring all invasive meningococcal disease in the metropolitan Atlanta area from 1989 to 1995 were merged with linked birth and death certificate data files. Children who had not died or acquired meningococcal disease were assumed to be alive and free of the illness. The Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent association between maternal smoking and meningococcal disease. Results. The crude rate of meningococcal disease was 5 times higher for children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy than for children whose mothers did not smoke (0.05% vs. 0.01%). Multivariate analysis revealed that maternal smoking (risk ratio [RR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 5.7) and a mother's having fewer than 12 years of education (RR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0 4.2) were independently associated with invasive meningococcal disease. Conclusions. Maternal smoking, a likely surrogate for tobacco smoke exposure following delivery, appears to be a modifiable risk factor for sporadic meningococcal disease in young children.

    Books and Reviews

Berkman, L. and Kawachi, I. (Eds.) (due Feb. 2000). Social Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    More advanced text on issues and concepts relevant to understanding and altering population health. The table of contents includes:
--A historical framework for social epidemiology (Lisa F. Berkman, Ichiro Kawachi)
--Socioeconomic position (John Lynch and George Kaplan)
--Discrimination and health (Nancy Krieger)
--Income inequality and health (Ichiro Kawachi)
--Working conditions and health (Tores Theorell)
--The impact of job loss and retirement on health (Stanislav V.Kasl and Beth A. Jones)
--Social integration, social networks, social support and health(Lisa F. Berkman and Thomas A. Glass)
--Social cohesion, social capital and health (Ichiro Kawachi and Lisa F. Berkman)
--Depression and medical illness (Robert M. Carney and Kenneth E. Freedland)
--Affective states (Laura Kubzansky and Ichiro Kawachi)
--Health behaviors in social context (Karen M. Emmons)
--Psychosocial intervention (Thomas A. Glass)
--Towards a new social biology (Eric J. Brunner)
--Ecological approaches: rediscovering the role of the physical and social environment (Sally Macintyre and Anne Ellaway)
--Multi-level approaches to understanding social determinants (Michael Marmot)
--Health and social policy (S. Jody Heymann)

Brownson, R., Remington, P., & Davis, J. R. (Eds.).(1998). Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control, 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
    Since the publication of the first edition of Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control in 1993, public health practitioners have encountered many new challenges and opportunities in their prevention efforts. For example, changes in how health care is delivered, particularly the growth of managed care, are altering the day-to-day roles of many public health agencies. Similarly, new information technologies, including the rapid evolution of microcomputers, software, and the Internet, offer exciting possibilities. Public health professionals must become knowledgeable in the science and practice of chronic disease control, to enhance the technical capacity for delivering effective programs. The purpose of this book remains the same as that of the first edition--to provide practical information on chronic disease epidemiology, prevention and control. 546 pages, softcover, order on Order on http://www.apha.org/media/orderinfo.htm Stock No. 0875532373/WB $32.00 APHA Members $45.00 Nonmembers

Young, T. K. (1998). Population health: concepts and methods. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511972-X.
    A foundation book for courses in population health, based in epidemiology, but also draws on relevant social sciences (including sociology, anthropology, and demography). The author has researched and written extensively on the health of indigenous people in North America, especially Canada. Chapters include case studies and exercises under the following headings:
--Measuring health and disease in populations
--Modeling determinants of population health
--Assessing health risks in populations
--Designing population health studies
--Planning population health interventions
--Evaluating health services for populations
--Improving the health of populations
    "This book provides a comprehensive introduction to all the quantitative methods for the assessment of population health status that the average health professional needs to know." --Review by John Frank, Chronic Disease in Canada 20(1), 1999, 40-41.  For the complete review, go to: http://webcenter.ru/~infcent/en/abstracts/b5.html
.

    Other References

Stat Bite: U.S. Cancer Death Rates With and Without Lung Cancer. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 999.
    FULL-TEXT: http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/full/jnci;91/12/999

Stat Bite: Race and Sex Differences in U.S. Cancer. JOURNAL OF NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 91: 586.
    FULL-TEXT: http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/full/jnci;91/7/586

National Center for Health Statistics (1999). Decreasing Hospital Use for HIV. NCHS Health E-Stats, No. 1.
    The reduction in hospitalization for AIDS patients from 1995 to 1997 is consistent with the dramatic 62 percent decline in the AIDS death rate during the same period. The use of intensive antiretroviral therapies and continued AIDS prevention efforts were credited with the drop in the death rate and appear to have had a major impact on the need for hospital care for the treatment of HIV. "Decreasing Hospital Use for HIV, NCHS Health E-Stats, No. 1" is available on the NCHS Home Page at http://www.cdc.gov/nchswww.

State-Specific Maternal Mortality Among Black and White Women --- United States, 1987--1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48(23), June 18 1999.

Surveillance of Morbidity During Wildfires --- Central Florida, 1998. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48 (4), Feb. 5, 1999.

Maternal Mortality --- United States, 1982--1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 47 (34), September 4 1998.  http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/mmwr.html

Hepatitis A Vaccination of Men Who Have Sex With Men -- Atlanta, Ga. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 47 (34), September 4 1998.  http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/mmwr.html

SUPPLEMENTARY WEBSITES

Eating Disorders at School: Spotting the Signs and Getting Help - http://www.accreditedschoolsonline.org/resources/student-eating-disorder-resources/

Diabetes in REAL Health (18 June 1999). About 1.6 million Canadians have diabetes. Half of them don't know it. For more information, see
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/real/diabetes/

National Cancer Institute of Canada: Canadian Cancer Statistics 2002. Toronto: Canadian Cancer Society, 2002. http://www.cancer.ca/files/stats2002_e.pdf

www.cdc.gov/nchswww/about/major/nsfg/nsfg.htm At this site you can access the National Survey of Family Growth, a source of recent news about the decline in the percent of teens having intercourse and increased contraceptives at first intercourse.

Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program. Browse the newly posted reports for injuries associated with shopping carts, personal powered watercraft, hot beverages, fireworks, dog bites and dog attacks... http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/brch/injury/index.hml

American Anorexia Bulimia Association - http://www.4woman.gov/nwhic/references/mdreferrals/aaba.htm 
    A national, nonprofit organization for preventing and treating eating disorders. Contains practical information for sufferers, parents and friends. Includes a bibliography on anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating and contact information of the organization.
 

Infectious Disease Weblink - http://pages.prodigy.com/idweblink/  - is a comprehensive listing of infectious disease resources available on the Internet from government, university, medical, and microbiology sites.

Canada Disease surveillance reports now online (31 December 1998) Health Canada introduces an online disease surveillance service that not only gives you access to multi-year data on cancer, cardiovascular diseases and other notifiable diseases from AIDS to yellow fever, but also allows
you to customize the data to fit your specific needs. For more information, visit http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/webmap/index.html

Health Canada reports on progress of sustainable development strategy (18 December 1998)
The annual performance report tabled in recently in the House of Commons by Health Canada includes a summary of progress made on the department's sustainable development strategy, Sustaining Our Health. The report covers activities undertaken during the 1997-1998 fiscal year. For more information, visit http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/susdevdur/health_e.htm

New guidelines on prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted disease (17 December 1998)
Health Canada has just published the 1998 edition of Canadian STD Guidelines, a book designed to help physicians and nurses in the prevention and management of sexually transmitted disease (STD) in Canada. The guidelines reflect changes in practice over the last few years. For more information, visit http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/publicat/std98/index.html

Get your free "Healthy images" clip art (7 December 1998) Health Canada's Childhood and Youth Web site is offering a new collection of images that portray positive, healthy lifestyles by incorporating safe usage of equipment, clothing, and physical environments. The images may be used free of charge, without prior permission from Health Canada, to promote healthy lifestyles and for non-commercial purposes only. For more information, visit
http://wwwhc-sc.ca/hppb/childhood-youth/cyfh/safe_and_supportive/healthy_imatges/healthy-images-clip-art.html.

The Institute for Minority Health Research at Emory School of Public Health has created a WWW site for those who wish to participate in efforts to Close the Gap in Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health: http://www.sph.emory.edu/bshe/imhr/

NEW WOMEN'S HEALTH WEB SITE. From the U.S. Public Health Service Center. Database and links to more than 1,000 federal agencies, publications, and hundreds of government-screened private sector organizations related to women's health.  For more information, the toll-free hotline is: 1-800-994-WOMAN, or visit              http://www.4woman.gov

Center for Eating Disorders provides information on diagnosis and treatment of the major eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, binge-eating.  For more information, visit http://eatingdisorders.home.mindspring.com/

For a tutorial slide presentation on how to obtain and use data from the US Census Bureau, go to: http://www.siu.edu/~kittle/HEDIR/state/.  For a tutorial on accessing US, State, and county statistics through the CDC Wonder site, go to: http://www.siu.edu/~kittle/HEDIR/state /

For a list of some 200 other web sites for demographic and census sources, go to: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/BasicFactsServlet

CONSENSUS ON CENSUS: Background, updates, email alerts on the U.S. Census 2000 debates over sampling and other issue in compiling the national database on population: http://www.census2000.org

PATHWAYS TO ONE AMERICA: latest report from the President's Initiative on Race. Key questions for evaluating promising practices, and program examples. http://www.whitehouse.gov/Initiatives/OneAmerica/america.html .

RACIAL AND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH, 1996: Chartbook from the US Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: http://www.medpsahcpr.gov/papers/cb2_99-0001/cb2.htm.

Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race and Hispanic Origin. Prepared by the Council of Economic Advisors for the President's Initiative on Race, "This chart book documents current differences in well-being by race and Hispanic origin and describes how such differences have evolved over the past several decades. The book is designed to further one of the goals of the President's Initiative on Race: To educate Americans about the facts surrounding the issue of race in America." In addition to the report, which can be downloaded in Acrobat documents from http://www.access.gpo.gov/eop/ca/index.html ; the data are available as spreadsheets from: http://www.access.gpo.gov/eop/ca/charts/index.html . The list of charts:

II. Population: Racial/Ethnic Composition of the Population (2k); Foreign-Born Population (2k); Minority Population by Region, 1995 (3k); Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Residence (3k); Intergroup Married Couples, 1990 (3k); Household Structure (3k); Age Distribution, 1997 (2k).

III. Education:Participation in Literacy Activities with a Parent or Family Member by Children Aged Three to Five (2k); Children Aged Three to Four Enrolled in Center-Based Programs or Kindergarten (2k); Computer Use by Children in First through Sixth Grade (2k); Average Reading Proficiency Scores (2k); Average Mathematics Proficiency Scores (2k); Educational Attainment of Audults Aged 25 and Over (3k); Persons Aged 25 to 29 with a High School Degree or Equivalent (4k); Persons Aged 25 to 29 with a Four-Year College Degree or Higher (4k).

IV. Labor Markets: Labor Force Participation Rates of Persons Aged 25 to 54 (7k); Unemployment Rates of Persons Aged 16 and Over (6k); Persons Aged 16 to 24 Who Are Not in School and Not Employed (4k); Median Usual Weekly Earnings of Male Full-Time Workers (4k); Median Usual Weekly Earnings of Female Full-Time Workers (4k); Black and Hispanic Male Earnings as a Percentage of White Male Earnings (3k); Black and Hispanic Female Earnings as a Percentage of White Female Earnings (3k); Occupations of Employed Persons, 1997 (4k).

V. Economic Status:Median Family Income (4k); Poverty Rates for Individuals (4k); Poverty Rates for Children (4k); Poverty Rates by Selected Individual Characteristics, 1996 (2k); Households Owning Selected Assets, 1993 (2k);

VI. Health: Infant Mortality Rates (2k); Life Expectancy at Birth (4k); Children Aged 19 to 35 Months Who Are Up to Date with Recommended Vaccinations, 1995-96 (2k); Prevalence of Smoking Among Persons Aged 18 to 24 (4k); Death Rates by Cause for Persons Aged 15 to 34, 1994-95 (2k); Death Rates by Cause for Persons Aged 45 to 64, 1995 (3k); Persons Aged 18 to 64 without Health Insurance Coverage, 1994-95 (2k)

VII. Crime and Criminal Justice: Victims of Homicide (7k); Victims of Property Crime (6k); Admissions to State and Federal Prisons (3k); Adults under Correctional Supervision (4k); Arrests, Convictions, and Prison Admissions for Violent Crimes, 1994 (4k); Minority Composition of Local Police and Sheriffs' Departments (3k); Perception of Whether Blacks or Whites are Treated More Harshly by the Criminal Justice System (3k).

VIII. Housing and Neighborhoods: Homeownership Rates (2k); Households with High Housing Cost Burdens (2k); Housing Units with Physical Problems (2k); Crowding- Households with More Than One Person per Room (3k);Reported Problems in Neighborhood, 1993-95 (2k); Average Racial and Ethnic Composition of Metropolitan Neighborhoods, 1990 (2k); Whites' Attitudes towards Integration (3k).  September 22, 1998.