If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*



PowerPoint Slides:

Lessons from the Great Public Health Achievements of the 20th Century

The Theories Underlying PRECEDE-PROCEED                                                                            


New References and Resources for Each Endnote in the 3rd and 4th Editions of Health Promotion/Health Program Planning Book

Table of Contents

Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones

Endnote References and Resources

Archived Headlines

Supplementary References

Book References

Supplementary Websites

Headlines, Timelines, & Milestones

"The technology of medicine has outrun its sociology." -- Henry E. Sigerist, medical historian (1891-1957)

"Health cannot be forced upon the people. It cannot be dispensed to the people. They must want it and be prepared to do their share and to cooperate fully in whatever health program a country develops." – Canadian Journal of Public Health (1944) 35: 260.

Phase 1: The Social Assessment and Situation Analysis:

Measures of Well-Being as Indicators of Quality of Life or Health?

From an August 1998 Yankelovich national U.S. survey, men and women vary in what they say is the most important form of well-being:

   Men Women 
Mental 38% 35%
Spiritual 30% 40%
Physical   32% 25%

Despite the apparent importance attached to mental and spiritual well-being, the UBC Institute of Health Promotion Research found in surveys of adults in the Yukon Territory of Canada that an overall measure of perceived health status relative to others of one's own age correlated best with physical well-being.

Ratner, P.A., Johnson, J.L., & Jeffery, B. Examining emotional, physical, social, and spiritual health as determinants of self-rated health status. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12(4):275-282, 1998.

Archived Headlines


Breslow, L. (1998). Musings on sixty years in public health. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 19: 1-15.

Fielding, J.E. (1999). Public health in the twentieth century: Advances and challenges. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: XIII-XXX.
    ABSTRACT: Substantial advances in public health methods, practice, and the health of the public have occurred in the twentieth century. Some of the contributions most notable for their impact on mortality and longevity are vaccine development and widespread use, smallpox eradication, large reductions in communicable disease epidemics, and the rise and decline of several serious chronic diseases. Many methodological advances have facilitated better understanding of disease processes and opportunities for control. Epidemiological methods have advanced, but studies often ignore the determinants of health at the community level and above, leading to simplistic formulations of multiple risk factors contributing to chronic and other diseases and injuries. Occupational and environmental health developed as disciplines in this century, making significant contributions to current and future population health. The health care system became more organized, technologically sophisticated, and costly. New tools to assess health and the burden of ill health, to improve the effectiveness of interventions, and to measure economic effects of alternative investments promise greater efficiency and effectiveness for public health. An increasingly fragmented public health infrastructure must confront unprecedented challenges including dramatic global population growth, increased aging of the population associated with enhanced longevity, and possible irreversible changes in key environmental health determinants.

Geronimus, A. T., & Bound, J.   (1998).  Use of Census-based Aggregate Variables to Proxy for Socioeconomic Group: Evidence from National Samples.   AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 148(5):  475-486.

Green J., & Tones, K. (1999). For debate. Towards a secure evidence base for health promotion. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 21(2): 133-139.

Green, L.W. (1999). Health education's contributions to public health in the twentieth century: A glimpse through health promotion's rear-view mirror. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 67-88.

Moyer, A., Coristine, M., MacLean, L., & Meyer, M. (1999). A model for building collective capacity in community-based programs: The Elderly In Need Project. PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 16 (3): 205-214.
    ABSTRACT: As the focus of health promotion moves from individuals to organizations, communities and broader social policy, the models that guide public health program planning and development need reexamination. Public health nurses are gaining experience in strengthening and supporting the ability of communities to grow and change. This study aimed to illuminate the process. Data, gathered as part of an action research project to develop individual and community-based strategies to decrease isolation in frail older adults, provided a rich source of qualitative data. Analysis was directed toward identifying the factors and processes of capacity-building. The emerging model was clarified and partially validated with academics and practitioners from health promotion programs across the age span. Four stages of building collective capacity were identified: identifying common ground, working cooperatively, working in partnership, and working across the community. At each stage, processes of relationship building, project management and capacity-building resulted in stage specific products. A model of building collective capacity, grounded in community health practice and supported by the Literature provides a base for developing practice indicators, and practice guidelines which will strengthen the ability to reach health goals.

Ostrom, E. (1999). Coping with tragedies of the commons. ANNUAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 2: 493-535.

Richard, L., Breton, E.R., Lehoux, P., Martin, C., & Roy, D. (1999). How public health professions perceive two dimensions for promoting health: Ecological approach and participatory approach. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH-REVUE CANADIENNE DE SANTE PUBLIQUE 90 (2): 99-103.
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to explore public health professionals' perceptions regarding two dimensions of the new health promotion movement; the ecological approach and the principle of community participation. Data were collected by focus-groups of public health professionals (n = 22) in one Public Health Directorate in Quebec. Results indicate a fair degree of integration of these two dimensions into the respondents' professional practice. However, limitations related to the work environment and to the theoretical underpinnings of these two components might impede the respondents' ability to integrate them into their practice.

Tannahill, A. (1998). Commentary. The Scottish green paper: beyond a healthy mind in a healthy body.  JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH MEDICINE 20 (3): 249-252, September.

    Book References

Keyser, Morrow, Doyle, Ogletree, Parsons (1998). Practicing the Application of Health Education Skills and Competencies. Boston: Jones & Bartlett. $19.25   
    Written for the teacher who is training health education professionals, this book systematically addresses each of the responsibilities and competencies that have been identified by the health education profession as necessary for entry-level health education. The seven chapters correspond to the seven responsibilities of a health educator as put forth by the National Task Force on the Preparations and Practice of Health Educators. To read more about this title, and to place your order, please go to http://catalog.jbpub.com/detail.cfm?i=0533-0  

Shah, C. P. (1998). Public Health and Preventive Medicine in Canada, 4th edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-9694044-3-3.
    "...the best known Canadian textbook of public health...has two purposes...to help readers learn about their role as health care professionals, administrators or policy makers within the health care system...[and to participate] in the ongoing debate on health care issues..." --Review by Clyde Hertzman, Chronic Disease in Canada 20(1), 1999, 41-42.  For the complete review, go to:

Timmreck, T. C. (1998). Health Services Cyclopedic Dictionary, Third Edition (Boston: Jones & Bartlett). $70.
    The most comprehensive dictionary on the full range of health services. Exhaustive listings on public health, health administration, epidemiology, health administration, health promotion, managed care, and other areas of health service provide accurate, detailed definitions. To read more about this title, and to place your order, please go to http://catalog.jbpub.com/detail.cfm?i=515-6  

Wallace, Robert; & Wallace, D. (1999). A Plague on Your Houses: How New York Was Burned Down and National Public Health Crumbled. New York & London: Verso Press. 
    During the 1970's, poor neighborhoods in the old industrial cities suffered massive housing destruction. These cities lost much population to the suburbs and to boomtowns in the West and South. "A Plague on Your Houses" provides the details of how public policies such as benign neglect and planned shrinkage destroyed poor minority neighborhoods in New York City both physically and socially. The authors suggest that the Rand Corporation provided substandard mathematical models that blamed the closing of fire companies for the fire epidemics, but they argue that this was only at best a symptom of the broader policies antagonistic to inner-city development.
    Mass migrations, shifting patterns of housing overcrowding, and loss of social control and support unleashed a crisis in public health and public order. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, measles, and AIDS flared up; contagious behaviors such as violence, substance abuse, and multiple-partner sexual activity also became epidemic. Even the life expectancy of elderly African-Americans was affected and declined between 1970 and 1980 after decades of increase.
    Most of the city was touched by one or more of the consequences of the disaster. The contagious diseases and behaviors gradually spilled over into the suburban counties of the New York City metro region (24 counties). Eventually, the abused big metro regions (New York, Los Angeles, Miami) entrained the whole national network of metro regions into epidemics of violent crime and AIDS.


Documents on Population Health (available on-line): The following Health Canada publications (1) Taking Action on Population Health position paper and (2) Population Health - Putting Concepts Into Action (WHO, 50th anniversary) can be accessed at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/phdd/resource.htm.

Web access to cataloging data for 10,000 historical public health pamphlets.

In 1999, the New York Academy of Medicine Library completed cataloging over 10,000 pamphlet titles published in the United States between 1840 and 1960. This work was funded by a two-year grant of $150,000 from The Charles E. Culpeper Foundation. The cataloging records are available through the internet in the electronic catalog for the Academy Library (www.nyam.org or telnet library.nyam.org), and through the major bibliographic utilities.

The Academy Library has systematically collected materials which document public action to avoid disease and other health threats. It has developed and maintained a comprehensive, multi-language collection of urban public health materials. From its inception the Academy Library recognized the significance and importance of pamphlets. Consequently through donation and purchase the Academy Library has been avid and methodical in Acquiring pamphlets including those that document the shaping of modern public health and serve as primary source material for the history of public health and the sanitary movement. The public health pamphlets serve as the historical connection between public health theories and the mass marketing of public health in popular culture.

This pamphlet collection, one of the largest of its type in the world, documents the shaping of modern public health and activities to avoid disease and other health threats. They are evidence for the prevailing medical concepts and social attitudes, the effects of disease and sanitary conditions on society, and changing mores and customs in the United States.

Alphabetical Listing of Internet Resources for Health Promotion Planning, Implementation and Evaluation

American Public Health Association http://www.apha.org

Association of Schools of Public Health http://www.asph.org

Biosciences resources http://mcb.harvard.edu/BioLinks.html

California HealthLine (free daily health news, but must register first) http://news.chcf.org

Children, youth and family resources http://www.cyfc.umn.edu

Community Preventive Services http://www.thecommunityguide.org/

Community of Science (experts, Medline, funded research, funding opportunities) http://www.cos.com

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource http://cedr.lbl.gov/index.html

Data resources http://www.abag.ca.gov/abag/overview/datacenter/popdemo/datamine.htm

Epidemiology resources http://chanane.ucsf.edu/epidem/epidem.html

Food and Nutrition Information Center http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic

Health education professional resources http://www.nyu.edu/education/hepr

Health information database http://www.mastersinhealthcare.com/blog/2012/the-webs-clinical-handbook/

Health A to Z search engine http://www.healthatoz.com

Health promotion journals http://www.thcu.ca/infoandresources/journals.htm

 Health science journals http://www.mco.edu/lib/instr/libinsta.html

Healthy People 2000 Objectives http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/hp2000

Index Medicus (journal abbreviations) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html

Institute of Medicine http://www.iom.edu/

International health resources http://www.futureofhealthcare.com/

Lexis-Nexis (news, health topics, legal research): http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe

Medical subject headings (MeSH standard keywords) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html

MedWeb (health sciences resources) http://www.medweb.emory.edu/MedWeb/

 Melvyl (Medline, journal & book databases) http://www.melvyl.ucop.edu

Men's health resources http://www.vix.com/pub/men/health/health.html

Minority health resources http://www.minority.unc.edu

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/mmwr.html

Newspaper links (>3,600 online newspapers) http://www.newslink.org/news.html

National Library of Medicine (Medline, MeSH) http://www.nlm.nih.gov

Nutrition resources http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic  

Physical activity and health resources http://www.health.gov.au/pubhlth/strateg/active/links.htm

 Public health resources http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/PUBL/internet.html http://www.uni-ulm.de/public_health/vl/mirror/www.ldb.org/vl/index.htm

Public health software & resources http://www.jhsph.edu/People/Org/DeltaOmega/software/

Statistics resources http://www.stat.ufl.edu/vlib/statistics.html

Tobacco control resources http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/

Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals http://www.mednet.gr/english/archives/unireq.htm

US Agency for Health Care Policy and Research http://www.ahcpr.gov

US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/atsdrhome.html

US Census Bureau http://www.census.gov

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov

US Dept of Health and Human Services http://www.os.dhhs.gov

US Food and Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov

US Health Care Financing Administration (Medicare, Medicaid) http://cms.hhs.gov

US Minority Health Resource Center http://www.omhrc.gov

US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences http://www.niehs.nih.gov/home.html

US National Center for Health Statistics http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/

US National Institutes of Health (NIH) http://www.nih.gov/welcome

US NIH guide for grants & contracts (funding opportunities) http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/index.html

US Office on Smoking and Health http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/osh/tobacco.htm

US Public Health Service application forms (PHS 398, 2590) http://www.uiowa.edu/~vpr/eforms/nih/nih.htm

US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration http://www.samhsa.gov

Women's health resources http://www.nytimes.com/specials/women/whome/resources.html

World Health Organization http://www.who.int


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