If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

 

Home   Endnotes: Preface Chap 1  Chap 2  Chap 3  Chap 4  Chap 5  Chap 6  Chap 7 Chap 8

Health Program Planning, 4th edition

Chapter 9 (formerly Chap. 11 in previous editions) [This revision is in progress]

Applications in Health Care Settings

Notation: The number before ">" is the endnote number in the 3rd edition; the number after > is the new endnote number that will appear in the 4th edition. The endnotes provide citations to literature and sources referenced in the text of Chapter 9. Below each endnote are the actual bibliographic references for the corresponding citations. References that appeared in the 3rd edition may not be listed here (see 3rd edition bibliography). Click on the author link for the abstract of the article referenced in most citations.

Table of Contents (Click on the section to go to the new endnotes for that section)

Introduction

Disease Prevention, Health Promotion, and Self-Care as Priorities of Clinical Care

    Definitions

    The Opportunity

    The Missed Opportunity

    The Rationale

An Epidemiological and Community Approach to Health Care

    Epidemiology of Health Care Errors

    Health Care Errors of Omission

    Health Care Errors of Commission

Patient Considerations in Targeting Interventions

    The Undiagnosed

    Diagnosed Nonusers Who Received Inappropriate Medical Recommendations

    Nonusers Who Did Not Obtain a Recommended Treatment

    Policy Changes

    Allocation Decisions

Application of Educational Assessment to Individual Patients

The Relapse Curve

A Hierarchy of Factors Affecting Self-Care Behavior

    Triage According to Motivation

    Triage According to Enabling Factors

    Assessing Reinforcing Factors Necessary for Continued Adherence

    Self-Monitoring

Changing the Behavior of Health Care Staff

Educational and Ecological Diagnosis of Practitioners' Behavior and Health Care Environments

    Predisposing Factors

    Enabling Factors

    Reinforcing Factors

    Managed Care

    Complications and Barriers

 

Introduction

2>1. The health care literature and our citations here.  Because the literature is so prolific for this setting, we refer the reader to the 233 endnotes for this chapter in our previous edition (Green & Kreuter, 1999, pp. 461-9), and to our endnotes webpage for updates to the current citations (www.lgreen.net/hpp/Endnotes/Chapter9Endnotes.htm). We will focus here on those citations that represent recent contributions since the 1999 edition, a few of the classic or most representative earlier contributions, and those earlier contributions that were specific applications of the Precede-Proceed Model. A few meta-analyses of the earlier literature include: Mullen, Green, & Persinger, 1985; Mullen, Mains, & Velez, 1992; Mullen, Ramirez, & Groff, 1994; Mullen, Simons-Morton, et al., 1997. Other meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the continuing and professional education literature in medical care settings have applied PRECEDE in examining the factors influencing behavioral change in practitioners, revealing the necessity of including attention to enabling and reinforcing factors, in addition to the usual emphasis on predisposing factors: Davis, Thomson, Oxman, & Haynes, 1992, 1995; Oxman, Thomson, Davis, & Haynes, 1995; Tamblyn & Battista, 1993.

*Davis D. A., Thomson, M. A., Oxman, A. D., Haynes, R. B. (1992).  Evidence for the effectiveness of CME: A review of 50 randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268,1111-1117.

*Davis, D. A., Thomson, M. A., Oxman, A. D., & Haynes, R. B. (1995).  Changing physician performance: A systematic review of the effect of continuing medical education strategies. Journal of the American Medical Association, 274, 700-705.

Loveman, E., Cave, C., Green, C., Royle, P., Dunn, N., & Waugh, N.. (2003). The clinical and cost-effectiveness of patient education models for diabetes: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment, 7, iii, 1-190. Review.

Mullen, P. D., & Green, L. W. (1985). Meta-analysis points way toward more effective medication teaching. Promoting Health (American Hospital Assn.), 6(6), 6-8.

Mullen, P. D., Green, L. W., & Persinger, G. (1985). Clinical trials of patient education for chronic conditions: A comparative meta-analysis of intervention types. Preventive Medicine, 14, 753-781.

Mullen, P. D., Mains, D. A., & Velez, R. (1992). A meta-analysis of controlled trials of cardiac patient education. Patient Education and Counseling, 19, 143-162.

Mullen, P. D., Ramirez, G., & Groff, J. Y. (1994). A meta-analysis of randomized trials of prenatal smoking cessation interventions. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 171, 1328-1334.

Mullen, P. D., Simons-Morton, D. G., Ramirez, G., Frankowski, R. F., Green, L. W., Mains, D. A. (1997). A meta-analysis of trials evaluating patient education and counseling for three groups of preventive health behaviors. Patient Education & Counseling, 32, 157-73.

*Oxman, A. D., Thomson, M. A., Davis, D. A., Haynes, R. B. (1995). No magic bullets: A systematic review of 102 trials of interventions to improve professional practice. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 153, 1423-1431.

*Tamblyn, R. & Battista, R.  (1993).  Changing clinical practice: Which interventions work?  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 13, 273-288.

3>2. The evolution of the self-care concept can be traced from Nightingale’s “helping the helpless” and her distinction between “sick nursing and health nursing,” through Shaw and Harmer’s textbooks of nursing at the turn of the century, to current nursing concepts of self-care, such as those of Orem (Taylor, Geden, et al., 2000). For a broader history of the concepts of self-care and well-care in contrast to the medical model, as well as relationships to parallel movements such as consumer participation and community health nursing, see Green, Werlin, Schauffler, & Avery, 1977; Rafael, 2000.

Green, L. W., Werlin, S. H., Shauffler, H. H., & Avery, C. H. (1977). Research and demonstration issues in self-care: Measuring the decline of medicocentrism. Health Education Monographs 5: 161-89; also in J. G. Zapka(Ed.), The SOPHE heritage collection of Health Education Monographs, vol. 3. Oakland: Third Party Publishing, 1981, pp. 40-69.

Rafael, A. R. (2000). Watson's philosophy, science, and theory of human caring as a conceptual framework for guiding community health nursing practice. ANS Advances in Nursing Science, 23, 34-49. Review.

Taylor, S. G., Geden, E., Isaramalai, S., & Wongvatunyu, S. (2000). Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory: its philosophic foundation and the state of the science. Nursing Science Quarterly, 13, 104-110. Review.

4>3. Sense of responsibility vs. sense of control in self-care. Ziff, Conrad, & Lachman, 1995: "Overall, the results suggest that the sense of control rather than sense of responsibility should be targeted for health promotion efforts" (p. 127).
For applications of PRECEDE in examining the issues of perceived control and empowerment in relating patient or community needs and capacities to those of health professionals, see Allison, 1991; Garvin, 1995; Hill, 1996; Jenny, 1993; O'Brien, Smith, et al., 1990; Sanders-Phillips, 1991; and the control typology of Padilla & Bulcavage, 1991, including processual, contingency, cognitive, behavioral, and existential controls.

*Allison, K. R. (1991) Theoretical issues concerning the relationship between perceived control and preventive health behaviour. Health Education Research, 6,141-151.

*Garvin, T. (Dept of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON) (1995).  “We’re Strong Women” - Building a community-university research partnership. Geoforum, 26, 273-286.

*Hill, A. J. (1996).  Predictors of regular physical activity in participants of a Canadian health promotion program. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 28, 119-141.

*Jenny J (Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Ottawa, Ontario). (1993). A future perspective on patient/health education in Canada. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18, 1408-1414.

*O'Brien, Robert W., Selina A.Smith, Patricia J.Bush, & Edna Peleg. (1990).  Obesity, self-esteem, and Health Locus of Control in Black youths during transition to adolescence. American Journal of Health Promotion, 5, 133-139.  Based on KYB project using PRECEDE model, see Bush (1989).

*Padilla, G. V., & Bulcavage, L. M. (1991). Theories used in patient / health education.  Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 7, 87-96.

*Sanders-Phillips, Kathy (1991). A model for health promotion in ethnic minority families. Wellness Lecture Series, University of California President's Office, Oakland, CA.

Ziff, M. A., Conrad, P., & Lachman, M. E. (1995). The relative effects of perceived personal control and responsibility on health and health-related behaviors in young and middle-aged adults. Health Education Quarterly, 22, 127-42.
 

Disease Prevention, Health Promotion, and Self-Care as Priorities of Clinical Care

5>4. This section is adapted from Green, 1993; 2003; Green, Cargo, & Ottoson, 1994.

Green, L. W. (1993). Modifying lifestyle to improve health. In W. D. Skelton, & M. Osterweis (Eds.). Promoting community health: The role of the academic health center, pp. 54-69. Washington, DC: The Association of Academic Health Centers..

Green, L.W. (2003). What is participant-centered clinical research? Chap 2 in J Aungst, A Haas, A Ommaya,  LW Green (Eds.). Exploring New Models for Engaging the Public in the Clinical Research Enterprise, (pp. 9-23). Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press.

Green, L.W., Cargo, M., and Ottoson, J. M. (1994). The role of physicians in supporting lifestyle changes. Medicine, exercise, nutrition and health, 3, 119-130.   Also in Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting of the Society of Prospective Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, April 15-17, 1993.  Indianapolis, IN: Society of Prospective Medicine, Publishers, 1993, pp. 89-129.

    Definitions

    The Opportunity

7>5. The opportunity to initiate, support, or reinforce complex lifestyle changes from within clinical settings. E.g., Glanz, 1999; Pellmar, Brandt, & Baird, 2002; Williams, Chinnis, & Gutman, 2000.  

Glanz, K. (1999). Progress in dietary behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 14, 112-117. Review.

Pellmar, T. C., Brandt, E. N. Jr., & Baird, M. A. (2002). Health and behavior: the interplay of biological, behavioral, and social influences: summary of an Institute of Medicine report. American Journal of Health Promotion, 16, 206-219.

Williams, J. M., Chinnis, A. C., & Gutman, D. (2000). Health promotion practices of emergency physicians. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18, 17-21.

13>6. Health Belief Model suggests that a health care visit is a motivated or “teachable” moment for change.  See Chapter 4, including references to studies using the Health Belief Model within the context of healthcare encounters.

14>7. Physician reach x effectiveness = potentially large population effect.  Moser, McCance, & Smith, 1991.

Moser, R., McCance, K. L., & Smithy, K. R. (1991). Results of a national survey of physicians’  knowledge and application of prevention capabilities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 7, 384-390.

16>8. Patients seek and are more satisfied with physician and nurse initiative in prevention and health promotion. Hughes, 2003; Kottke, Brekke, & Marquez, 1997; Litaker, Mion, et al., 2003.

Hughes, S. (2003). The use of non face-to-face communication to enhance preventive strategies. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 18, 267-273. Review.

Kottke, T. E., Brekke, M. L., & Marquez, M. (1997). Will patient satisfaction set the preventive services implementation agenda? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 13, 309-316.

Litaker, D., Mion, L., Planavsky, L., Kippes, C., Mehta, N., & Frolkis, J. (2003). Physician - nurse practitioner teams in chronic disease management: the impact on costs, clinical effectiveness, and patients' perception of care. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 17, 223-237.

20>9. Exception of lower SES patients.  Green & Potvin, 2002.

Green, L. W. &  Potvin, L. (2002). Education, health promotion, and social and lifestyle determinants of health and disease. In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole, & H. Tanaka (Eds.). Oxford Textbook of public health: Vol 1: The scope of public health, 4th edition (pp. 113-130). New York: Oxford University Press.

21>10. Growing interest in prevention and health promotion by physicians and other health professionals. E.g., compare Mann & Putnam, 1990 with Mann, Lindsay, et al., 1997. Most of what we review here concerning physicians, who control or at least influence the professional practices of most other health care workers in clinical settings, applies also to those other professions. For applications of PRECEDE-PROCEED in assessing or influencing the health promotion practices of other clinical health workers, see for nurses, Berland, Whyte, & Maxwell, 1995; Cretain, 1989; DeJoy, Murphy, & Gershon, 1995; Han, Baumann, & Cimprich, 1996; Laitakari, Miilunpalo, & Vuori, 1997; Macrina, Macrina, et al., 1996; Shamian & Edgar, 1987; Whyte & Berland, 1993; and see Chapter 1, endnote 29; for dentists, Canto, Drury, & Horowitz, 2001; Frazier & Horowitz, 1990; Mann, Viscount, et al., 1996; for dietitians, McKell, 1994; McKell, Chase, & Balram, 1996; Miilunpalo, Laitakari, & Vuolo, 1995;  P. H. Smith, Danis, & Helmick, 1998; for health educators, Candeias, 1991; Chiason & Lovato, 2000; Glanz & Oldenburg, 1997; for pharmacists, Paluck, Green, et al., 2003; and others in Chapter 1, endnote 30; for physical therapists and rehabilitation professionals, Furst, Gerber, & Smith, 1985; Furst, Gerber, et al., 1987; Glenn, 1994; Laitakari, Miilunpalo, & Vuori, 1997; and for other allied health professionals, Bennett, 1977; Goldenhar et al., 2001.

*Bennett, B. I. (1977). A model for teaching health education skills to primary care practitioners. International Journal of Health Education, 20, 232-239.

*Berland, A., Whyte, N. B., & Maxwell, L. (1995). Hospital nurses and health promotion. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 27, 13-31.

*Candeias, Nelly Martins Ferreira (1991). Evaluating the quality of health education programmes: some comments on methods and implementation. Hygie: International Journal of Health Education, 10(2), 40-44.

*Canto, Maria Teresa, Drury, Thomas F., Horowitz, Alice M. (2001). Maryland dentists’ knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnostic procedures. Health Promotion Practice, 2, 255-62.

*Chiasson, M. W., Lovato, C. Y. (2000). The health planning context and its effect on a user’s perceptions of software usefulness. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 91, 225-8.

*Cretain G. K. (1989). Motivational factors in breast self-examination: implications for nurses. Cancer Nursing, 12, 250-6.

*DeJoy, D. M., Murphy, L. R., & Gershon, R. M. (1995).  The influence of employee, job/task, and organizational factors on adherence to universal precautions among nurses. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 16: 43-55.

*Frazier, P.J., Horowitz, Alice M. (1990). Oral Health Education and Promotion in Maternal and Child Health--A Position Paper. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 50, (NSI): 390-395.

*Furst, G. P., Gerber, L. H, Smith, C. C., Fisher, S., & Shulman, B.(1987).  A program for improving energy conservation behaviors in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41, 102-111.

*Furst, G. P., Gerber, L. H., and Smith, C. B. (1985). Rehabilitation through Learning: Energy Conservation and Joint Protection--A Workbook for Persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, GPO Stock No. 017-045-00107-4, NIH Publ. No. 85-2743, and Rehabilitation through Learning...: Instructor's Guide.  Washington, DC: GPO Stock No. 017-045-00103-9, NIH Publication No. 85-2743.

*Glanz, K, & Oldenburg,  B. (1997).  Relevance of health behavior research to health promotion and health education. In D. S. Gochman (Ed.), Handbook of Health Behavior Research IV: Relevance for professionals and issues for the future.  New York: Plenum Press, pp. 143-161.

*Glenn, Margaret K. (1994). Preparing rehabilitation specialists to address the prevention of substance abuse problems. Rehabilitation Counseling, 38, 164-179.

*Han, Y., Baumann, L. C., & Cimprich, B. (1996). Factors influencing registered nurses teaching breast self-examination to female clients. Cancer Nursing, 19, 197-203.

*Laitakari, J., Miilunpalo, S., Vuori, I. (1997). The process and methods of health counseling by primary health care personnel in Finland: a national survey.  Patient Education and Counseling, 30, 61-70.

*Macrina, D., Macrina, N., Horvath, C., Gallaspy, J., & Fine, P. R. (1996). An educational intervention to increase use of the Glasgow Coma Scale by emergency department personnel.  International Journal of Trauma Nursing 2: 7-12.

*Mann KV, Lindsay EA, Putnam RW, Davis DA. (1997). Increasing physician involvement in cholesterol-lowering practices: The role of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions. Advances in Health Science Education: Theory & Practice, 2, 237-53.

*Mann, K. V. and R. W. Putnam (1990). Barriers to prevention: physician perceptions of ideal versus actual practices in reducing cardiovascular risk. Canadian Family Physician, 36, 665-70.

*Mann, K. V., Viscount, P. W., Cogdon, A., Davidson, K., Languille, D. B., & Maccara, M. E.  (1996). Multidisciplinary learning in continuing professional education: the heart health Nova Scotia experience. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 16, 50-60.

*McKell, C. J. (1994). A profile of the New Brunswick Association of Dietitions: Results of the Educational Needs Assessment Survey, 1993. Fredericton, NB: New Brunswick Health and Community Services and Health Canada.

*McKell, C. J., Chase, C., & Balram, C. (1996).  Establishing partnerships to enhance the preventive practices of dietitians. Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association, 57, 12-17.

*Miilunpalo, S., Laitakari, J., & Vuori, I. (1995). Strengths and weaknesses in health counseling in Finnish primary health care. Patient Education and Counseling, 25, 317-28.

*Paluck, E. C., Green, L. W., Frankish, C. J., Fielding, D. W., & Haverkamp, B. (2003). Assessment of communication barriers in community pharmacies. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 26, 380-403.

*Shamian, J., & Edgar, L. (1987). Nurses as agents for change in teaching breast self-examination. Public Health Nursing, 4, 29-34.

*Smith, P. H., Danis, M., & Helmick, L. C. (1998) Changing the health care response to battered women: A health education approach. Family & Community Health, 20, 1-18.

*Whyte, N., & Berland, A. (1993). The role of hospital nurses in health promotion: A collaborative survey of British Columbia hospital nurses. Vancouver: Registered Nurses Assn. of British Columbia and Vancouver General Hosp., Pub.28. [See summary: Health promotion in acute care settings: Redefining a nursing tradition. Nursing BC March-April, 1994, pp. 21-22.]

27>11. Studies applying PRECEDE-PROCEED to assessment of physician attitudes, barriers, and practices in clinical health promotion include Battista, Williams, & MacFarlane, 1990; Burglehaus, Smith, et al., 1997; Costanza, 1992; Donovan, 1991; Downey, Cresanta, & Berenson, 1989; Duke, McGraw, et al., 2000; Green, 1987; Green, Cargo, & Ottoson, 1994; Green, Eriksen, & Shor, 1988; Herbert, 1999; Heywood, Firman, Sanson-Fisher, & Mudge, 1996; Hiddink, Hautvast, et al., 1995, 1997a, b (and others by this group, see Chapter 1 endnote 31); Langille, Mann, & Gailiunas, 1997; Love et al., 1993; Mann, 1994; Mann & Putnam, 1989, 1990; Singer, Lindsay, & Wilson, 1991; V. M. Taylor, Taplin, et al., 1994; Thamer, et al., 1998; J. M. E. Walsh & McPhee, 1992; Wiggers & Sanson-Fisher, 1994; Weinberger et al., 1992. See Chapter 1, endnote 32 for others.

*Battista, R. N., Williams, J. L., & MacFarlane, L. A. (1986). Determinants of primary medical practice in adult cancer prevention. Medical Care, 24: 216-224.

*Burglehaus, M. J., Smith, L. A., Sheps, S. B., & Green, L. W. (1997). Physicians and breastfeeding: Beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy and counselling practices.  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88 (6): 383-387.

*Donovan, C. L. (1991). Factors predisposing, enabling and reinforcing routine screening of patients for preventing fetal alcohol syndrome: A survey of New Jersey physicians. Journal of Drug Education, 21, 35-42. 

*Downey, A. M., Cresanta, J. L., & Berenson, G. S. (1989). Cardiovascular health promotion in 'Heart Smart' and the changing role of physicians. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 279-295.

*Duke, S. S., McGraw, S. A., Avis, N. E., & Sherman, A. (2000). A focus group study of DES daughters: implications for health care providers. Psychooncology, 9, 439-444.

*Green, LW (1987). How physicians can improve patients' participation and maintenance in self-care. Western Journal of Medicine, 147, 346-9.

*Green, L. W., Cargo, M., and Ottoson, J. M. (1994). The role of physicians in supporting lifestyle changes. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition and Health 3: 119-130. Also in Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting of the Society of Prospective Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, April 15-17, 1993. Indianapolis, IN: Society of Prospective Medicine, Publishers, 1993, pp. 89-129.

*Green, L. W., Eriksen, M. P., & Schor, E. L. (1988). Preventive practices by physicians: Behavioral determinants and potential interventions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4 (suppl. 4, 1988), 101-7, reprinted in R. N. Battista and R. S. Lawrence, (Eds.), Implementing Preventive Services. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988; pp. 101-7. 

*Herbert, C. P. (1999). Editorial. Should physicians assess lifestyle risk factors routinely? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 160, 1849-1850.

*Heywood, A., Firman, D., Sanson-Fisher, R., & Mudge, P. (1996).  Correlates of physician counseling associated with obesity and smoking. Preventive Medicine, 25, 268-276.

*Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., van’t Hof, M. A. (1995). Nutrition guidance by primary-care physicians: perceived barriers and low involvement. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 49, 842-851.

*Hiddink G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., & Fieren, C. J. (1997a). Consumers' expectations about nutrition guidance: the importance of primary care physicians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(suppl), 1974S-1995S.

*Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., & van’t Hof, M. A.  (1997b).  Driving forces for and barriers to nutrition guidance practices of Dutch primary care physicians.  Journal of Nutrition Education, 29, 36-41.

*Hiddink G, J. , Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., & van't Hof, M. A. (1997c). Information sources and strategies of nutrition guidance used by primary care physicians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65 (suppl), 1996S-2003S.

*Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. E. J., Fieren, C. J. & van’t Hof, M. A. (1997d). Nutrition guidance by primary-care physicians: LISREL analysis improves understanding.  Preventive Medicine, 26, 29-36.

*Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., van’t Hof, M. A., & Fieren, C. J. (1999).  Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of nutrition guidance by primary care physicians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53 (Suppl. 2), S35-S43.[and 8 other publications by this group, see endnote 1-32]

*Langille DB (Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, 5849 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7), Mann KV, Gailiunas PN. Primary care physicians' perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and STD prevention practices in a Nova Scotia county. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1997; 13(4): 324-30.

*Love, M. B., Davoli, G. W., & Thurman, Q. C. (1996). Normative beliefs of health behavior professionals regarding the psychosocial and environmental factors that influence health behavior change related to smoking cessation, regular exercise, and weight loss. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 371-379.

*Makrides, L., Veinot, P. L., Richard, J. & Allen, M. J. (1997). Primary care physicians and coronary heart disease prevention: A practice model. Patient Education and Counseling, 32, 207-217.

*Mann, K.V. (1994). Educating medical students: lessons from research in continuing education. Academic Medicine, 69, 41-47.

*Mann, KV (Office of the Dean, Fac. Med., Dalhousie Univ., Tupper Med. Bldg., Halifax, NS B3H 4H7), RW Putnam (1990).  Barriers to prevention: physician perceptions of ideal versus actual practices in reducing cardiovascular risk. Canadian Family Physician 36:665-670.

*Mann, KV, RW Putnam (1989).  Physicians' perceptions of their role in cardiovascular risk reduction. Preventive Medicine 18:45-58.

*Mann KV (1989). (PhD, Faculty of Medicine, Room C-16, Clinical Research Centre, Dalhousie University, 5849 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7) Promoting adherence in hypertension: a framework for patient education. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 1(1):8-14, Apr

*Mann, K. V., Putman, R. W., Lindsay, E. A. & Davis, D. A. (1990). Cholestrol: Decreasing the Risk. An educational program for physicians. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 10(3): 211-222.

*Mann KV , Lindsay EA, Putnam RW, Davis DA. Increasing physician involvement in cholesterol-lowering practices. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 1996; 16: 225-240.

*Mann KV, Viscount PW, Cogdon A, Davidson K, Languille DB, Maccara ME. Multidisciplinary learning in continuing professional education: the heart health Nova Scotia experience. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 1996; 16: 50-60.

*Michalsen, A., Delclos, G. L., Felknor, S. A., Davidson, A. L., Johnson, P. C., Vesley, D., Murphy, L. R., Kelen, G. D., & Gershon, R. R. M. (1997). Compliance with universal precautions among physicians. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 130-137.

*Singer, J., Lindsay, E. A., & Wilson, D. M. C. (1991). Promoting physical activity in primary care: Overcoming the barriers. Canadian Family Physician, 37, 2167-2173.

*Solomon, D. H., Hashimoto, H., Daltroy, L., & Liang, M. H. (1998). Techniques to improve physicians’ use of diagnostic tests. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 2020-2027.

*Taylor, V. M., Taplin, S. H., Urban, N., Mahloch, J., & Majer, K. A. (1994).  Medical community involvement in a breast cancer screening promotional project. Public Health Reports, 109, 491-499.

*Thamer, M., Ray, N. F., Henderson, S. C., Rinehart, C. S., Sherman, C. R. & Ferguson, J. H. (1998). Influence of the NIH Consensus Conference on Helicobacter Pylori on physician prescribing among a Medicaid population.  Medical Care, 36, 646-660.

*Weinberger, M., Saunders, A. F. Bearon, L. B., Gold, D. T., Trig Brown, J., Samsa, G. P., & Loehrer, P. J. (1992).  Physician-related barriers to breast cancer screening in older women.  The Journals of Gerontology, 47(special issue), 111-117.

*Wiggers, John H. and Rob Sanson-Fisher (Discipline of Behavioural Science in Relation to Med., Faculty of Med., Univ. of Newcastle, Locked Bag No. 10, Wallsend NSW 2287, Australia) (1994). General practitioners as agents of health risk behaviour change: Opportunities for behavioural science in patient smoking cessation. Behaviour Change, 11, 167-176.

 

    The Missed Opportunity

28>12. Medical education leaves little time for prevention and health promotion. Abrams Weintraub, 2003; Hymowitz, Schwab, & Eckholdt, 2001. See also Chapter 1, endnote 32.

Abrams Weintraub, T, Saitz, R, & Samet, J. H. (2003). Education of preventive medicine residents: alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24, 101-5.

Hymowitz, N., Schwab, J., & Eckholdt, H. (2001). Pediatric residency training on tobacco: training director tobacco survey.  Preventive Medicine, 33, 688-698.

32>13. Use of chart reminders, personnel or computer-generated reminders to cue preventive actions by physicians. E.g., Gary, Bone, et al., 2003 in the context of a PRECEDE application; O'Malley, Gonzalez, et al., 2003.

*Gary, T. L., Bone, L. R., Hill, M. N., Levine, D. M., McGuire, M., Saudek, C., & Brancati, F. L. (2003). Randomized controlled trial of the effects of nurse case manager and community health worker interventions on risk factors for diabetes-related complications in urban African Americans. Preventive Medicine, 37, 23-32.

O'Malley, A. S., Gonzalez, R. M., Sheppard, V. B., Huerta, E., & Mandelblatt, J. (2003). Primary care cancer control interventions including Latinos: a review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25, 264-271.

35>14. Physician predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors predict their practice much as such factors predict patient behavior. Green, Eriksen, & Schorr, 1988; Mirand, Beehler, et al., 2002, 2003.

*Green, L. W., Eriksen, M. P., & Schor, E. L. (1988). Preventive practices by physicians: Behavioral determinants and potential interventions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4 ,(suppl. 4, 1988): 101-107, reprinted in R. N. Battista and R. S. Lawrence, (Eds.), Implementing Preventive Services, pp. 101-107. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988;

*Mirand, A. L., Beehler, G. P., Kuo, C. L., & Mahoney, M. C. (2002). Physician perceptions of primary prevention: qualitative base for the conceptual shaping of a practice intervention tool. BMC Public Health, 2(1), 16.

*Mirand, A. L., Beehler, G. P., Kuo, C. L., and Mahoney, M. C.  (2003).  Explaining the de-prioritization of primary prevention:  Physicians' perceptions of their role in the delivery of primary care.  BioMed Central Public Health, 3(1), 15.

15. The characterization of barriers to physicians practicing primary prevention, based on PRECEDE analysis of focus groups themes, using grounded theory analysis of findings: Mirand, et al., 2003. See also Thompson, Rivara et al, 2000.

*Mirand AL, Beehler GP, Kuo CL, Mahoney MC. (2003). Explaining the de-prioritization of primary prevention: Physicians' perceptions of their role in the delivery of primary care. BMC Public Health, 3, 15. Full text Epub 2003 May 02 at URL shown below with source of Figure 9-1.

*Thompson, R. S., Rivara, F. P., Thompson, D. C., Barlow, W. E., Sugg, N. K., Maiuro, R. D., & Rubanowice, D. M. (2000).  Identification and Management of Domestic Violence:  A Randomized Trial.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19(4):  253-262.

Figure 9-1: The barriers to physicians practicing preventive care, represented as predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors from a focus group study applying the PRECEDE framework.

SOURCE: Mirand, et al. 2003. Copyright © 2003, Mirand et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL. BMC Public Health. 2003; 3 (1): 15. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=12729463


 


40>16. Patients' demand for prescription drug and low tolerance for discomfort. Vanden Eng, Marcus, et al., 2003; Walley, 2002.

Vanden Eng, J., Marcus, R., Hadler, J. L., Imhoff, B., Vugia, D. J., Cieslak, P. R., Zell, E., Deneen, V., McCombs, K. G., Zansky, S. M., Hawkins, M. A., & Besser, R. E.. (2003). Consumer attitudes and use of antibiotics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9, 1128-1135. Full text.

Walley, T. (2002). Lifestyle medicines and the elderly. Drugs and Aging, 19, 163-168. Review.

41>17. Reasons for over prescribing of antibiotics. Haltiwanger, Hayden, et al., 2001; Turnidge, 2001; Vanden Eng, Marcus, et al., 2003.

Haltiwanger, K. A., Hayden, G. F., Weber, T., Evans, B. A., & Possner, A. B. (2001). Antibiotic-seeking behavior in college students: what do they really expect? Journal of American College Health, 50, 9-13.

Turnidge, J. (2001). Responsible prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections. Drugs, 61, 2065-2077. Review.

Vanden Eng, J., Marcus, R., Hadler, J. L., Imhoff, B., Vugia, D. J., Cieslak, P. R., Zell, E., Deneen, V., McCombs, K. G., Zansky, S. M., Hawkins, M. A., & Besser, R. E.. (2003). Consumer attitudes and use of antibiotics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9, 1128-1135. Full text.

43>18. Discrepancies in practice guidelines from different sources of research synthesis and review. E.g., Assendelft, Morton, et al., 2003, on discrepancies among guidelines on management of low back pain; Costanza, et al., 1992 re American Cancer Society guidelines on mammography vs. USPSTF and NCI; J. Mann, 2002, on the alternatives to randomized controlled trials for long-lagged nutrition interventions, e.g., in cancer treatment.

Assendelft, W. J., Morton, S. C., Yu, E. I., Suttorp, M. J., Shekelle, P. G. (2003). Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. A meta-analysis of effectiveness relative to other therapies. Annals of Internal Medicine, 138, 871-881. Review. Summary for patients in: Annals of Internal Medicine, 138(11), I33.

*Costanza, M. E., Stoddard, A. M., Zapka, J. G., Gaw, V. P., & Barth R. (1992). Physician compliance with mammography guidelines: barriers and enhancers. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 5 (2), x1-10; and 231-232.

Mann, J. (2002). Discrepancies in nutritional recommendations: The need for evidence based nutrition. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11, Suppl 3, S510-515.

44>19. Information overload for the practitioner makes guidelines less likely to be applied. Dodek & Ottoson, 1996. E.g., "...more than 40 clinical practice guidelines pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been published since 1985" (Heffner & Ellis, 2003, p. 1257). Nurses are increasingly faced with a similar overload and additional "tension between standardisation of service, client choice and the use of clinical expertise in decision making" (Hewitt-Taylor, 2003, p. 41).

Dodek, P. & Ottoson, J. M. (1996). The implementation link between clinical practice guidelines and continuing medical education.  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 16,  82-93.

Heffner, J. E., & Ellis, R. (2003). The guideline approach to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: how effective? Respiratory Care, 48, 1257-1268.

Hewitt-Taylor, J. (2003). Developing and using clinical guidelines. Nursing Standards, 18, 41-44. Review.

 The Rationale

20. Guidelines often seen by practitioners as derived from artificially constructed research in populations and circumstances unrepresentative of their own. Garfield, et al., 2003; Glasgow et al., 2003; Green, 2001.

Garfield, S. A., Malozowski, S., Chin, M. H., Venkat Narayan, K. M., Glasgow, R. E., Green, L. W., Hiss, R. G., Krumholz, H. M., Diabetes Mellitus Interagency Coordinating Committee (DIMCC) Translation Conference Working Group. (2003). Considerations for diabetes translational research in real-world settings. Diabetes Care, 26, 2670-2674.

Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why don't we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1261-1267.

Green, L. W. (2001). From research to "best practices" in other settings and populations. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25, 165-78. [full text]

21. Making the research more relevant to practitioners and their patients through participatory research. E.g., Green & Mercer, 2001; Macaulay, Commanda, et al., 1999.

Green, L. W., & Mercer, S. L. (2001). Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities? American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1926-1929.

Green, L. W., & Mercer, S. M. (2004). Participatory research. In N. Anderson (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior, vol 2, pp. 650-653. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Macaulay, A. C., Commanda, L. E., Freeman, W. L., Gibson, N., McCabe, M. L., Robbins, C. M., & Twohig, P. L. (1999). Participatory research maximises community and lay involvement. North American Primary Care Research Group. British Medical Journal, 319, 774-778. Review.

48>22. Primary care practitioners provide preventive services in less than 1/3 of patients seen. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 1996.

US Preventive Services Task Force (1996). Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

54>23. Contributions of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force to putting patient education and counseling interventions into the mainstream of clinical prevention. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 1989.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (1989). Guide to clinical preventive services: An assessment of the effectiveness of 169 interventions. Baltimore: William & Wilkens.

 

An Epidemiological and Community Approach to Health Care

55>24. The ecological focus of this section, based on adaptations and updates of Green, 1994, and of Green, Mullen, & Friedman, 1986, and Ibid as Chapter 29 in Cramer & Spilker, 1991, is on the environments of patients, including the home, school, workplace, and the health care setting itself. For consideration of the role of hospitals and health care workers in community health promotion, school health, or work-site health promotion, see the respective previous chapters. For applications of PRECEDE in hospital settings, see Bartholmew, Koenning, et al., 1994;  Bartholomew, Seilheimer, et al., 1988. This project received the Award of Program Excellence from the Society for Public Health Education, 1994. Berland, Whyte, & Maxwell, 1995; Burglehaus, Smith, Sheps, & Green, 1997; Calabro, Weltge, et al., 1998; Fulmer et al., 1992; Han, Baumann, & Cimprich, 1996; Kovar et al., 1992; Larson et al., 1991, 1997; Macrina, Macrina, et al., 1996; McGovern, Kochevar, et al., 1997; Macarthur, Macarthur, & Weeks, 1995; Malo & Leviton, 1987; Michalsen et al., 1997; Parcel et al., 1994; Taggart et al., 1991; van Veenendal, Grinspun, & Adriaanse, 1996.

*Bartholomew L. K., Koenning, G., Dahlquist, L., & Barron, K. (1994). An educational needs assessment of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research 7: 136-143.

*Bartholomew, L. K., Seilheimer, D. K., Parcel, G. S., Spinelli, S. H., & Pumariega, A. J. (1989). “Planning patient education for cystic fibrosis: Application of a diagnostic framework,”Patient Education and Counseling, 13, 57-68.

*Berland, A., Whyte, N. B., & Maxwell, L. (1995). Hospital nurses and health promotion. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 27, 13-31.

*Burglehaus, M. J., Smith, L. A., Sheps, S. B., & Green, L. W. (1997). Physicians and breastfeeding: Beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy and counselling practices. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 383-387.

*Calabro, K., Weltge, A., Parnell, S., Kouzekanani, K. & Ramirez, E. (1998). Intervention for medical students: Effective infection control.  American Journal of Infection Control, 26: 431-436.

*Fulmer, H. S., Cashman, S., Hattis, P., Schlaff, A., & Horgan, D. M.. (1992).  Bridging the gap between medicine, public health and the community: PATCH and the Carney Hospital experience. Journal of Health Education, 23, 167-170.

*Green, L.W. (1994). Refocusing health care systems to address both individual care and population health. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 17, 133-141.

*Green, L. W., Mullen, P. D., & Friedman, R. (1986). An epidemiological approach to targeting drug information. Patient Education & Counseling, 8, 255-268.

*Han, Y., Baumann, L. C., & Cimprich, B. (1996). Factors influencing registered nurses teaching breast self-examination to female clients. Cancer Nursing, 19, 197-203.

*Kovar, P. A., Allegrante, J. P. MacKenzie, R., Peterson, M. G. E., Gutin, B., & Charlson, M. E. (1992). Supervised fitness walking in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 116, 529-534.

*Larson, E. L., Bryan, J. L., Adler, L. M., & Blane, C. (1997). A multifaceted approach to changing handwashing behavior. American Journal of Infection Control, 25, 3-10.

 *9-24 Larson, E., McGeer, A., Quraishi, Z. A., et al. (1991).  Effect of an automated sink on handwashing practices and attitudes in high-risk units. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 12, 422-427.

*Macrina, D., Macrina, N., Horvath, C., Gallaspy, J., & Fine, P. R. (1996). An educational intervention to increase use of the Glasgow Coma Scale by emergency department personnel. International Journal of Trauma Nursing, 2, 7-12.

*McGovern, P. M., Kochevar, L. K., Vesley, D., & Gershon, R. R. M. (1997). Laboratory professionals' compliance with universal precautions. Laboratory Medicine, 28, 725-730.

*Macarthur, A., Macarthur, C., & Weeks, S. (1995).  Epidural anaesthesia and low back pain after delivery: A prospective cohort study.  British Medical Journal, 311, 1336-1339.

*Maiman, L. A., Green, L. W., Gibson G., & MacKenzie, E. J. (1979). Education for self-treatment by adult asthmatics. Journal of the American Medical Association, 241, 1919-1922.

Malo, E., & Leviton, L. C. (1987). Decision points for hospital-based health promotion. Hospital and Health Services Administration, 32, 49-61. 

*Michalsen, A., Delclos, G. L., Felknor, S. A., Davidson, A. L., Johnson, P. C., Vesley, D., Murphy, L. R., Kelen, G. D., & Gershon, R. R. M. (1997). Compliance with universal precautions among physicians. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 39,  130-7.

*Parcel, G. S., Swank, P. R., Mariotto, M. J., Bartholomew, L. K., Czyzewski, D. I., Sockride, M. M., & Seilheim, D. K. (1994). Self-management of cystic-fibrosis--A structural model for educational and behavioral variables. Social Science and Medicine, 38, 1307-1315.

*Taggart, V. S., Zuckerman, A. E., Sly, R. M., Steinmueller, C., Newman, G., O'Brien, R. W., Schneider, S., &  Bellanti, J. A.(1991). You can control asthma: evaluation of an asthma education program for hospitalized inner-city children. Patient Education and Counseling, 17, 35-47.

*van Veenendal, H., Grinspun, D. R., & Adriaanse, H. P. (1996). Educational needs of stroke survivors and their family members, as perceived by themselves and by health professionals. Patient Education and Counseling, 28, 265-276.

56>25. The terms compliance and patient are used here for convenience and convention, even though several of the types of error discussed here are not patient errors of failing to follow physicians’ directions, and when they are errors of the recipients of medical instructions, the errors are not strictly within the role of patient. Many are errors sometimes of physicians, nurses, or pharmacists themselves, or of patients who have not yet received appropriate directions from a physician or other health care provider. We shall introduce the phrase health care error to encompass the wider range of behavioral and environmental sources of medical or health care problems that PRECEDE-PROCEED attempts to address. The issue of practitioner compliance with best practices guidelines has become one of the focal points for many applications of PRECEDE-PROCEED. See for example Makrides, Veinot, Richard, & Allen, 1997; K. V. Mann & Putnam, 1989, 1990; K. V. Mann, Putnam, Lindsay, & Davis, 1996; and endnotes 18-20 above. For more on the concept and language of compliance, see Mullen, 1997.

*Makrides, L., Veinot, P. L., Richard, J. & Allen, M. J. (1997). Primary care physicians and coronary heart disease prevention: A practice model. Patient Education and Counseling, 32, 207-217.

*Mann, KV (Office of the Dean, Fac. Med., Dalhousie Univ., Tupper Med. Bldg., Halifax, NS B3H 4H7), RW Putnam (1990).  Barriers to prevention: physician perceptions of ideal versus actual practices in reducing cardiovascular risk. Canadian Family Physician 36:665-670.

*Mann, KV, RW Putnam (1989).  Physicians' perceptions of their role in cardiovascular risk reduction. Preventive Medicine 18:45-58.

*Mann, K. V., Putman, R. W., Lindsay, E. A. & Davis, D. A. (1990). Cholesterol: Decreasing the Risk.  An educational program for physicians.  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 10: 211-222.

Mullen, P. D. (1997). Compliance becomes concordance. British Medical Journal, 314,  691-692.

58>26. Reviews of continuing medical education and dissemination of best practices based on PRECEDE framework: Burr & Johanson, 1998; D. A. Davis, Thomson, Oxman, & Haynes, 1992, 1995; Lomas, 1993; Lomas & Haynes, 1988; Mann, 1994; Oxman, Thomson, Davis, & Haynes, 1995; Tamblyn & Battista, 1993. See also endnotes 10 and 11 above.

*Burr, R., & Johanson, R. (1998). Continuing medical education: An opportunity for bringing about change in clinical practice. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 105, 940-945.

*Davis D. A., Thomson, M. A., Oxman, A. D., Haynes, R. B. (1992).  Evidence for the effectiveness of CME: A review of 50 randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 1111-1117.

*Lomas, J. (1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: Who should do what? In K. S. Warren & F. Mosteller (Eds.). Doing more good than harm: The evaluation of health care interventions (pp. 226-237). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 703.

*Lomas, J. and Haynes, R. B. (1988). A taxonomy and critical review of tested strategies for the application of clinical practice recommendations: From "official" to "individual" clinical policy.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, (Suppl.), 77-94.

*Oxman, A. D., Thomson, M. A., Davis, D. A., Haynes, R. B. (1995). No magic bullets: A systematic review of 102 trials of interventions to improve professional practice. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 153, 1423-1431.

*Tamblyn, R., & Battista, R. (1993). Changing clinical practice: Which interventions work?  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 13, 273-288.

 Epidemiology of Health Care Errors

    Health Care Errors of Omission

60>27. Applications of PRECEDE in assessing or planning for screening behavior and programs. Allen, 1992; Bird, Otero-Sabogal, 1996; Black, Stein, & Loveland-Cherry, 2001; Buller, Modiano, et al., 1998; Chie & Chang, 1994; Cockburn, Tompson, et al., 1997; Coleman, Lord, et al., 2003; Curry & Emmons, 1994; Danigelis & Roberson, 1995; Desnick, Taplin, et al., 1999; Dignan, Michielutte, et al., 1998; Engelstad, Bedeian, et al., 1996; Mercer et al., 1997; Rimer, 1993; Zapka, Stoddard, et al., 1989; Zapka et al., 1993.

*Allen, K. D. (1992).  Predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors associated with women’s reported Pap smear screening behaviour (Master’s thesis).  Toronto, ON: University of Toronto, Graduate Department of Nursing Science.

*Bird, J. A., Otero-Sabogal, R., Ha, N.-T., & McPhee, S. J. (1996).  Tailoring lay health worker interventions for diverse cultures: lessons learned from Vietnamese and Latina communities. Health Education and Behavior, 23 (Suppl.), S105-S122.

*Black, M. E. A., Stein, K. F., Loveland-Cherry, C .J. (2001).Older women and mammography screening behavior: Do possible selves contribute? Health Education and Behavior, 28, 200-216.

*Buller, D., MR Modiano, J Guernsey de Zapien, J Meister, S Saltzman & F Hunsaker (1998). Predictors of cervical cancer screening in Mexican American women of reproductive age.  Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9 (1): 76-95.

*Chie, W. C., &  Chang, K. J. (1994). Factors related to tumor size of breast cancer at treatment in Taiwan.  Preventive Medicine, 23, 91-97.

*Cockburn, J., Tompson, S. C., Marks, R., Jolley, D., Schofield, P., & Hill, D. (1997).  Behavioural dynamics of a clinical trial of sunscreens for reducing solar keratoses in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 51: 716-721.

*Coleman, E. A., Lord, J., Heard, J., Coon, S., Cantrell, M., Mohrmann, C., & O’Sullivan, P. (2003). The Delta Project: Increasing breast cancer screening among rural minority and older women by targeting rural healthcare providers. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30, 669-677.

*Curry, S. J., & Emmons, K. M.  (1994).  Theoretical models for predicting and improving compliance with breast cancer screening.  Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 302-316.

*Danigelis, N. L.,  Roberson, N. L., Worden, J. K., Flynn, B.,  Dorwaldt, A. L.,  Ashley, J. A.,  Skelly, J. M., & Mickey, R. M. (1995).  Breast screening by African-American women: Insights from a household survey and focus groups.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 11, 311-317.

*Desnick, L., Taplin, S., Taylor, V., Coole, D., & Urban, N.  (1999). Clinical breast examination in primary care: Perceptions and predictors among three specialties. Journal of Women’s Health, 8, 389-397.

*Dignan, M. B., Michielutte, R., Wells, H. B., Sharp, P., Blinson, K., Case, L. D., Bell, R., Konen, J., Davis, S., & McQuellon, R. P. (1998). Health education to increase screening for cervical cancer among Lumbee Indian women in North Carolina.  Health Education Research, 13, 545-556.

*Dignan, M. B., Michielutte, R ., Wells, H. B., & Bahnson, J. (1994). The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project--I. Cervical cancer screening for black women. Health Education Research, 9, 411-420.

*Engelstad, L., Bedeian, K., Schorr, K., & Stewart, S. (1996).  Pathways to early detection of cervical cancer for a multiethnic, indigent, emergency department population. Health Education and Behavior, 23 (Suppl.), S89-S104.

*Mercer, S. L., Goel, V., Levy, I. G., Ashbury, F. D., Iverson, D. C., & Iscoe, N. A. (1997). Prostrate cancer screening in the midst of controversy: Canadian men’s knowledge, beliefs, utilization, and future intentions. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 327-332. 

*Rimer, B. K. (1995). Audience and messages for breast and cervical cancer screenings. Wellness Perspectives: Research, Theory and Practice, 11(2):13-39.

*Rimer, B. K., Davis, S. W., Engstrom, P. F., et al. (1988). Some reasons for compliance and noncompliance in a health maintenance organization breast cancer screening program. Journal of Compliance in Health Care, 3, 103-114.

*Rimer, B. K., Jones, W., Wilson, C., Bennett, D., & Engstrom, P. (1983). Planning a cancer control program for older citizens. Gerontologist, 23, 384-389.

 *Rimer, B. K., Keintz, M. K., Kessler, H. B., Engstrom, P. F., & Rosan, J. R. (1989). Why women resist screening mammography: Patient-related barriers. Radiology, 172, 243-6.

*Zapka, J. G.., Harris, D. R., Hosmer, D., Costanza, M. E., Mas, E., & Barth, R. (1993). Effect of a community health center intervention on breast cancer screening among Hispanic American women.  Health Services Research, 28, 223-35.

*Zapka, J. G., Stoddard, A. M., Costanza, M. E., & Greene, H. L. (1989). Breast cancer screening by mammography: Utilization and associated factors. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 1499-1502.

*Zapka, J. G., & Mamon, J. A. (1982). Integration of theory, practitioner standards, literature findings and baseline data: A case study in planning breast self-examination education. Health Education Quarterly, 9, 330-356. 

 *Zapka, J. G., & Mamon, J. A. (1986). Breast elf-examination in young women. II. Characteristics associated with proficiency. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 70-78.

64-28. For specific applications of PRECEDE for increased use of health services for high blood pressure control, see R. L. Bertera & Cuthie, 1984; Fors, Owen, et al., 1989; Grueninger, Duffy, & Goldstein, 1995;
Haber, 1994; D. M. Levine et al., 1982; Livingston, 1985; Mamon et al., 1987; Mann, 1989; Modeste, Abbey, & Hopp, 1984–1985; Morisky, Levine, Wood et al., 1981; Salazar, 1985; Wallenius, et al., 1995; Ward et al., 1982.

*Bertera, R. L., & Cuthie, J. C. (1984).  Blood pressure self-monitoring in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 26, 183-188.

*Fors, S. W., Owen, S., Hall, W. D., et al. (1989). Evaluation of a diffusion strategy for school-based hypertension education. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 255-61.

*Grueninger, U. J., Duffy, F. D., & Goldstein, M. G. (1995). Patient education in the medical encounter: How to facilitate learning, behavior change, and coping. In M. Lipkin, Jr., S. M. Putnam, and A. Lazare (Eds.), The medical interview: Clinical care, education, and research, pp. 122-133,.Bern: Mack Lipkin, Jr., MD.

*Haber, D. (1994). Medical screenings and health assessments. In D. Haber (Ed.), Health promotion and aging (pp. 41-76). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

 *Levine, D. M., Morisky, D. E., Bone, L. R., Lewis, C., Ward, W.B., & Green, L.W. (1982). Data-based planning for educational interventions through hypertension control programs for urban and rural populations in Maryland. Public Health Reports, 97, 107-112.

*Livingston, I. L. (1985). Hypertension and health education intervention in the Carribean: A public health appraisal.  Journal of the National Medical Association, 77, 273-820.

*Modeste, N. N.,  Abbey, D. E., & Hopp, J. W.(1984-85). Hypertension in a Caribbean population. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 5,  203-211.

*Morisky, D. E., Levine, D. M. Wood, J. C., et al. (1981).  Systems approach for the planning, diagnosis, implementation and evaluation of community health education approaches in the control of high blood pressure. Journal of Operations Research, 50, 625-634.

*Salazar, M. K. (1985). Dealing with hypertension: Using theory to promote behavioral change. AAOHN Journal, 43, 313-318.

*Wallenius, S. H., Vainio, K. K., Korhonen, M. J. H.,  Hartzema, A. G., & Enlund, H.K. (1995).  Self-initiated modification of hypertension treatment in response to perceived problems.  The Annals of Pharmacotherapy,  29, 1213-1217.

*Ward, W. B., Levine, D. M., Morisky, D., Bone, L. R., Ward, E., Soff, G., & McKinney, R. (1982). Controlling high blood pressure in inner city Baltimore through community health education. In R. W. Carlaw (Ed.). Perspectives on Community Health Education: A Series of Case Studies. Vol 1: United States (pp. 73-79). Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing Co.

76>29. Pharmacists' interventions to clarify or correct drug errors. Herbert & Paluck, 1997; Paluck, 1998; Paluck, Green, et al., 2003.

Herbert, C. P., & Paluck, E. (1997). Can primary care physicians be a resource to their patients in decisions regarding alternative and complementary therapies for cancer? Patient Education and Counseling, 31, 179-180.

*Paluck, E. C. M. (1998). Pharmacist-client communication: A study of quality and client satisfaction.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

*Paluck EC, Green LW, Frankish CJ, Fielding DW, Haverkamp B. (2003). Assessment of communication barriers in community pharmacies. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 26, 380-403.

77>30. When drug prices are too high. Cockburn et al., 1997; Danzon & Towse, 2003.

*Cockburn, J., Tompson, S. C., Marks, R., Jolley, D., Schofield, P., & Hill, D. (1997).  Behavioural dynamics of a clinical trial of sunscreens for reducing solar keratoses in Victoria, Australia.  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 51, 716-721.

Danzon, P. M., & Towse, A. (2003). Differential pricing for pharmaceuticals: reconciling access, R&D and patents. International Journal of Health Care, Finance & Economics, 3,183-205.

 

Health Care Errors of Commission

80>31. For reviews of the continuing medical education literature applying PRECEDE, see Bertram & Brooks-Bertram, 1977; and the more recent reviews cited in endnote 26. For other approaches based on quality control, see Canadian Council of Cardiovascular Nurses, 1993, which uses the Precede model to set clinical health promotion standards of practice and quality assurance guidelines for cardiovascular nurses; see also Eriksen, Green, & Fultz, 1988; Goldrick & Larson, 1992; Grol, 2002; Mann, Viscount, et al., 1996; Mann, Putman, et al., 1990; Ottoson, 1995; Tamblyn & Battista, 1993.

*Bertram, D. A., & Brooks-Bertram, P. A. (1977). The evaluation of continuing medical education: A literature review. Health Education Monographs, 5, 330-362.

*Canadian Council of Cardiovascular Nurses (1993). Standards for cardiovascular health education. Ottawa: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

*Eriksen, M. P.,. Green, L. W., & Fultz, F. G. (1988). Principles of changing health behavior. Cancer, 62, 1768-1775.

*Goldrick, B. A., & Larson, E. (1992). Assessing the need for infection control programs: a diagnostic approach. Journal of Long Term Care Administration, 20, 20-23.

*Grol, R. (2002). Changing physicians' competence and performance: finding the balance between the individual and the organization. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 22, 244-251.

*Mann KV, Viscount PW, Cogdon A, Davidson K, Languille DB, Maccara ME.  Multidisciplinary learning in continuing professional education: The heart health Nova Scotia experience. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions16, 50-60.

*Mann, K. V., Putman, R. W., Lindsay, E. A. & Davis, D. A. (1990). Cholesterol: Decreasing the risk.  An educational program for physicians.  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 10, 211-222.

*Ottoson, J. M. (1995).  Use of a conceptual framework to explore multiple influences on the application of learning following a continuing education program. Canadian Journal of Adult Education, 9(2), 1-18.

*Tamblyn, R., & Battista, R.  (1993). Changing clinical practice: Which interventions work?  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 13, 273-288.

81>32. Applications of PRECEDE in accomplishing patient education through mass media include Bakdash, 1983;
Centers for Disease Control, 1987; Kroger, 1994; Meredith, O’Reilly, & Schulz, 1989.

*Bakdash, M. B. (1983). The use of mass media in community periodontal education. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 43, 128-131.

*Centers for Disease Control (1987). Information/Education Plan to Prevent and Control AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Service.

*Kroger, F. (1994).  Toward a healthy public.  American Behavioral Scientist, 38, 215-223.

*Meredith, K., O’Reilly, K., & Schulz, S. L. Education for HIV risk reduction in the hemophilia community: Report of the meeting, Convening a Panel of Expert Consultants; Atlanta, GA, November 28-30, 1989.

83>33. PRECEDE applied in assessing understanding and perceptions of patients with osteoarthritis who had been prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Yeo, 1998.

*Yeo, M. (1998). Drug-related illness in older women: Perceptions of factors affecting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug self-management practices. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary, Alberta.

89>34. Formulas proposed to estimate drug error propensities in populations of patients. Green, Mullen, & Friedman, 1986.

Green, L. W., Mullen, P. D., & Friedman, R. (1986). An epidemiological approach to targeting drug information. Patient Education & Counseling, 8, 255-268.

90>35. Tailoring of health messages for patients or professionals now possible with computer technology. Casebeer, Strasser, et al., 2003; Flottorp & Oxman, 2003; Kreuter, Oswald, et al., 2000; Kukafka, Lussier, et al., 2002.

Casebeer, L. L., Strasser SM, Spettell CM, Wall TC, Weissman N, Ray MN, Allison JJ. (2003). Designing tailored Web-based instruction to improve practicing physicians' preventive practices. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 5, e20.

Flottorp S, Oxman AD. (2003). Identifying barriers and tailoring interventions to improve the management of urinary tract infections and sore throat: a pragmatic study using qualitative methods. BMC Health Services Research, 3, 3. [Full text]

Kreuter MW, Oswald DL, Bull FC, Clark EM. (2000). Are tailored health education materials always more effective than non-tailored materials? Health Education Research, 15, 305-15.

Kukafka R, Lussier YA, Eng P, Patel VL, Cimino JJ. (2002). Web-based tailoring and its effect on self-efficacy: results from the MI-HEART randomized controlled trial. Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium, 410-4.

91>36. Applications of PRECEDE in prenatal assessment or clinical preventive care include Covington, Peoples-Sheps, et al., 1998; Donovan, 1991; V. C. Li et al., 1984; Olson, 1994; Sword, 1999; Williams, Innis, et al., 1999; Windsor, 1984, 1986; Windsor et al., 1985.

*Covington, D. L., Peoples-Sheps, M. D., Buescher, P. A., Bennett, T. A. & Paul, M. V. (1998). An evaluation of an adolescent prenatal education program. American Journal of Health Behavior, 22, 323-33.

*Donovan, C.L. (1991). Factors predisposing, enabling and reinforcing routine screening of patients for preventing fetal alcohol syndrome: A survey of New Jersey physicians. Journal of Drug Education, 21, 35-42.

*Li, V. C., Coates, T. J., Spielberg, L. A., et al. (1984). Smoking cessation with young women in public family planning clinics: The impact of physician messages and waiting room media. Preventive Medicine, 13, 477-489.

*Olson, C. M. (1994). Promoting positive nutritional practices during pregnancy and lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(suppl.), 525S-31S.

*Sword, W. (1999). A socio-ecological approach to understanding barriers to prenatal care for women of low income. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29, 1170-7.

*Williams, P. L., Innis, S. M., Vogel, A. M. P., & Stephen, L. J. (1999).  Factors influencing infant feeding practices of mothers in Vancouver. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 90, 114-9. 

*Windsor, R. A. (1984). Planning and Evaluation of Public Health Education Programs in Rural Settings: Theory into Practice, in Advancing Health Through Education: A Case Study Approach, H.P. Cleary, J. M. Kichen, P. G. Ensor, eds. (Palo Alto: Mayfield), pp. 273-84.

 *Windsor, R. A. (1986). An application of the PRECEDE Model for planning and evaluating education methods for pregnant smokers. Hygie: International Journal of Health Education 5 (3): 38-43.

*Windsor, R. A., Cutter, G.. Morris, J., Reese, Y., Adams, B. & Bartlett, E. (1985). Effectiveness of self-help smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women in public health maternity clinics: A randomized trial. American Journal of Public Health, 75, 1389-1392.

 

Patient Considerations in Targeting Interventions


94>37. Some applications of PRECEDE in assessing patient “compliance,” “adherence,” or “concordance” problems in selected care issues and settings include Allegrante, Kovar, et al., 1993; W. C. Bailey et al., 1987; Barnhoorn & Andriannse, 1992; Bowler & Morisky, 1983; Bowler, Morisky, & Deeds, 1980; Chwalow, Green, et al., 1978; Cramer, 1994; Cramer & Spilker, 1991; Eastaugh & Hatcher, 1982; Estey, Tan, & Mann, 1990; Fedder, 1982; Fireman, Friday, et al., 1981; Green, Levine, et al., 1979; Green & Simons-Morton, 1988; Kelly, 1990; Leppik, 1990; Levine, Green, et al., 1979; Mann & Putnam, 1989; Morisky, 1986; Morisky, DeMuth, et al., 1985; Opdycke, Ascione, et al., 1992; Parcel, Swank, et al., 1994; Rimer, Davis, et al., 1988; Rimer, Keintz, et al., 1989; Roter, 1977; Tamez & Vacalis, 1989; Zapka et al., 1993.

*Allegrante, J. P., Kovar, P. A., MacKenzie, C. R., Peterson, M. G., Gutin, B. (1993). A walking education program for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: Theory and intervention strategies. Health Education Quarterly,20, 63-81.

*Bailey, W. C., Richards, JM Jr, Manzella BA, Windsor RA, Brooks CM, Soong SJ. (1987). Promoting self-management in adults with asthma: an overview of the UAB program. Health Education Quarterly, 14, 345-55.

*Barnhoorn, F. & Adriaanse, H. (1992). In search of factors responsible for noncompliance among tuberculosis patients in Wardha District, India. Social Science & Medicine, 34, 291-306. [Erratum published  in Social Science & Medicine, 1992 Jun;34(11):II]. 

*Bowler, M. H. and Morisky, D. E. (1983). Small group strategy for improving compliance behavior and blood pressure control. Health Education Quarterly, 10, 57-69.

*Bowler, M.H., Morisky, D.E., & Deeds, S.G. (1980). Needs assessment strategies in working with compliance issues and blood pressure control. Patient Counseling and Health Education, 2, 22-27.

*Chwalow,  A. J., Green, L. W., Levine, D. M., & Deeds, S. G. (1978). Effects of the multiplicity of interventions on the compliance of hypertensive patients with medical regimens in an inner-city population. Preventive Medicine, 7, 51.

*Cramer, J. A. (1994). Quality of life and compliance.  In M. R. Trimble and W. E. Dodson (Eds.), Epilepsy and Quality of Life. New York: Raven Press, Chap. 4, pp. 49-63.

*9-37 Cramer, J. A., & Spilker, B. (Eds.). (1991). Patient compliance in medical practice and clinical trials. New York: Raven Press.

*Eastaugh, S. R., & Hatcher, M. E. (1982). Improving compliance among hypertensives: A triage criterion with cost-benefit implications. Medical Care, 20, 1001-1017. 

*Estey, A. L., Tan, M. H., Mann, K. (1990). Follow-up intervention: Its effect on compliance behavior to a diabetes regimen. Diabetes Education, 16, 291-295.

*Fedder, D. O. (1982). Managing medication and compliance: Physician-pharmacist-patient interactions. Journal American Geriatric Society, 11 (Suppl.), 113-117.

*Fireman, P., Friday, G. A., Gira, C., Vierthaler, W. A., Michaels, L. (1981). Teaching self-management skills to asthmatic children and their parents in an ambulatory care setting. Pediatrics, 68, 341-348.

*Green, L. W., Levine, D. M., Wolle, J., & Deeds, S. G. (1979). Development of randomized patient education experiments with urban poor hypertensives. Patient Counseling and Health Education, 1, 106-111.

*Green, L.W., and Simons-Morton, D.  (1988). Denial, delay and disappointment: discovering and overcoming the causes of drug errors and missed appointments. In D. Schmidt, & I. E. Leppik (eds.). Compliance in Epilepsy (Epilepsy Research, Suppl. 1, pp. 7-21) Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

*Kelly, G. R. (1990). Medication compliance and health education among outpatients with chronic mental disorders. Medical Care, 28, 1181-1197.

*Leppik, I. E. (1990). How to get patients with epilepsy to take their medication: The problem of noncompliance. Postgraduate Medicine, 88, 253-256.

*Levine, D. M., Green, L. W., Russell, R. P., Morisky, D., Chwalow, A. J., and Benson, P. (1979). Compliance in hypertension management: What the physician can do. Practical Cardiology, 5, 151-60.

*Morisky, D. E. (1986). Nonadhenence to medical recommendations for hypertensive patients: Problems and potential solutions. Journal of Compliance in Health Care, 1, 5-20.

*Morisky, D. E., DeMuth, N. M., Field-Fass, M., Green, L. W., & Levine, D. M. (1985). Evaluation of family health education to build social support for long-term control of high blood pressure. Health Education Quarterly, 12, 35-50.

*Morisky, D. E.,. Levine, D. M , Green, L. W., Shapiro, S., Russell, R. P., & Smith, C. R. (1983). Five-year blood-pressure control and mortality following health education for hypertensive patients. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 153-62.

*Opdycke, R. A. C., Ascione, F. J., Shimp, L. A., & Rosen, R. I. (1992).  A systematic approach to educating elderly patients about their medications.  Patient Education and Counseling, 19, 43-60.

*Parcel, G. S., Swank, P. R., Mariotto, M. J., Bartholomew, L. K., Czyzewski, D. I., Sockride, M. M., & Seilheim, D. K. (1994). Self-management of cystic-fibrosis--A structural model for educational and behavioral variables. Social Science and Medicine, 38, 1307-15.

*Rimer, B. K., Davis, S. W., Engstrom, P. F., et al. (1988). Some reasons for compliance and noncompliance in a health maintenance organization breast cancer screening program. Journal of Compliance in Health Care, 3, 103-14.

*Rimer, B. K., Keintz, M. K., Kessler, H. B., Engstrom, P. F., & Rosan, J. R. (1989). Why women resist screening mammography: patient-related barriers. Radiology, 172, 243-6.

    and others on compliance with mammography screening exams (see endnote 9-27).

*Roter, D. L. (1977). Patient participation in the patient-provider interaction: The effects of patient question-asking on the quality of interaction, satisfaction and compliance. Health Education Monographs, 5, 281-315.

*Tamez, E. G. & Vacalis, T. D. (1989). Health beliefs, the significant other and compliance with therapeutic regimens among adult Mexican American diabetics. Health Education, 20(6), 24-31.

*Zapka J.G., Costanza, M. E., Harris, D. R., Hosmer, D., Stoddard, A., Barth, R., & Gaw, V. (1993). Impact of a breast cancer screening community intervention. Preventive Medicine, 22, 34-53.

 

The Undiagnosed

96>38. Women acknowledge more symptoms and seek more care for them than do men. Some assessments of health care utilization patterns applying PRECEDE include W. C. Bailey, et al., 1987; Barner, Mason, & Murray, 1999; Coleman, Lord, et al., 2003; Covington, Peoples-Sheps, et al., 1998; Knazan, 1986; Maxwell, Bastani, & Warda, 1998; Mercer et al., 1997; Muus & Ahmed, 1991; Rimer, 1993; Zapka, Harris, et al., 1993; Zapka, Stoddard, et al., 1989.

*Bailey, W. C., Richards, J. M., Jr, Manzella, B. A., Windsor, R. A., Brooks, C. M., & Soong, S. J. (1987). Promoting self-management in adults with asthma: an overview of the UAB program. Health Education Quarterly, 14, 345-355.

*Barner, J. C., Mason, H. L., & Murray, M. D. (1999).  Assessment of asthma patients' willingness to pay for and give time to an asthma self-management program. Clinical Therapeutics, 21,  878-894.

*Coleman, E. A., Lord, J., Heard, J., Coon, S., Cantrell, M., Mohrmann, C., & O’Sullivan, P. (2003). The Delta Project: Increasing breast cancer screening among rural minority and older women by targeting rural healthcare providers. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30, 669-77.

*Covington, D. L., Peoples-Sheps, M. D. , Buescher, P. A., Bennett, T. A. & Paul, M.V.  (1998). An evaluation of an adolescent prenatal education program. American Journal of Health Behavior, 22, 323-33.

*Knazan, Y.L. (1986). Application of PRECEDE to dental health promotion for a Canadian well-elderly population. Gerodontics 2, 180-185.

*Maxwell, A. E., Bastani, R., & Warda, U. S. (1998). Mammography utilization and related attitudes among Korean-American women.  Women and Health, 27, 89-107. 

*Mercer, S. L., Goel, V., Levy, I. G., Ashbury, F. D., Iverson, D. C., & Iscoe, N. A. (1997). Prostrate cancer screening in the midst of controversy: Canadian men’s knowledge, beliefs, utilization, and future intentions. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 327-332. 

*Muus, K. J. &  Ahmed, K. A.(1991). Physician utilization behavior among rural residents. Focus on Rural Health, Fall, 10-12.

*Zapka, J. G.., Harris, D. R., Hosmer, D., Costanza, M. E., Mas, E., & Barth, R. (1993). Effect of a community health center intervention on breast cancer screening among Hispanic American women.  Health Services Research, 28, 223-235.

*Zapka, J. G., Stoddard, A., & Barth, R., et al. (1989). Breast Cancer Screening Utilization by Latina Community Health Center Clients.  Health Education Research, 4, 461-468.

98>39. Underrepresentation of men in health care visits. Bertakis, Azari, et al., 2000. By convention, the National Disease and Therapeutic Index employs the term mentions (including refills and renewal of prescriptions) to reflect drug usage. The term should not be interpreted as equivalent to number of patients, visits, or prescriptions.

Bertakis, K. D., Azari, R., Helms, L. J., Callahan, E. J., & Robbins, J. A. (2000). Gender Differences in the Utilization of Health Care Services. Journal of Family Practice, 49, 147-152.

99>40. Some applications of PRECEDE in addressing the socioeconomic gradient in health care utilization include Barnhoorn & Andriaanse, 1992; Dignan, Michielutte, et al., 1994; Hiatt, Pasick, et al., 1996; C. B. McCoy, Nielsen, et al., 1991.

*Barnhoorn, F. & Adriaanse, H. (1992). In search of factors responsible for noncompliance among tuberculosis patients in Wardha District, India. Social Science & Medicine, 34, 291-306. 

*Dignan, M. B., Michielutte, R ., Wells, H. B., & Bahnson, J. (1994). The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project--I. Cervical cancer screening for black women. Health Education Research, 9, 411-420.

*Hiatt, R. A., Pasick, R. J., Perez-Stable, E. J., McPhee, S., Engelstad, L., Lee, M., Sabogal, F., D’Onofrio, C. N. & Stewart, S. (1996). Pathways to early cancer detection in the multiethnic population of the San Francisco Bay Area. Health Education Quarterly, 23 (Suppl.), S10-S27.

*McCoy, C. B., Nielsen, B. B., Chitwood, D. D., Zavertnik, J. J., & Khoury, E. L. (1991). Increasing the cancer screening of the medically underserved in South Florida. Cancer, 67, 1808-1813.

100>41. Applications of PRECEDE that have addressed health issues in racial or ethnic populations include Airhihenbuwa, 1995; Daniel & Green, 1995; Daniel, Green, et al., 1999; Dedobbeleer & Desjardins, 2001; Dignan, Michielutte, Wells, & Bahnson, 1995; Doyle, Beatty, & Shaw, 1999; Eng, 1993; Englestad, Bedeian, et al., 1996; Glanz, Carbone, & Song, 1999; Gottlieb & Green, 1987; Hiatt, Pasick, et al., 1996; Keith & Doyle, 1998; McGowan & Green, 1995; Modeste, Abbey, & Hopp, 1984–1985; Neef, Scutchfield, Elder, & Bender, 1991; O’Brien, Smith, Bush, & Peleg, 1990; Pasick, D'Onofrio, & Otero-Sabogal, 1996; Sanders-Phillips, 1991; 1996; Satia-Abouta, J., Patterson, et al., 2002; Sutherland, Pittman-Sisco, et al., 1989; Walter & Vaughan, 1993.

*Airhihenbuwa, C. (1995). Health and culture: Beyond the Western paradigm. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc..

*Daniel, M., & Green, L. W. (1995). Application of the Precede-Proceed model in prevention and control of diabetes: A case illustration from an Aboriginal community. Diabetes Spectrum, 8, 80-123.

*Daniel, M., Green, L. W., Marion, S. A., Gamble, D., Herbert, C. P., Hertzman, C., & Sheps, S. B.  (1999). Effectiveness of community-directed diabetes prevention and control in a rural Aboriginal population in British Columbia, Canada.  Social Science & Medicine, 48: 815-832.

*Dedobbeleer, N., & Desjardins, S. (2001). Outcomes of an ecological and participatory approach to prevent alcohol and other drug abuse among multiethnic adolescents.  Substance Use and Misuse, 36, 1959-1991.

*Doyle, E. I., Beatty, C.F., & Shaw, M. W. (1999). Using cooperative learning groups to develop health-related cultural awareness. Journal of School Health, 69, 73-76.

*Engelstad, L., Bedeian, K., Schorr, K., & Stewart, S. (1996).  Pathways to early detection of cervical cancer for a multiethnic, indigent, emergency department population. Health Education and Behavior, 23 (Suppl.), S89-S104.

Glanz, K., Carbone, E., & Song, V.  (1999).  Formative research for developing targeted skin cancer prevention programs for children in multiethnic Hawaii.  Health Education Research, 14, 155-166.

*Gottlieb, N. H., & Green, L. W. (1987). Ethnicity and lifestyle health risk: Some possible mechanisms. American Journal of Health Promotion, 2, 37-45.

*Keith, S. E., & Doyle, E. I. (1998). Using PRECEDE/PROCEED to address diabetes within the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. American Journal of Health Behavior 22, 358-367.

*McGowan, P.,  & Green, L. W. (1995).  Arthritis self-management in native populations of British Columbia: An application of health promotion and participatory research principles in chronic disease control. Canadian Journal of Aging, 14, 201-212.

*Modeste, N. N.,  Abbey, D. E., & Hopp, J. W.(1984-85). Hypertension in a Caribbean population. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 5,  203-211.

*Neef, N., Scutchfield, F. D., Elder, J. & Bender, S. J. (1991). Testicular self examination by young men: An analysis of characteristics associated with practice. Journal of American College Health, 39, 187-190.

*O'Brien, R. W., Smith, S. S., Bush, P. J., & Peleg, E. (1990). Obesity, self-esteem, and Health Locus of Control in Black youths during transition to adolescence. American Journal of Health Promotion, 5, 133-139.

*Pasick, R. J., D'Onofrio, C. N., & Otero-Sabogal, R. (1996).  Similarities and differences across cultures: questions to inform a third generation for health promotion research. Health Education Quarterly, 23 (Suppl.), S142-161.

*Sanders-Phillips, K. (1991). A model for health promotion in ethnic minority families. Wellness Lecture Series. University of California President's Office, Oakland, CA, Oct. 28.

*Sanders-Phillips, K. (1996).  Correlates of health promotion behaviors in low-income black women and Latinas.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12, 450-8.

*Satia-Abouta, J., Patterson, R. E., Kristal, A. R., et al. (2002). Psychosocial predictors of diet and acculturation in Chinese American and Chinese Canadian women. Ethnicity & Health, 7, 21-39.

*Sutherland, M., Pittman-Sisco, C., Lacher, T., & Watkins, N. (1987). The application of a health education planning model to a school based risk reduction model. Health Education, 18(3), 47-51.

*Walter, H. J., & Vaughan, R. D. (1993). AIDS risk reduction among a multiethnic sample of urban high-school students. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 725-30.

101>42. Affluent and white patients receive more information and preventive procedures from health-care practitioners. Edwards, Burns, et al., 2003; Sanders-Phillips, 1996.

Edwards, R., Burns, J. A., McElduff, P., Young, R. J., & New, J. P. (2003). Variations in process and outcomes of diabetes care by socio-economic status in Salford, UK. Diabetologia. 2003 Jun;46, 750-759. Epub 2003 May 23.

*Sanders-Phillips, K. (1996).  Correlates of health promotion behaviors in low-income black women and Latinas.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12, 450-8.

105>43. Older patients have more chronic illnesses, medical visits, and drug prescriptions. Noble, 2003; Yeo, 1998.

Noble, R. E. (2003). Drug therapy in the elderly. Metabolism, 52 (10 Suppl 2), 27-30. Review.

*Yeo, M. (1998). Drug-related illness in older women: Perceptions of factors affecting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug self-management practices. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary, Alberta.

109>44. Complications of errors in following prescribed regimens are greater for older patients. Green, Mullen, & Stainbrook, 1986; Noble, 2003. Applications of PRECEDE in planning and evaluating programs for the elderly include Keintz, Rimer, et al., 1988; Kemper, 1986; Knazan, 1986; Lian, Gan, et al., 1999; McGowan & Green, 1995; Morisky, Levine, Green, & Smith, 1982; Oliver-Vazquez, Sanchez-Ayendez, et al., 1999; 2002; Opdycke, Ascione, et al., 1992; Pichora-Fuller, 1997; Rainey, Mayo, et al., 2000; Rainey & Cason, 2001; Rimer, Jones, et al., 1983; A. Ryan, 1998; Weinberger et al., 1992; Yeo, 1998; Zapka, Costanza, et al., 1993; Zapka, Harris, et al., 1993; Zapka, Hosmer, et al., 1992.

*Keintz, M. K., Rimer, B. K., Fleisher, L., & Engstrom, P. (1988). Educating older adults about their increased cancer risk. Gerontologist, 28, 487-90.

*Kemper, D. (1986). The Healthwise Program: Growing younger. In K. Dychtwald, (Ed.), Wellness and Health Promotion for the Elderly, pp. 263-273. Rockville, MD: Aspen.

*Knazan, Y.L. (1986). Application of PRECEDE to dental health promotion for a Canadian well-elderly population. Gerodontics 2, 180-5.

*Lian, W. M., Gan, L., Pin, C. H., Wee, S., & Ye, H. C.. (1999).  Determinants of leisure-time physical activity in an elderly population in Singapore. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1578-80.

*Morisky, D. E., Levine, D. M., Green, L. W., & Smith, C. (1982). Health education program effects on the management of hypertension in the elderly. Archives of Internal Medicine, 142, 1935-8.

*Oh, H., Kim, Y. (1993).  Planning process of health promotion programs for individuals with arthritis (in Korean).  Kanhohak Tamgu, 2, 79-99, 100-1.

*Oliver-Vazquez, M., Sanchez-Ayendez, M., Suarez-Perez, E., Velez-Almodovar, H. (1999). Planning a breast cancer health promotion: Qualitative and quantitative data on Puerto Rican elderly women. Promotion and Education, 5, 16-19.

*Oliver-Vazquez, M.; Sanchez-Ayendez, M.; Suarez-Perez, E.; Velez-Almodovar, H.; Arroyo-Calderon, Y. (2002). Breast cancer health promotion model for older Puerto Rican women: Results of a pilot programme.  Health Promotion International, 17, 3-11.

*Opdycke, R. A. C., Ascione, F. J., Shimp, L. A., & Rosen, R. I. (1992).  A systematic approach to educating elderly patients about their medications.  Patient Education and Counseling, 19,  43-60.

*Pichora-Fuller, M. K. (1997). Assistive listening devices in accessibility programs for the elderly: A health promotion approach (pp.161-202). In R. Lubinski & J. Higginbothan (Eds.), Communication Technologies for the Elderly. San Diego: Singular Press.

*Rainey, C. J., Mayo, R. M., Haley-Zitlin, V., Kemper, K. A., & Cason, K. L. (2000). Nutritional beliefs, attitudes and practices of elderly, rural, southern women.  Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 20(2), 3-27.

 *Rainey C. J., & Cason K. L. (2001). Nutrition interventions for low-income, elderly women. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25, 245-51.

*Rimer, B. K., Jones, W., Wilson, C., Bennett, D., & Engstrom, P. (1983). Planning a cancer control program for older citizens. Gerontologist, 23, 384-9.

*Ryan, A.A. (1998). Medication compliance and older people: A review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 36, 153-62.

*Weinberger, M., Saunders, A. F. Bearon, L. B., Gold, D. T., Trig Brown, J., Samsa, G. P., & Loehrer, P. J. (1992).  Physician-related barriers to breast cancer screening in older women.  The Journals of Gerontology, 47(special issue), 111-7.

*Zapka J.G., Costanza, M. E., Harris, D. R., Hosmer, D., Stoddard, A., Barth, R., & Gaw, V. (1993). Impact of a breast cancer screening community intervention. Preventive Medicine, 22, 34-53.

Zapka, J. G.., Harris, D. R., Hosmer, D., Costanza, M. E., Mas, E., & Barth, R. (1993). Effect of a community health center intervention on breast cancer screening among Hispanic American women.  Health Services Research, 28, 223-35.

Zapka, J. G., Hosmer, D., Costanza, M. E., Harris, D. R., & Stoddard, A. (1992). Changes in mammography use: Economic, need, and service factors. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1345-51. 

110>45. Limited evidence that continuing medical education will result in changed practice. See endnotes 1, 11, 19, 26, and 31 above.

   

    Diagnosed Nonusers Who Received Inappropriate Medical Recommendations

113>46. Mixed results still of more recent innovations in continuing education. Haber, 1994; Han, Baumann, & Cimprich, 1996; K. V. Mann, 1994; Rootman, 1997; Speller, Evans, & Head, 1997; but promising developments in more practice-based and participatory research approaches, Cervero, 2003; Green & Mercer, 2001; Moore, & Pennington, 2003.

Cervero, R. M. (2003). Place matters in physician practice and learning. Journal of  Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 23, Suppl 1:S10-8.

*Haber, D. (1994). Medical screenings and health assessments. In D. Haber (Ed.), Health promotion and aging (pp. 41-76). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

*Han, Y., Baumann, L. C., & Cimprich, B. (1996). Factors influencing registered nurses teaching breast self-examination to female clients. Cancer Nursing, 19, 197-203.

Mann, K.V. (1994). Educating medical students: Lessons from research in continuing education. Academic Medicine, 69, 41-47.

Moore, D. E., Jr, & Pennington, F. C. (2003). Practice-based learning and improvement. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 23, Suppl 1, S73-80.

Rootman, I. (1997). Continuous quality improvement in health promotion: Some preliminary thoughts from Canada. Promotion and Education, 4(2): 23-25. 

Speller, V., Evans, D., & Head, M. J. (1997). Developing quality assurance standards for health promotion practice in the UK. Health Promotion International, 12, 215-224.

116>47. Mass media influence on medical prescribing and patient demands for drugs. E.g., hormone replacement therapy (HT) was called into question as to its safety by the Women's Health Initiative, with much media coverage in 2002; "during the 6-8 months after publication of Women's Health Initiative trial findings, most regular postmenopausal HT users tried to stop using HT, despite not being well informed about the Women's Health Initiative findings" (Ettinger, Grandy, et al., 2003, p.1225).

Ettinger, B., Grady, D., Tosteson, A. N., Pressman, A., & Macer, J. L. (2003). Effect of the Women's Health Initiative on women's decisions to discontinue postmenopausal hormone therapy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 102, 1225-1232.

Nonusers Who Did Not Obtain a Recommended Treatment

   Policy Changes

121>48. Patient education improves patient adherence and clinical outcomes. P. D. Mullen & Green, 1985. More recent systematic reviews confirm the benefits in Type 1 diabetes (Loveman, Cave, et al., 2003); in 63 studies of patient education interventions to control Type 2 diabetes showing improved blood sugar control and weight loss (Gary, Genkinger, et al., 2003); in 32 studies of educational interventions on asthma control in children and adolescents showing improved lung function and feelings of self control, reduced absenteeism from school, number of days with restricted activity, number of visits to an emergency department, and possibly number of disturbed nights (Guevara, Wolf, et al., 2003); in 15 trials of optimum self-management education for adult asthma that produced reduced hospitalization, ER visits, unscheduled doctor visits and nocturnal asthma (Powell & Gibson, 2003); in 31 studies (randomized controlled trials) of patient education with rheumatoid arthritis showing "small short-term effects on disability, joint counts, patient global assessment, psychological status and depression" (Riemsma, Kirwan, et al., 2003); in 37 published, controlled studies that investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions on quality of life in adult cancer patients (Rehse & Pukrop, 2003); in 95 cohorts receiving behavioral, educational or combined interventions in 61 studies to improve medication adherence, revealing an increase in adherence of 4-11% (Peterson, Takiya, & Finley, 2003). Results of two meta analyses on smoking cessation self-help materials and counseling were not so conclusive as to effectiveness (Lancaster & Stead, 2002; Wiggers, Smets, et al., 2003).

Gary TL, Genkinger JM, Guallar E, Peyrot M, Brancati FL. (2003). Meta-analysis of randomized educational and behavioral interventions in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Education, 29, 488-501.

Guevara JP, Wolf FM, Grum CM, Clark NM. (2003). Effects of educational interventions for self management of asthma in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 326, 1308-9. Review.

Lancaster T, Stead LF. (2002). Self-help interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2002;(3), CD001118. Review.

Loveman E, Cave C, Green C, Royle P, Dunn N, Waugh N. (2003). The clinical and cost-effectiveness of patient education models for diabetes: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment, 7, iii, 1-190. Review.

Nose M, Barbui C, Gray R, Tansella M. (2003). Clinical interventions for treatment non-adherence in psychosis: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183,197-206. Review.

Peterson AM, Takiya L, Finley R. (2003). Meta-analysis of trials of interventions to improve medication adherence. American Journal of Health System Pharmacies, 60, 657-65.

Powell H, Gibson PG. (2003). Options for self-management education for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003 (1):CD004107. Review.

Rehse B, Pukrop R. (2003). Effects of psychosocial interventions on quality of life in adult cancer patients: meta analysis of 37 published controlled outcome studies. Patient Education & Counseling, 50, 179-186.

Riemsma RP, Kirwan JR, Taal E, Rasker JJ. (2003). Patient education for adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD003688. Review.

Wiggers LC, Smets EM, de Haes JC, Peters RJ, Legemate DA. (2003). Smoking cessation interventions in cardiovascular patients. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 26, 467-75.

122>49. Meta-analyses show positive effects of educational and counseling interventions, but usually no significant differences between the average effect sizes of different interventions. P. D. Mullen, Green, & Persinger, 1985; Peterson, Takiya, & Finley, 2003.

Mullen, P. D., Green, L. W., & Persinger, G. (1985). Clinical trials of patient education for chronic conditions: A comparative meta-analysis of intervention types. Preventive Medicine, 14, 753-781.

Peterson AM, Takiya L, Finley R. (2003). Meta-analysis of trials of interventions to improve medication adherence. American Journal of Health System Pharmacies, 60, 657-65.

 Allocation Decisions

126>50. Community-Oriented Primary Care. Cashman & Stenger, 2003; Geiger, 2002; Glasser, Holt, et al., 2003; Iliffe & Lenihan, 2003; Mullan & Epstein, 2002.

Cashman SB, Stenger J. (2003). Healthy communities: a natural ally for community-oriented primary care.
American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1379-1380.

Geiger HJ. (2002). Community-oriented primary care: a path to community development. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1713-6.

Glasser M, Holt N, Hall K, Mueller B, Norem J, Pickering J, Brown K, Peters K. (2003). Meeting the needs of rural populations through interdisciplinary partnerships. Family & Community Health, 26, 230-45.

Iliffe S, Lenihan P. (2003). Integrating primary care and public health: learning from the community-oriented primary care model. International Journal of Health Services, 33, 85-98. Review.

Mullan F, Epstein L. (2002). Community-oriented primary care: new relevance in a changing world. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1748-55.

Application of Educational Diagnosis to Individual Patients

127>51. Estimated "noncompliance" or relapse rates ranging from 20% to 80% first documented in a systematic review by Haynes, Taylor, & Sackett, 1979; but the increasing prescription of complex lifestyle modifications (such as weight loss) as the regimen would make the higher end (80%) closer to the average today than the 20%-50% when the prescribed regimens were more frequently drugs. The increasing cost of drugs could also push the nonadherence rate upward.

Haynes, R. B.,  Taylor, D. W., &  Sackett, D. L.(Eds). (1979).  Compliance in Health Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

130>52. Estimated improvements in outcomes from systematic educational-behavioral-environmental interventions derive from systematic reviews of controlled trials, Green, Mullen, & Friedman, 1986; Mullen, Green, & Persinger, 1985; Mullen, Simons-Morton, et al., 1997; and the continuing rates of change found in the more recent reviews cited in endnote 50.

Green, L. W., Mullen, P. D., & Friedman, R. (1986). An epidemiological approach to targeting drug information. Patient Education & Counseling, 8, 255-68.

Mullen, P. D., Green, L. W., & Persinger, G. (1985). Clinical trials of patient education for chronic conditions: A comparative meta-analysis of intervention types. Preventive Medicine, 14, 753-81.

Mullen, P. D., Simons-Morton, D. G., Ramirez, G., Frankowski, R. F., Green, L. W., Mains, D. A. (1997). A meta-analysis of trials evaluating patient education and counseling for three groups of preventive health behaviors. Patient Education & Counseling, 32, 157-73.

132>53. Osteoarthritis program of interventions to reduce pain and increase functioning, Allegrante, Kovar, et al., 1993; Blake, Allegrante, et al., 2002; Kovar, Allegrante, et al., 1992; Marks & Allegrante, 2001; Ruchlin, Allegrante, et al., 1997; Sullivan, Allegrante, et al., 1998; extended to prevention strategies for younger women (Kasper, Peterson, & Allegrante, 2001), prevention of hip fractures and other co-morbidities in older patients (Marks & Allegrante, 2002; Marks, Allegrante, et al., 2003), and patient education with high-intensity strength training to improve rehabilitation after hip fracture, yielding cost-benefit ratios exceeding 4.5 (Ruchlin, Elkin, & Allegrante, 2001).

*Allegrante JP, Kovar PA, MacKenzie CR, Peterson MG, Gutin B. (1993). A walking education program for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: theory and intervention strategies. Health Education Quarterly, 20, 63-81.

Blake VA, Allegrante JP, Robbins L, Mancuso CA, Peterson MG, Esdaile JM, Paget SA, Charlson ME. (2002). Racial differences in social network experience and perceptions of benefit of arthritis treatments among New York City Medicare beneficiaries with self-reported hip and knee pain. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 47, 366-71.

*Kasper MJ, Peterson MG, Allegrante JP. (2001). The need for comprehensive educational osteoporosis prevention programs for young women: results from a second osteoporosis prevention survey.
Arthritis & Rheumatism, 45, 28-34.

*Kovar PA, Allegrante JP, MacKenzie CR, Peterson MG, Gutin B, Charlson ME. (1992). Supervised fitness walking in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 116, 529-34.

Marks, R., & Allegrante, J. P. (2001). Nonoperative management of osteoarthritis. Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine, 13, 131-58.

Marks R, Allegrante JP. (2002). Comorbid disease profiles of adults with end-stage hip osteoarthritis. Medical Science Monitor, 8(4), CR305-9.

Marks R, Allegrante JP, Ronald MacKenzie C, Lane JM. (2003). Hip fractures among the elderly: causes, consequences and control. Ageing Research Reviews, 2, 57-93. Review.

Ruchlin HS, Elkin EB, Allegrante JP. (2001). The economic impact of a multifactorial intervention to improve postoperative rehabilitation of hip fracture patients. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 45, 446-52.

Sullivan T, Allegrante JP, Peterson MG, Kovar PA, MacKenzie CR. (1998). One-year followup of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who participated in a program of supervised fitness walking and supportive patient education. Arthritis Care & Research, 11, 228-33.

The Relapse Curve

134>54. Typical relapse curve for complex behavioral changes. Marlatt & Gordon, 1985. See also Allen, Lowman, & Miller, 1996; and weight control examples: Birketvedt, Thom et al., 2000; Skender, Goodrick, et al., 1996.

Birketvedt GS, Thom E, Bernersen B, Florholmen J. (2000). Combination of diet, exercise and intermittent treatment of cimetidine on body weight and maintenance of weight loss. A 42 months follow-up study. Medical Science Monitor, 6, 699-703.

Skender ML, Goodrick GK, Del Junco DJ, Reeves RS, Darnell L, Gotto AM, Foreyt JP. (1996). Comparison of 2-year weight loss trends in behavioral treatments of obesity: diet, exercise, and combination interventions. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 342-6.

135>55. Relapse prevention strategies can change the level at which the curve bottoms out. Green, Cargo, & Ottoson, 1994. See further examples and applications of relapse prevention strategies in Conn, Minor, et al., 2003; Lowe, Windsor, & Woodby, 1997; Secker-Walker, Solomon, & Mead, 1995.

Conn VS, Minor MA, Burks KJ, Rantz MJ, Pomeroy SH. (2003). Integrative review of physical activity intervention research with aging adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 51, 1159-68. Review.

139>56. The first randomized trials testing the PRECEDE model were in patient care settings for asthma and hypertension.  Green, 1974; Green, Levine, & Deeds, 1975.

*Green, L. W. (1974). Toward cost-benefit evaluations of health education: Some concepts, methods, and examples. Health Education Monographs, 2 (Suppl. 1), 34-64.

*Green, L. W., Levine, D. M., & Deeds, S. G. (1975). Clinical trials of health education for hypertensive outpatients: Design and baseline data. Preventive Medicine, 4, 417-25.

140>57. First randomized trial of PRECEDE application showed 50% reduction in emergency room visits for asthma in 18-week follow-up, Green, Werlin, et al., 1977. This trial achieved a 1/7 cost-benefit ratio.

*Green, L. W., Werlin, S. H., Shauffler, H. H., & Avery, C. H. (1977). Research and demonstration issues in self-care: Measuring the decline of medicocentrism. Health Education Monographs 5: 161-89; also in J. G. Zapka(Ed.), The SOPHE heritage collection of Health Education Monographs, vol. 3. Oakland: Third Party Publishing, 1981, pp. 40-69.

140>58. Hopkins hypertension trial results showed significantly better blood pressure control after 18-month follow-up compared with controls. D. M. Levine, Green, Deeds, et al., 1979; D. M. Levine, Green, Russell, et al., 1979.

*Levine, D. M., Green, L. W.,. Deeds, S. G., et al. (1979). Health Education for Hypertensive Patients. Journal of the American Medical Association, 241, 1700-1703.

*Levine, D. M., Green, L. W., Russell, R. P., Morisky, D., Chwalow, A. J., and Benson, P. (1979). Compliance in hypertension management: What the physician can do. Practical Cardiology, 5, 151-160.

141>59. Outcomes correlated with exposure to interventions and mediating or moderating variables. Green, Levine, & Deeds, 1977; Green, Levine, Wolle, & Deeds, 1979.

Green, L.W., Levine, D.M., Wolle, J., Deeds, S. Development of randomized patient education experiments with urban poor hypertensives. Patient Couns. Health Educ. 1:106 111, 1979. For listing of published applications of the measure of patient compliance first presented here, see http://www.lgreen.net/bibliographies.

142>60. Long-term results showed 54% reduction in mortality in the hypertension patients. Morisky, Levine, et al., 1983.

Morisky, D. E.,. Levine, D. M , Green, L. W., Shapiro, S., Russell, R. P., & Smith, C. R. (1983). Five-year blood-pressure control and mortality following health education for hypertensive patients. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 153-62.

143>61. First trial of PRECEDE with smoking cessation. V. C. Li, Coates, et al., 1984.

Li, V. C., Coates, T. J., Spielberg, L. A., et al. (1984). Smoking cessation with young women in public family planning clinics: The impact of physician messages and waiting room media. Preventive Medicine, 13, 477-89.

144>62. Further trials of PRECEDE on smoking cessation in pregnant women multiplied the quit rate by 2 against self-help manuals, by 7 against usual care in the public health clinic. Windsor, 1984, 1986; Windsor & Cutter, 1983; Windsor et al., 1985. See also recent adaptations and extensions of this work by Lowe et al., 1997; Windsor, 2003; with interventions that evolved into the SCRIPT protocol for smoking cessation in pregnancy (Windsor, 2000), and combined with other recommendations from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality guidelines, an intervention that doubled the rate of smoking cessation in Medicaid maternity clinics (Windsor, Woodby, et al., 2000).

Windsor RA. (2000). Counselling smokers in Medicaid maternity care: the SCRIPT project. Tobacco Control, 9 (Suppl 1), I62.

Windsor R. (2003). Smoking cessation or reduction in pregnancy treatment methods: a meta-evaluation of the impact of dissemination. American Journal of Medical Science, 326, 216-22. Review.

Windsor RA, Woodby LL, Miller TM, Hardin JM, Crawford MA, DiClemente CC. (2000). Effectiveness of Agency for Health Care Policy and Research clinical practice guideline and patient education methods for pregnant smokers in medicaid maternity care. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 82, 68-75.

146>63. Tuberculosis medication dropouts reduced from 73% to 36%. Morisky, Malotte, et al., 1990. For  continuing work of Morisky and his colleagues on this issue, see Morisky, Ebin, et al., 2003; Morisky, Malotte, et al, 2001.

Morisky DE, Ebin VJ, Malotte CK, Coly A, Kominski G. (2003). Assessment of tuberculosis treatment completion in an ethnically diverse population using two data sources. Implications for treatment interventions. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 26, 43-58.

*Morisky DE, Malotte CK, Choi P, Davidson P, Rigler S, Sugland B, Langer M. (1990). A patient education program to improve adherence rates with antituberculosis drug regimens. Health Education Quarterly, 17, 253-67.

Morisky DE, Malotte CK, Ebin V, Davidson P, Cabrera D, Trout PT, Coly A. (2001). Behavioral interventions for the control of tuberculosis among adolescents. Public Health Reports, 116, 568-74.

 

A Hierarchy of Factors Affecting Self-Care Behavior

152>64. Example of predictive questionnaires for triaging and staging patients on readiness for change, e.g., Carter et al., 1986 for immunization;  Nielson, Jensen, & Kerns, 2003, for readiness to adopt specific pain management skills training; and others developed specifically for analysis of predictors of behavior using the Precede framework, e.g., for bulimic tendencies, Benson & Taub, 1993; for breast self-examination, Morrison, 1996; for mammography screening, Black, Stein, & Loveland-Cherry, 2001; for cervical cancer screening, Buller, Modiano, et al., 1998; Michielutte, Dignan, et al., 1999; for compliance with use of protective equipment, DeJoy, Searcy, et al., 2000; for HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users, Deren, Kang, et al., 2003. Polcyn, Price, et al., 1991 specifically validated a questionnaire and the Precede Model for predicting users of smokeless tobacco.

*Benson, R., & Taub, D. E. (1993). Using the PRECEDE model for causal analysis of bulimic tendencies among elite women swimmers: Predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling causes in educational diagnosis. Journal of Health Education, 24, 360-68.

*Black, M. E. A., Stein, K. F., & Loveland-Cherry, C. J. (2001). Older women and mammography screening behavior: Do possible selves contribute? Health Education and Behavior, 28, 200-16.

*Buller, D., Modiano, M. R., Guernsey de Zapien, J. , Meister, J., Saltzman, S., & Hunsaker, F. (1998).  Predictors of cervical cancer screening in Mexican American women of reproductive age.  Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9, 76-95.

*DeJoy, D. M., Searcy, C. A., Murphy, L. R., Gershon, R. R. (2000). Behavioral-diagnostic analysis of compliance with universal precautions among nurses. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 127-41.

*Deren, S., Kang, S.-Y., Rapkin, B., Robles, R. R., Andia, J. F., & Colon, H. M. (2003). The utility of the PRECEDE Model in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Puerto Rican injection drug users. AIDS & Behavior, 7,:405-412.

*Michielutte, R., Dignan, M. B., Sharp, P. C., Blinson, K., & Wells, B. (1999).  Psychological factors related to cervical screening among Lumbee women.  American Journal of Health Behavior, 23, 115-27.

*Morrison, C. (1996). Using PRECEDE to predict breast self-examination in older, lower-income women. American Journal of Health Behavior,  20, 3-14.

Nielson WR, Jensen MP, Kerns RD. (2003). Initial development and validation of a multidimensional pain readiness to change questionnaire. The Journal of Pain, 4, 148-58.

*Polcyn, M. M., Price, J. H., Jurs, S. G., & Roberts, S. M. (1991). Utility of the PRECEDE Model in differentiating users and nonusers of smokeless tobacco. Journal of School Health, 61, 166-71.

65. Adapting "stages of change" questionnaires by aligning stages with predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors, e.g., for domestic violence, Anderson, 2003; for fitness and physical activity, Cox, Gorely, et al., 2003; Proper, Van der Beek, et al., 2003.  

Anderson C. (2003). Evolving out of violence: an application of the transtheoretical model of behavioral change. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice17, 225-40.

Cox KL, Gorely TJ, Puddey IB, Burke V, Beilin LJ. (2003). Exercise behaviour change in 40 to 65-year-old women: The SWEAT Study (Sedentary Women Exercise Adherence Trial). British Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 477-95.

Proper KI, Van Der Beek AJ, Hildebrandt VH, Twisk JW, Van Mechelen W. (2003). Short term effect of feedback on fitness and health measurements on self reported appraisal of the stage of change. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 529-34.

 

Triage According to Motivation

154>66. Individual attention, relevance, and feedback provided in the communication are better predictors of effective intervention to change prescriptive drug adherence than are the specific modes or channels of communication. P. D. Mullen, Green, & Persinger, 1985. See also Green & Frankish, 1994.

155>67. Same three principles held up as best predictors of effective intervention to change lifestyle health practices in patients. Kok, van den Borne, & Mullen, 1997; P. D. Mullen, Simons-Morton, et al., 1997.

157>68. Physicians talk more, with more qualifications, and on more psychosocial rather than strictly biomedical topics with higher socioeconomic patients (Gordon, Joos, & Byrne, 2000; Roter, Stewart, et al., 1997). Roter's (1977) original work on measuring the qualities of doctor-patient interactions was an adaptation of Bale's Interaction Analysis in a PRECEDE-based study of factors in the activation of patients to ask more questions of their physician. Her methodology has been validated independently in comparison with other methods of measuring doctor-patient interactions (Inui, Carter, et al., 1982; Roter, 2003) and applied extensively in studies of the quality of physician-patient communications and patient education (e.g., Bensing, Roter, & Hulsman, 2003; and see the other citations in this and the next two endnotes).

Bensing JM, Roter DL, Hulsman RL. (2003). Communication patterns of primary care physicians in the United States and the Netherlands. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18, 335-42.

Gordon GH, Joos SK, Byrne J. (2000). Physician expressions of uncertainty during patient encounters. Patient Educ Couns. 2000 Apr;40, (1):59-65.

Inui TS, Carter WB, Kukull WA, Haigh VH. (1982). Outcome-based doctor-patient interaction anaylsis: I. Comparison of techniques. Med Care, 20, 535-49.

Roter DL. (1977). Patient participation in the patient-provider interaction: the effects of patient question asking on the quality of interaction, satisfaction and compliance. Health Education Monographs, 5, 281-315.

Roter DL. (2003). Observations on methodological and measurement challenges in the assessment of communication during medical exchanges. Patient Education & Counseling, 50, 17-21. Review.

Roter DL, Stewart M, Putnam SM, Lipkin M Jr, Stiles W, Inui TS. (1997). Communication patterns of primary care physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 350-6.

158>69. Age and gender characteristics of physicians and patients that may influence the quality of communication and the interaction time in primary care visits. Hall & Roter, 2002; Mann, Sripathy, et al., 2001; Roter, Hall, & Aoki, 2003.

Hall JA, Roter DL. (2002). Do patients talk differently to male and female physicians? A meta-analytic review. Patient Education & Counseling, 48, 217-24.

Mann S, Sripathy K, Siegler EL, Davidow A, Lipkin M, Roter DL. (2001). The medical interview: differences between adult and geriatric outpatients. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 49, 65-71.

Roter DL, Hall JA, Aoki Y. (2002). Physician gender effects in medical communication: a meta-analytic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 756-64.

70. Racial and ethnic differences between doctors and their patients produce less time per visit and less interaction at socioemotional levels. Cooper & Roter, 2003; Cooper, Roter, et al., 2003.

Cooper, L. A., & Roter, D. L. (2003). Patient-provider communication: The effect of race and ethnicity on process and outcomes of health care. In Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (Eds.), Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care.  Washington, DC:  National Academies Press, 2003, pages 552-593.

Cooper LA, Roter DL, Johnson RL, Ford DE, Steinwachs DM, Powe NR. (2003). Patient-centered communication, ratings of care, and concordance of patient and physician race. Annals of Internal Medicine139, 907-15.

Triage According to Enabling Factors

160>71. Anticipatory counseling on side-effects can be framed to reduce quitting of the regimen at the first sign of the side-effects. Albright, Binns, & Katz, 2002; Donovan & Jalleh, 2000.

Albright TA, Binns HJ, Katz BZ. (2002). Side effects of and compliance with malaria prophylaxis in children. Journal of Travel Medicine, 9, 289-92.

Donovan RJ, Jalleh G. (2000). Positive versus negative framing of a hypothetical infant immunization: the influence of involvement. Health Education and Behavior, 27, 82-95.

 

Assessing Reinforcing Factors Necessary for Continued Adherence

161-2>72. Family support for patients' adherence to medical regimens or advice. E.g., Friese & Wamboldt, 2003; MacIntyre, Goebel, et al., 2003; and within PRECEDE constructs, Bartholomew, Seilheimer, et al., 1989; Glanz, Grove, et al., 1999; Lian, Gan, et al., 1999; Morisky, DeMuth, et al., 1980.

*Bartholomew, L. K., Seilheimer, D. K., Parcel, G. S., Spinelli, S. H., & Pumariega, A. J. (1989). “Planning patient education for cystic fibrosis: Application of a diagnostic framework,”Patient Education and Counseling, 13, 57-68.

Fiese BH, Wamboldt FS. (2003). Tales of pediatric asthma management: family-based strategies related to medical adherence and health care utilization. Journal of Pediatrics, 143, 457-62.

*Glanz, K., Grove, J., Lerman, C., Gotay, C., & Le Marchand, L. (1999). Correlates of intentions to obtain genetic counseling and colorectal cancer gene testing among at-risk relatives from three ethnic groups. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 8, 329-36. 

*Lian, W. M., Gan, L., Pin, C. H., Wee, S., & Ye, H. C.. (1999).  Determinants of leisure-time physical activity in an elderly population in Singapore. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1578-80.

MacIntyre CR, Goebel K, Brown GV, Skull S, Starr M, Fullinfaw RO. (2003). A randomised controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of family-based direct observation of anti-tuberculosis treatment in an urban, developed-country setting. International Journal of Tuberculosis & Lung Disease, 7, 848-54.

*Morisky, D. E., DeMuth, N. M., Field-Fass, M., Green, L. W., & Levine, D. M. (1985). Evaluation of family health education to build social support for long-term control of high blood pressure. Health Education Quarterly, 12, 35-50.

163>73. Presence of a companion during physician consultations influenced patients to ask more questions. Borgers, Mullen, et al., 1993. See also the importance of conferring with significant others about symptoms, and social norms, as factor in the delay in seeking medical diagnosis, de Nooijer, Lechner, & de Vries, 2001; 2003; Plowden & Miller, 2000..

Borgers R, Mullen PD, Meertens R, Rijken M, Eussen G, Plagge I, Visser AP, Blijham GH. (1993). The information-seeking behavior of cancer outpatients: a description of the situation. Patient Education & Counseling, 22, 35-46.

de Nooijer J, Lechner L, de Vries H. (2001). A qualitative study on detecting cancer symptoms and seeking medical help; an application of Andersen's model of total patient delay. Patient Education & Counseling, 42, 145-57.

de Nooijer J, Lechner L, de Vries H. (2003). Social psychological correlates of paying attention to cancer symptoms and seeking medical help. Social Science & Medicine, 56, 915-20.

Plowden KO, Miller JL. (2000). Motivators of health seeking behavior in urban African-American men: an exploration of triggers and barriers. Journal of the National Black Nurses Association, 11, 15-20.

74. Overcoming deficiencies of extrinsic reinforcing factors by strengthening predisposing (intrinsic reinforcement) and enabling factors, E.g., Rimmer, Silverman, et al., 2002; quotation from p. 571, or making the reinforcement more vicarious, Dye, Haley-Zitlin, & Willoughby, 2003; Zimmerman, et al. 2004 (see also endnote 76 below).

Dye CJ, Haley-Zitlin V, Willoughby D. (2003). Insights from older adults with type 2 diabetes: making dietary and exercise changes. The Diabetes Educator, 29, 116-27.

Rimmer JH, Silverman K, Braunschweig C, Quinn L, Liu Y. (2002). Feasibility of a health promotion intervention for a group of predominantly African American women with type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 28, 571-80.

Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP; Bardella IJ; Fine MJ; Janosky JE; Santibanez TA; Wilson SA; Raymund M. (2004). Physician and practice factors related to influenza vaccination among the elderly. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26, 1-10.
 

75. Educational approach to make reinforcing factors more intrinsic as predisposing factors in the absence of social or tangible rewards. Green, 1988.

Green, L. W. (1988). The trade-offs between the expediency of health promotion and the durability of health education. In S. Maes, C. D. Spielberger, P. B. Defares, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Topics in Health Psychology (pp. 301-12). New York: Wiley.

76. Vicarious reinforcement through educational materials and modeling, presenting positive and valued role models.  Curry & Cole, 2001; Siela, 2003.

Curry VJ, Cole M. (2001). Applying social and behavioral theory as a template in containing and confining VRE. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 24, 13-9. Review.

Siela D. (2003). Use of self-efficacy and dyspnea perceptions to predict functional performance in people with COPD. Rehabilation Nursing, 28, 197-204.

Self-Monitoring

167>77. Model for changing physician and patient behavior in a two-phased PRECEDE application. Makrides, Veinot, et al., 1997; Mirand, Beehler, et al., 2002 from the same group at Roswell Park (see endnotes 14 and 15 above).

Makrides L, Veinot PL, Richard J, Allen MJ. (1997). Primary care physicians and coronary heart disease prevention: a practice model. Patient Education & Counseling, 32, 207-17.

Changing the Behavior of Health Care Staff

78. Another model emphasizing the physician-organization-patient triad in prevention, based on PRECEDE: Walsh & McPhee, 1992; and their more recent reflections on continuing challenges in primary care: Walsh & McPhee, 2002.

Walsh, J. M. E. & McPhee, S. J. (1992). A systems model of clinical preventive care: An analysis of factors influencing patient and physician. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 57-175.

Walsh JM, McPhee SJ. (2002). Prevention in the year 2002: some news, some issues. Primary Care, 29, 727-49, xi.

171>79. Other applications of PRECEDE relating change in professional practitioners to prevention in patients. Mahloch et al., 1993; Mann et al., 1996; Schapira et al., 1993; and see endnotes 9 and 10 above.

 

Educational and Ecological Diagnosis of Practitioners' Behavior and Health Care Environments

172>80. Constraints on practice of prevention in primary care. Bullock, 1999; Easton, Husten, et al., 2001; Friedmann, McCullough, & Saitz, 2001; Haley, Maheux, et al., 2000; Mann & Putnam, 1990; Mullen & Holcomb, 1990.

Bullock K. (1999). Dental care of patients with substance abuse. Dental Clinics of North America, 43, 513-26. Review.

Easton A, Husten C, Malarcher A, Elon L, Caraballo R, Ahluwalia I, & Frank E. (2001). Smoking cessation counseling by primary care women physicians: Women Physicians' Health Study. Women's Health, 32, 77-91.

Friedmann PD, McCullough D, Saitz R. (2001). Screening and intervention for illicit drug abuse: a national survey of primary care physicians and psychiatrists. Archives of Internal Medicine161, 248-51.

Haley N, Maheux B, Rivard M, Gervais A. (2000). Lifestyle health risk assessment. Do recently trained family physicians do it better? Canadian Family Physician, 46, 1609-16.

Mullen PD, Holcomb JD. (1990). Selected predictors of health promotion counseling by three groups of allied health professionals. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 6, 153-60.

173>81. Discrepancies among practitioners' preventive practices, patients' expectations, and best practices guidelines. Beaulieu, Hudon, et al., 1999; Larson, 2003; Okene & Zapka, 2000.

Beaulieu MD, Hudon E, Roberge D, Pineault R, Forte D, Legare J. (1999). Practice guidelines for clinical prevention: do patients, physicians and experts share common ground? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 161, 519-23.

Larson E. (2003). Status of practice guidelines in the United States: CDC guidelines as an example. Preventive Medicine, 36, 519-24. Review.

Ockene JK, Zapka JG. (2000). Provider education to promote implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Chest, 118 (2 Suppl), 33S-39S. Review.

 

Predisposing Factors

177>82. Physicians tend to give less credence to the importance of counseling on behavioral risk factors for primary prevention than to their need provide medical screening procedures for secondary prevention (e.g., Marcell, Halpern-Felsher, et al., 2002). But even with secondary prevention, they miss on average more than half the opportunities to screen high-risk patients, for example for colorectal cancer (Taylor, Lessler, et al., 2003), skin cancer (Geller, Emmons, et al., 2003), mothers and newborn of unknown HIV risk (Kline & O'Conner, 2003); and cardiovascular disease (McDermott, Hahn, et al., 2002). See also endnotes 12-15 above.

Geller AC, Emmons K, Brooks DR, Zhang Z, Powers C, Koh HK, Sober AJ, Miller DR, Li F, Haluska F, Gilchrest BA. (2003). Skin cancer prevention and detection practices among siblings of patients with melanoma. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 49, 631-8.

Kline MW, O'Connor KG. (2003). Disparity between pediatricians' knowledge and practices regarding perinatal human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing. Pediatrics, 112, e367.

Marcell AV, Halpern-Felsher B, Coriell M, Millstein SG. (2002). Physicians' attitudes and beliefs concerning alcohol abuse prevention in adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22, 49-55.

McDermott MM, Hahn EA, Greenland P, Cella D, Ockene JK, Brogan D, Pearce WH, Hirsch AT, Hanley K, Odom L, Khan S, Criqui MH, Lipsky MS, Hudgens S. (2002). Atherosclerotic risk factor reduction in peripheral arterial diseasea: results of a national physician survey. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17, 895-904.

Taylor V, Lessler D, Mertens K, Tu SP, Hart A, Chan N, Shu J, Thompson B. (2003). Colorectal cancer screening among African Americans: the importance of physician recommendation. Journal of the National Medical Association, 95, 806-12.

178>83. Improved recognition of need to intervene on tobacco, obesity, and osteoporosis. E.g., McIlvain, Backer, et al., 2002; Ogden, Bandara, et al., 2001; Taylor, Sterkel, et al., 2001.

McIlvain HE, Backer EL, Crabtree BF, Lacy N. (2002). Physician attitudes and the use of office-based activities for tobacco control. Family Medicine, 34, 114-9.

Ogden J, Bandara I, Cohen H, Farmer D, Hardie J, Minas H, Moore J, Qureshi S, Walter F, Whitehead MA. (2001). General practitioners' and patients' models of obesity: whose problem is it? Patient Education & Counseling, 44, 227-33.

Taylor JC, Sterkel B, Utley M, Shipley M, Newman S, Horton M, Fitz-Clarence H. (2001). Opinions and experiences in general practice on osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and management. Osteoporosis International, 12, 844-8.

180>84. Differences by medical specialty. Heywood, Firman, et al., 1996; Kline & O'Conner, 2003; McDermot, Hahn, et al., 2002; Yarzebski, Bujor, et al., 2002.

Kline MW, O'Connor KG. (2003). Disparity between pediatricians' knowledge and practices regarding perinatal human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing. Pediatrics, 112, e367.

Yarzebski J, Bujor CF, Goldberg RJ, Spencer F, Lessard D, Gore JM. (2002). A community-wide survey of physician practices and attitudes toward cholesterol management in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162, 797-804.

85. Even pediatricians miss prevention and counseling opportunities and needs.  E.g., Kline & O'Conner, 2003, p. e367.

Kline MW, O'Connor KG. (2003). Disparity between pediatricians' knowledge and practices regarding perinatal human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing. Pediatrics, 112, e367.

182>86. Attitudes and practices of physicians on obesity. Hamilton, James, & Bazargan, 2003.

Hamilton JL, James FW, Bazargan M. (2003). Provider practice, overweight and associated risk variables among children from a multi-ethnic underserved community. Journal of the National Medical Association, 95, 441-8.

185>87. Practitioners' and patients' beliefs regarding determinants of health behavior and their own efficacy in changing them. Hash, Munna, et al., 2003; Love, Davoli, & Thurman, 1996; Ogden, Bandara, et al., 2001.

Hash RB, Munna RK, Vogel RL, Bason JJ. (2003). Does physician weight affect perception of health advice? Preventive Medicine, 36, 41-4.

Love MB, Davoli GW, Thurman QC. (1996). Normative beliefs of health behavior professionals regarding the psychosocial and environmental factors that influence health behavior change related to smoking cessation, regular exercise, and weight loss. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 371-9.

Ogden J, Bandara I, Cohen H, Farmer D, Hardie J, Minas H, Moore J, Qureshi S, Walter F, Whitehead MA. (2001). General practitioners' and patients' models of obesity: whose problem is it? Patient Education & Counseling, 44, 227-33.

192>88. Nurses and allied health professionals face many of the same opportunities and limitations in approaching complex lifestyle changes in patients. Brehm, Rourke, & Cassell, 1999; Han, Bauman, & Cimprich, 1996; Health and Welfare Canada, 1992c; Jenny, 1993; Whittemore, Bak, et al., 2003.

Brehm BJ, Rourke KM, Cassell C. (1999). Training health professionals: a multidisciplinary team approach in a university-based weight-loss program. Journal of Allied Health, 28, 226-9.

Lawvere S, Mahoney MC, Englert JJ, Murphy JM, Hyland A, Klein SB, Loewen GM. (2003). Nurse practitioners' knowledge, practice and attitudes about tobacco cessation & lung cancer screening. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 15, 376-81.

Whittemore R, Bak PS, Melkus GD, Grey M. (2003). Promoting lifestyle change in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 15, 341-9. Review.

Enabling Factors

195>89. Reimbursement policies for preventive services limit effort by practitioners. Fitzner, Caputo, et al., 2003; Pickering, Clemow, et al., 2003; Tamblyn & Battista, 1993.

Fitzner K, Caputo N, Trendell W, French MV, Bondi MA, Jennings C. (2003). Recent tax changes may assist treatment of obesity. Managed Care Interface, 16, 47-51, 55.

Pickering T, Clemow L, Davidson K, Gerin W. (2003). Behavioral cardiology --has its time finally arrived? Mt Sinai Journal of Medicine, 70, 101-12.

*Tamblyn, R. & Battista, R. (1993). Changing clinical practice: Which interventions work?  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 13, 273-288.

197>90. Inadequate patient educational materials in clinical settings. E.g., Davis, Fredrickson, et al., 2001; McIntosh & Shaw, 2003.

Davis TC, Fredrickson DD, Arnold CL, Cross JT, Humiston SG, Green KW, Bocchini JA Jr. (2001). Childhood vaccine risk/benefit communication in private practice office settings: a national survey. Pediatrics, 107 (2), E17.

McIntosh A, Shaw CF. (2003). Barriers to patient information provision in primary care: patients' and general practitioners' experiences and expectations of information for low back pain. Health Expectations, 6, 19-29.

 198>91. Provider prompting systems to enable preventive actions. Bookaloo, Bobbin, et al., 2003; Secker-Walker, Solomon, et al., 1998.

Boekeloo BO, Bobbin MP, Lee WI, Worrell KD, Hamburger EK, Russek-Cohen E. (2003). Effect of patient priming and primary care provider prompting on adolescent-provider communication about alcohol. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 157, 433-9.

Secker-Walker RH, Solomon LJ, Flynn BS, Skelly JM, Mead PB. (1998). Smoking relapse prevention during pregnancy. A trial of coordinated advice from physicians and individual counseling. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 15, 25-31.

200>92. Need for tailoring and multiple interventions to enable preventive actions in order to address the specific barriers in a given clinical setting. Cochran systematic review, Hulscher, Wensing, et al., 2001.

Hulscher ME, Wensing M, van Der Weijden T, Grol R. (2001). Interventions to implement prevention in primary care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2001;(1), CD000362. Review.

 

     Reinforcing Factors

201>93. Feedback from colleagues and patients as reinforcing factors. E.g., Keefe, Thompson, & Noel, 2002; but not necessarily when the feedback is more punitive and less collaborative, e.g., Sandbaek & Kragstrup, 1999.

Keefe CW, Thompson ME, Noel MM. (2002). Medical students, clinical preventive services, and shared decision-making. Academic Medicine, 77, 1160-1.

Sandbaek A, Kragstrup J. (1999). Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. Family Practice, 16, 510-4.

 

Managed Care

202>94. Managed care organizations have greater potential to make prevention systematically and organizationally supported.  Brugge, Bagley, & Hyde, 2003; Marcy, Thabault, et al., 2003; Schauffler & Rodriquez, 1993; esp. R. S. Thompson, 1996, 1997, and Thompson, Taplin, McAfee, Mandelson, & Smith, 1995 accounts of the Group Health Cooperative successes built on an adaptation of PRECEDE; but the potential is not always realized. E.g., Golaszewski, 2000; Gunter, Beaton, et al., 2003.

Brugge D, Bagley J, Hyde J. (2003). Environmental management of asthma at top-ranked U.S. managed care organizations. Journal of Asthma, 40, 605-14.

Golaszewski T. (2000). The limitations and promise of health education in managed care. Health Education & Behavior, 27, 402-16. Review.

Gunter MJ, Beaton SJ, Brenneman SK, Chen YT, Abbott TA 3rd, Gleeson JM. (2003). Management of osteoporosis in women aged 50 and older with osteoporosis-related fractures in a managed care population. Disease Management, 6, 83-91.

Marcy TW, Thabault P, Olson J, Tooze JA, Liberty B, Nolan S. (2003). Smoking status identification: two managed care organizations' experiences with a pilot project to implement identification systems in independent practice associations. American Journal of Managed Care, 9, 672-6.

Schauffler HH, McMenamin S, Cubanski J, Hanley HS. (2001). Differences in the kinds of problems consumers report in staff/group health maintenance organizations, independent practice association/network health maintenance organizations, and preferred provider organizations in California. Medical Care, 39, 15-25.

*Thompson, R. S. (1996).  What have HMOs learned about clinical prevention services?  An examination of the experience at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound.  The Milbank Quarterly, 74, 469-509.

 *Thompson, R. S. (1997). Systems approaches and the delivery of health services (Editorial).  Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 670-1.

203>95. An HMO's success in increasing immunizations. R. S. Thompson, 1997. Also Thompson, Taplin, McAfee, Mandelson, & Smith, 1995.. See, however, O'Malley & Mandelblatt, 2003, who found that community public health clinics performed as well on several preventive measures as private physicians' offices and HMOs.

O'Malley AS, Mandelblatt J. (2003). Delivery of preventive services for low-income persons over age 50: a comparison of community health clinics to private doctors' offices. Journal of Community Health, 28, 185-97.

*Thompson, R. S., Taplin, S. H., McAfee, T. A., Mandelson, M. T., & Smith, A. E. (1995). Primary and secondary prevention services in clinical practice: Twenty years' experience in development, implementation, and evaluation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1130-5.

204>96. Capitation makes HMOs more cost-containment oriented, and thus more prevention oriented. E.g., Catalano, Libby, et al., 2000; Cheadle, Wickizer, et al., 1999.

Catalano R, Libby A, Snowden L, Cuellar AE. (2000). The effect of capitated financing on mental health services for children and youth: the Colorado experience. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1861-5.

Cheadle A, Wickizer TM, Franklin G, Cain K, Joesch J, Kyes K, Madden C, Murphy L, Plaeger-Brockway R, Weaver M. (1999). Evaluation of the Washington State Workers' Compensation Managed Care Pilot Project II: medical and disability costs. Medical Care, 37, 982-93.

205>97. HMO advantages in reach with educational materials, counseling, and organizational arrangements. Golaszewski, 2000; Hickman, Stebbins, et al., 2003; Lawrence, Watkins, et al., 2003; Parnes, Main, et al., 2002.

Golaszewski T. (2000). The limitations and promise of health education in managed care. Health Education & Behavior, 27, 402-16. Review.

Hickman DE, Stebbins MR, Hanak JR, Guglielmo BJ. (2003). Pharmacy-based intervention to reduce antibiotic use for acute bronchitis. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 37, 187-91.

Lawrence JM, Watkins ML, Ershoff D, Petitti DB, Chiu V, Postlethwaite D, Erickson JD. (2003). Design and evaluation of interventions promoting periconceptional multivitamin use. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25, 17-24.

Parnes B, Main DS, Holcomb S, Pace W. (2002). Tobacco cessation counseling among underserved patients: a report from CaReNet. Journal of Family Practice, 51, 65-9.

 

Complications and Barriers

209>98. Mutual value of collaborative relationships among health plans, employers, schools, other community organizations, and physician providers. Armbruster, 2002; Fielding, Luck, & Tye, 2003; Galvin, 2000; Klein, Sesselberg, et al., 2003; Mays, Halverson, & Stevens, 2001.

Armbruster P. (2002). The administration of school-based mental health services. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 11, 23-41. Review.

Fielding JE, Luck J, Tye G. (2003). Reinvigorating public health core functions: restructuring Los Angeles county's public health system. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 9, 7-15.

Galvin DM. (2000). Workplace managed care: collaboration for substance abuse prevention. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 27, 125-30. Review.

Klein JD, Sesselberg TS, Gawronski B, Handwerker L, Gesten F, Schettine A. (2003). Improving adolescent preventive services through state, managed care, and community partnerships. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32 (6 Suppl.), 91-7.

Mays GP, Halverson PK, Stevens R. (2001). The contributions of managed care plans to public health practice: evidence from the nation's largest local health departments. Public Health Reports, 116 (Suppl. 1), 50-67.

213>99. Collaborative approaches at the system and patient level, applying PRECEDE. Yingling & Trocino, 1997. See also Makrides, Veinot, et al., 1997; R. S. Thompson, 1996; Walsh & McPhee, 1992.

Yingling L, Trocino L. (1997). Strategies to integrate patient and family education into patient care redesign. AACN Clinical Issues, 8, 246-52. Review.

 

Summary

Links to recent developments and news items in health care planning & policy

JANUARY 4-6, 2005 (from the Daily Health Policy Reports of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation):

WHITE HOUSE NEWS: Bush Calls on Congress To Approve Medical Malpractice Reform Package Addressing 'Root Causes' Behind Rising Health Costs

President Bush To Call for Limits on Medical Malpractice Awards To Reduce Health Costs; Proposal Could Encounter Roadblocks

President Bush Promises To Make Medical Liability Reform Legislation a Priority in Second Term

PRESCRIPTION DRUGS: Eli Lilly Denies Concealing Documents Linking Prozac to Suicide, Says FDA Had Materials

Canadian Health Officials Drafting Plan To Curb Medication Sales to U.S. Residents; Illinois, Wisconsin Governors Ask Bush To Intervene

Congress Should Reconsider Issue of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements, Editorial States

Canada Might Enact Legislation To Limit Reimportation of Prescription Drugs to United States

Newspapers Examine Ongoing Controversy Over Painkillers

PEOPLE: Bush Appoints  HHS Deputy Secretary Allen as Domestic Policy Adviser

MEDICARE: Some House Republicans Hope To Revise Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit, Rep. Pence Says

U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Releases List of 146 Classes for Medicare Drug Benefit Formulary

MEDICAID: Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report Highlights Medicaid Developments in New York, Iowa

Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report Highlights State Medicaid Developments

COVERAGE & ACCESS: US Airways Agrees Not To Eliminate Health Benefits for Retirees

Florida Seeks To Enroll 72,000 New Children in KidCare Program During Open Enrollment Period

Treasury Department Declines To Ease Rules Regarding Unused Funds in Flexible Spending Accounts

Maine Governor Praises New DirigoChoice Health Plan Amid Criticism Over Low Enrollment

STATES: California Regulators Issue Rules Requiring HMOs To Cover Medically Necessary Drugs

Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report Highlights State Medicaid Developments

FEDERAL LEGISLATION

Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report Rounds Up Issues on Legislative Agenda for 2005

 

 

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