If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

Home   Endnotes: Chap 1  Chap 2  Chap 3  Chap 4  Chap 5  Chap 6  Chap 7  Chap 9

Health Program Planning, 4th edition

Chapter 8 (formerly Chap. 10, in previous editions) [This revision is in progress]

Applications in School Settings

Notation: The number before ">" is the endnote number in the 3rd edition; the number after > is the new endnote number that will appear in the 4th edition. The endnotes provide citations to literature and sources referenced in the text of the new Chapter 8. Below each endnote are the actual bibliographic references for the corresponding citations. References carried over from the 3rd edition may not be listed here (see 3rd edition bibliography). Click on the author link for the abstract of the article referenced in most citations. Those highlighted in yellow are references added since the 4th edition went to press.

Table of Contents (Click on the section to go to the new endnotes for that section)

WHAT IS A SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAM?

Key Concept: “Coordinated”

PROGRESS IN SCHOOL HEALTH RESEARCH AND POLICY

Assessing the Effects of School Health Education

The National Institutes of Health

The Challenge of Parental Participation

Policy Analysis and Advances

Policy Surveys

Policy Analysis

 Comprehensive School Health Education: A Response to the Aids Epidemic

USING PRECEDE AND PROCEED FOR PLANNING IN SCHOOLS

Social Assessment

Health: An Instrumental Value for Schools

Education and Health: A Two-Way Relationship

Developmental Assets

Epidemiological Assessment

Using Multiple Approaches

Health Problems and Health Behaviors

Emphasize Flexibility

The School Health Index: A Practical Example of Epidemiologic Assessment

Behavioral, Environmental, and Educational Assessment

What Is the Goal?

Skills: A Legitimate Focus

Using Theory

PRECEDE-PROCEED AND SCHOOLS: A HYPOTHETICAL CASE

Where Are We?

What Matters?

Sorting Out the Complexity

Can The Literature And Other “Outside Sources Help Us?

Time and Resources

                                    “Within Reason”

Public Opinion

Using Policy

SUMMARY

EXERCISES

SUPPLEMENTARY NEWS from the general press and HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE IN SCHOOLS

 

NOTES & CITATIONS

WHAT IS A SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAM?

1>1. Where the kids are. In 2003, the world’s population was estimated at 6,355,543,400 (http://www.world-gazetteer.com/st/stata.htm. Nearly one-fifth of them (1.2 billion) are in educational settings. College, university, and vocational educational settings beyond high school enroll some 100 million of those, and this sector is growing faster (in annual percentage increases) than primary and secondary (http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d02/tables/dt395.asp).

3>2. The numbers and proportion of school-based people is larger if one includes colleges, universities, and the rapidly growing number of preschool and day-care centers. The principles discussed in this chapter apply similarly to college and to preschool health programs. For applications of PRECEDE-PROCEED in college and university settings, see Bonaguro, 1981; Calabrio, Weltge, et al., 1998; Hofford & Spelman, 1996; Hunnicutt, Perry-Hunnicutt, Newman, Davis, & Crawford, 1993; Kraft, 1988; Lee, 1992; Melby, 1985-86; Neef, Scutchfield, et al., 1991; Ostwald & Rothenberger, 1985; Shine, Silva, & Weed, 1983; B. G. Simons-Morton, Brink, Parcel, et al., 1989; B. G. Simons-Morton, Brink, Simons-Morton, et al., 1989; Sloane & Zimmer, 1992; Squyres et al., 1985, part 2; J. R. Weiss, Wallerstein, & MacLean, 1992; Zapka & Averill, 1979; Zapka & Dorfman, 1982; Zapka & Mamon, 1982; Zapka & Mamon, 1986. Applications of PRECEDE-PROCEED in preschool and daycare settings can be found in Huang, Green, & Darling, 1997; Keintz, Fleisher, & Rimer, 1994; Lafontaine & Bedard, 1997; Mesters, Meertens, Crebolder, & Parcel, 1993; D. B. Reed, 1996; Wortel, de Geus, et al., 1994; Wortel, de Vries, & de Geus, 1995; Wouters,  Stadlander, et al., 1986.

College and university settings:

*Bonaguro, J. A. (1981). PRECEDE for wellness. Journal of School Health, 51, 501-6.

*Calabro, K., Weltge, A., Parnell, S., Kouzekanani, K. & Ramirez, E. (1998). Intervention for medical students: Effective infection control.  American Journal of Infection Control, 26, 431-6.

*Hofford, C. W., & Spelman, K. A. (1996). The community action plan: Incorporating health promotion and wellness into alcohol, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention efforts on the college campus.  Journal of Wellness Perspectives, 12, 70-79.

*Hunnicutt, D. M., Perry-Hunnicutt, C., Newman, I. M., Davis, J. M., & Crawford, J. (1993). Use of the Delphi Technique to support a comprehensive campus alcohol abuse initiative. Journal of Health Education, 24, 88-96.

*Kraft, D. P. (1988). The prevention and treatment of alcohol problems on a college campus. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 34, 37-51.

*Melby, C. L. (1985-86). The personal laboratory for health behavior change. Health Education, 16(6): 29-31, December 1985-January 1986.

*Neef, N., Scutchfield, F. D., Elder, J. & Bender, S. J. (1991). Testicular self examination by young men: An analysis of characteristics associated with practice.  Journal of American College Health, 39, 187-90.

*Ostwald, S. K. & Rothenberger, J. (1985). Development of a testicular self-examination program for college men.  Journal of the American College Health, 33, 234-9.

*Shine, M. S.,  Silva, M. C., & Weed, F. S. (1983). Integrating health education into baccalaureate nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 22, 22-7.

*Simons-Morton, B. G., Brink, S. G.,Parcel, G. S , et al. (19891). Preventing alcohol-related health problems among adolescents and young adults: A CDC intervention handbook. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control.

*Simons-Morton, B. G., Brink, S. G., Simons-Morton, D. G., et al. (1989). An ecological approach to the prevention of injuries due to drinking and driving. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 397-411.

*Sloane, B. C. & Zimmer, C. H. (l992). Health education and health promotion on campus.  In H. M. Wallace, K. Patrick & G. S. Parcel (Eds.), Principles and practices of student health: Volume three, college health (pp.540-57).  Oakland, CA: Third Party Press, 1992.

*Squyres, W. D. and Associates (Eds.). (1985). Patient Education and Health Promotion in Medical Care. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.

*Weiss, J. R., Wallerstein, N., & MacLean, T. (1995). Organizational development of a university-based interdisciplinary health promotion project. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 37-48.

*Zapka, J. G., & Dorfman, S. (1982). Consumer participation: Case study of the college health setting. Journal of American College Health, 30, 197-203.

*Zapka, J. G., & Mamon, J. A. (1982). "Integration of theory, practitioner standards, literature findings and baseline data: A case study in planning breast self-examination education. Health Education Quarterly, 9, 330-56.

Preschool and day care centers:

*Huang, Y. W., Green, L. W., & Darling, L. F. (1997). Moral education and health education for elementary school and preschool children in Canada.  Journal of the National School Health Association (Taiwan), 30, 23-35.

*Keintz, M. K., Fleisher, L., & Rimer, B. K. (1994). Reaching mothers of preschool-aged children with a targeted quit smoking intervention. Journal of Community Health, 19, 25-40.

*Lafontaine, G. Bedard L. (1997).  La prevention des infections dans les services de garde a l’enfance:  les facteurs potentials d’influenceCanadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 250-54. [Prevention of infections in daycare centers: Potential factors to monitor]

*Mesters, I., Meertens, R., Crebolder, H., & Parcel, G. (1993). Development of a health education program for parents of preschool children with asthma. Health Education Research, 8, 53-68.

*Reed, Debra B.  (1996).  Focus groups identify desirable features of nutrition programs for low-income mothers of preschool children.  Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 501-3.

*Wortel, E., deGeus, G. H., Kok, G., & van Woerkum, C. (1994). Injury control in pre-school children: a review of parental safety measures and the behavioural determinants. Health Education Research 9, 201-13.

*Wortel, E., de Vries, H., & de Geus, G. H. (1995). Lessons learned from a community campaign on child safety in The Netherlands. Family and Community Health, 18, 60-77.

*Wouters, N.,  Stadlander, M. Andriaanse, H. Knottnerus, A. De Witte, L., &  Kok ,G. J. (1986). The use of a health education planning model to design and implement health education interventions concerning AIDS. AIDS-Forschung (AIFO) 1, 615-9.  

2>3. U.S. school students plus staff. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2002.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2002). Statistics of state school systems; Statistics of public elementary and secondary schools; Projections of educational statistics to 2012. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

4>4. Evidence of effective school-based health programs. E.g., in drug abuse prevention, Botvin, Baker, et al., 1995; increasing physical actrivity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001; reducing obesity, Gortmaker, Peterson, et al., 1999; improving nutrition, Leupker, Perry, et al., 1996; increasing bicycle safety, Nagel, Hankenhof, et al., 2003; and telehealth pediatric acute care service as a cost-effective alternative for improving access to primary and psychiatric health care for underserved children, Young & Ireson, 2003; and tobacco control, Valente, Hoffman, et al., 2003.

Botvin G, Baker E, Dusenbary L, Botvin E, and Diaz T. (1995). Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1106-12;

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Increasing physical activity: A report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 50, RR18, 1-16. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Government Printing Office. Full text online at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/.

Gortmaker, S. L., Peterson, K., Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Dixit S, Fox MK, & Laird N, “Reducing Obesity Via a School-based Interdisciplinary Intervention Among Youth,” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 153, no. 4 (1999):409-418.

Luepker R, Perry C, McKinlay S, Perry CL, Nader PR, Parcell GS, Stone EJ, Webber LS, Elder JP, Fledman HA, Johnson CC, Kelders SH, & Wu M, “Outcomes of a Field Trial to Improve Children’s Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health,” Journal of the American Medical Association 275, (1996): 768-776.

Nagel RW, Hankenhof BJ, Kimmel SR, & Saxe JM. (2003). Educating grade school children using a structured bicycle safety program. Journal of Trauma, 55, 920-3.

Valente TW, Hoffman BR, Ritt-Olson A, Lichtman K, & Johnson CA. (2003). Effects of a social-network method for group assignment strategies on peer-led tobacco prevention programs in schools. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1837-43.

Young TL, & Ireson C. (2003). Effectiveness of school-based telehealth care in urban and rural elementary schools. Pediatrics, 112, 1088-94.

The CDC website for "Programs that Work" was discontinued by the current administration (see
 http://www.house.gov/reform/min/politicsandscience). ETR Associates in California are
preserving this research on their ReCAPP website at: http://www.etr.org/recapp/programs/index.htm

5. Schools as an effective point of intervention on social determinants. E.g., Blair, Collingwood, et al., 1984; Cargo, Grams, et al., 2003; Kear, 2002; Scheier, Botvin, & Baker, 1997.

Cargo M, Grams GD, Ottoson JM, Ward P, Green LW. (2003). Empowerment as fostering positive youth development and citizenship. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27 (Suppl 1), S66-79.

Kear ME. (2002). Psychosocial determinants of cigarette smoking among college students.
Journal of Community Health Nursing, 19, 245-57.

Scheier LM, Botvin GJ, Baker E. (1997). Risk and protective factors as predictors of adolescent alcohol involvement and transitions in alcohol use: a prospective analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 58, 652-67.

6. Schools as cost-effective site for delivery of immunizations. Deuson, Hoekstra, et al., 1999; Jacobs, Saab, & Meyerhoff, 2003; Trotter, & Edmunds, 2002; Wilson, 2001.

Deuson RR, Hoekstra E, Sedjo R, Bakker G, Melinkovich P, Daeke D, Hammer A, Goldsman D, & Judson F. (1999). The Denver school-based adolescent hepatitis B vaccination program: A cost analysis with risk simulation. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1722-7.

Jacobs RJ, Saab S, Meyerhoff AS. (2003). The cost effectiveness of hepatitis immunization for US college students. Journal of American College Health, 51, 227-36.

Trotter CL, Edmunds WJ. (2002). Modelling cost effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination campaign in England and Wales. British Medical Journal, 324, 809. Full text on BMJ.Com

Wilson T. (2001). A bi-state, metropolitan, school-based immunization campaign: lessons from the Kansas City experience. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 15, 173-8.

7. Schools as cost-effective setting for tobacco control. Orleans & Cummings, 1999; Wang, Crossett, et al., 2001.

Orleans CT, Cummings KM. (1999). Population-based tobacco control: progress and prospects. American  Journal of Health Promotion, 14, 83-91. Review.

Wang LY, Crossett LS, Lowry R, Sussman S, Dent CW. (2001). Cost-effectiveness of a school-based tobacco-use prevention program. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 155, 1043-50.

8. Schools as cost-effective setting for injury control. E.g., Azeredo, & Stephens-Stidham, 2003; Miller & Spicer, 1998. For an application of PRECEDE in school violence prevention, see Chaney, Hunt, & Schulz, 2000. For one directed at protecting children as pedestrians, see Cross, Hall, & Howat, 2003; Cross, Stevenson, et al., 2000; Howat, Cross, et al., 2001; Howat, Jones, et al., 1997. For applications with better use of bicycle helmets  see Farley, 1997; Farley, Haddad, & Brown, 1996; Farley, Laflamme, & Vaez, 2003; Stanken, 2000; and athletic safety equipment, Fraukenknecht, Brylinsky, & Zimmer, 1998.

Azeredo R, Stephens-Stidham S. (2003). Design and implementation of injury prevention curricula for elementary schools: lessons learned. Injury Prevention, 9, 274-8.

*Chaney, J. D., Hunt, B. P., & Schulz, J. W. (2000). An examination using the Precede model framework to establish a comprehensive program to prevent school violence. American Journal of Health Studies, 16, 199-204.

*Cross, D., Hall, M., & Howat, P. (2003). Using theory to guide practice in children's pedestrian safety education. American Journal of Health Education, 34 (5, Suppl. Sept/Oct), S42-S47.

*Cross D, Stevenson M, Hall M, Burns S, Laughlin D, Officer J, Howat P. (2000). Child pedestrian injury prevention project: student results. Preventive Medicine, 30, 179-87.

*Farley, C. (1997).  Evaluation of a four-year bicycle helmet promotion campaign in Quebec aimed at children ages 8 to 12: Impact on attitudes, norms and behaviours. Canadian Journal of Public Health 88: 62-66.

*Farley, C., Haddad, S., & Brown, B. (1996).  The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle helmet use among children in Quebec.  American Journal of Public Health, 86, 46-51.

*Farley C, Laflamme L, Vaez M. (2003). Bicycle helmet campaigns and head injuries among children. Does poverty matter?  Journal of Epidemiology & Community Healt, 57, 668-72.

*Frauenknecht, M., Brylinsky, J. A., Zimmer, C. G. (1998).  “Healthy Athlete 2000”: Planning a health education initiative using the PRECEDE model.  Journal of Health Education, 29, 312-18.

Miller TR, & Spicer RS (1998). How safe are our schools? American Journal of Public Health, 88, 413-8.

Stanken BA.. (2000). Promoting helmet use among children. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 17:  85-92.

5>9. Early delineation of three components of school health program.  American Physical Education Association, 1935.

6>10. Foundation of school health. Cornacchia, Olsen, & Nickerson, 1988; Creswell & Newman, 1997; Pollock & Middleton, 1994.

7&8>11. The break from 3 program components to 8 (see Fig. 8-1).  L. Kolbe, 1986; Allensworth & Kolbe, 1987.

12. Partnership of health and educational sectors.  Mason & McGinnis, 1988; Kolbe, Kann, et al., 2004.

Kolbe L, Kann L, Patterson B, Wechsler H, Osorio J, Collins J. (2004). Enabling the nation's schools to help prevent heart disease, stroke, cancer, COPD, diabetes, and other serious health problems. Public Health Reports, 119, 286-302.

13>13. The scientific and theoretical rationale for the eight components of a coordinated school health program.    Marx & Wooley, 1998. Although the individual chapters were written by recognized scholars and practitioners, the overall framework and organization of the book was grounded on input from those representing over 50 national organizations in the United States whose constituencies have a stake in at least one of the eight components.

Marx, E., Wooley, S. G., & Northrop, D. (1998). Health is Academic: A Guide to Coordinated School School Health Programs. New York: Teachers College Press.

14. Each component represents a different constituency in school-community health.  E.g., American Dietetic Association, Society of Nutrition Education, American School Food Service Association, 2003; Hahn, Simpson, & Kidd, 1996; Weist, Gold, et al., 2003.

American Dietetic Association; Society for Nutrition Education; American School Food Service Association. (2003). Position of the American Dietetic Association, Society for Nutrition Education, and American School Food Service Association: Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive school health programs. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior, 35, 57-67.

Weist MD, Goldstein J, Evans SW, Lever NA, Axelrod J, Schreters R, Pruitt D. (2003). Funding a full continuum of mental health promotion and intervention programs in the schools. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32(6 Suppl), 70-8.
 

17 Review of the early research on school health programs. Green, Heit, Iverson, Kolbe, & Kreuter, 1980.

Green, L. W., P. Heit, D. C. Iverson, L. J. Kolbe, M. Kreuter (1980). "The School Health Curriculum Project: Its Theory, Practice, and Measurement Experience," Health Education Quarterly, 7: 14-34.

18>15. Summary of main findings of the breakthrough School Health Education Evaluation. Connell, Turner, & Mason, 1985. The whole issue of this journal is devoted to the School Health Education Evaluation.

Connell, D. B., Turner, R. R., & Mason, E. F. (1985). Summary of findings of the School Health Education Evaluation: Health promotion effectiveness, implementation, and costs. Journal of School Health, 55, 316-21.

19>16. Main findings of the NCI school-based smoking prevention studies. T. J. Glynn, 1989. This article describes the 15 school-based smoking prevention studies supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). In the same issue, eight studies of smokeless tobacco prevention trials supported by NCI are described by G. M. Boyd & Glover, 1989; and the American Cancer Society’s and NCI’s application of the Precede model to a school nutrition and cancer education curriculum is described in Light & Contento, 1989. See also Contento, Kell, et al., 1992; Corcoran & Portnoy

*Boyd, G. M., & Glover, E. D. (1989). Smokeless tobacco use by youth in the U.S. Journal of School Health, 59, 189-94.

*Contento, I. R., Kell, D. G., Keiley, M. K., & Corcoran, R. D. (1992). A formative evaluation of the American Cancer Society Changing the Course nutrition education curriculum. Journal of  School Health, 62, 411-6.

*Corcoran, R. D., & Portnoy, B. (1989).  Risk reduction through comprehensive cancer education: The American Cancer Society Plan for Youth Education. Journal of School Health 59, 199-204.

Glynn, T. J. (1989). Essential elements of school-based smoking prevention programs. Journal of School Health, 59, 181-8.

*Light, L. & Contento, I. R. (1989). Changing the Course: A school nutrition and cancer education program by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. Journal Of School Health, 59, 205-9.

20>17. Summarizing NHLBI-supported school health program studies. Stone, Perry, & Luepker, 1989. All work cited in Table 8-1 appears in separate articles in this theme issue of Health Education Quarterly. See also Leupker et al., 1996. Two other studies supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, under a separate program of grants was Heart Smart, an extension of the Bogalusa Heart Study in Louisiana that applied the Precede model in its design (Arbeit, Johnson, et al., 1992; Berenson, Harsha, et al., 1998; Bush, Downey, et al., 1987; Downey, Butcher, et al., 1987; Downey, Cresanta, & Berenson, 1989; Downey, Frank, et al., 1987; 1988; Downey, Virgilio, et al., 1988; Johnson, Powers, et al., 1994); and the "Know Your Body" program, which was widely evaluated, also based on PRECEDE (Bush, Zuckerman, Taggart, et al., 1989; Bush, Zuckerman, Theiss, et al., 1989; Resnicow, Cohn, et al., 1992; Taggart, Bush, et al., 1990; Walter, 1989; Walter & Connelly, 1985; Walter, Hofman, Barrett, et al., 1987; Walter, Hofman, Connelly, et al., 1985; 1986; Walter & Vaughan, 1993; Walter & Wynder, 1989; Zuckerman, Olevsky-Peleg, et al., 1989).

*Arbeit, ML, CC Johnson, DS Mott, DW Harsha, TA Nicklas, LS Webber, Gerald S. Berenson (National Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane School of Public Health & Tropical Med., New Orleans, LA 70112-2824) (1992). The Heart Smart cardiovascular school health promotion: behavior correlates of risk factor change. Preventive Medicine 21:18-21.

*Berenson, Gerald S (School of Public Health & Tropical Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Health SL29, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112-2699), DW Harsha, SMcD Hunter, CC Johnson, M Levy, SD Little, TA Nicklas, SR Srinivasan, SJ Virgilio, LS Webber.  (1998).  Introduction of comprehensive health promotion for elementary schools: The Health Ahead/Heart Smart Program.  New York: Vantage Press, esp. Chapters 3 & 6.

*Bush, PJ, Downey, AM, Frank, LS & Webber, L.S. (1987).  Implementation of "Heart Smart": Cardiovascular school health promotion program. Journal of School Health 57:98-104.

*Bush, Patricia J.; Zuckerman, A.E.; Taggart, V.S.; Theiss, P.K.; Peleg, E.O.; Smith, S.A (1989).  "Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevention in Black School Children: The 'Know Your Body' Evaluation Project," Health Education Quarterly 16(2):215-227.

*Bush, Patricia J. , A.E. Zuckerman, P.K. Theiss, et al. (1989). "Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevention in Black School Children--2-year Results of the Know Your Body Program," American Journal of Epidemiology 129: 466-82.

*Downey, Anne M., Ann H. Butcher, Gail C. Frank, Larry S. Webber, Michel H. Miner, and Gerald S. Berenson (1987).  Development and Implementation of a School Health Promotion Program for Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Prevention of Adult Coronary Heart Disease: 'Heart Smart'.  In B.Hetzel and G.S. Berenson, eds. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: Epidemiology and Prevention Amsterdam, NY & Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., pp. 103-121. 

*Downey, Anne M., James L. Cresanta, and Gerald S. Berenson (1989). Cardiovascular Health Promotion in 'Heart Smart' and the Changing Role of Physicians.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine 5(5):279-95.

*Downey, Anne M., G. C. Frank, L. S. Webber, D.W.Harsha, S.J.Virgilio, F.A.Franklin, et al. (1987). Implementation of "Heart Smart”: A Cardiovascular School Health Promotion Program.  Journal of School Health 57(3): 98-104.

*Downey, A. M., S. J. Virgilio, D. C. Serpas, et al. (1988). Heart Smart--A Staff Development Model for a School-based Cardiovascular Health Intervention. Health Education 19(5): 64-71.

*Johnson, C.C., C.R.Powers, W.Bao, D.W.Harsha, and Gerald S.Berenson (Natl.Cntr.for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane Sch.Public Health & Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112-2824). Cardiovascular risk factors of elementary school teachers in a low socio-economic area of a metropolitan city: the Heart Smart Program. Health Education Research 9(2):183-191, 1994.

Luepker R, Perry C, McKinlay S, Perry CL, Nader PR, Parcell GS, Stone EJ, Webber LS, Elder JP, Fledman HA, Johnson CC, Kelders SH, & Wu M, (1996). Outcomes of a Field Trial to Improve Children’s Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Journal of the American Medical Association 275, 768-76.

Resnicow, K (Director, Child Health Research, American Health Foundation, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017), L Cohn, J Reinhardt, D Cross, R Futterman, E Kirschner, EL Wynder, JP Allegrante (1992).  A three-year evaluation of the Know Your Body program in inner-city schoolchildren.  Health Education Quarterly 19(4):  463-480.

*Taggart, Virginia S., Patricia J. Bush, Alan E.Zuckerman (Georgetown Univ.Sch.Med., 3900 Reservoir Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20007), & Patricia K. Theiss. (1990).  A process evaluation of the District of Columbia "Know Your Body" Project. Journal of School Health 60(2):60-66.

*Walter, H. J. (Columbia Univ. Sch. Publ. Hlth., Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Ave., New York, NY 10032). "Primary Prevention of Chronic Disease Among Children: The School-based "Know Your Body" Intervention Trials," Health Education Quarterly 16: 201-14, 1989.

*Walter, H.J., Connelly, P.A. Screening for risk factors as a component of a chronic disease prevention program for youth. Journal of School Health 55:183-188, 1985.

*Walter, H.J., Hofman, A., Barrett, L.T., et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among children: One-year results of a randomized intervention study. In B.Hetzel and G.S. Berenson, Eds. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: Epidemiology and Prevention. Rotterdam: Elsevier Science, 1987, pp. 161-181.

*Walter, H.J., Hofman, A., Connelly, P.A., et al. Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. American Journal of Epidemiology 122:772-781, 1985.

*Walter, H.J., Hofman, A., Connelly, P.A., et al. Coronary heart disease prevention in childhood: one-year results of a randomized intervention study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2:239-245, 1986.

*Walter, H.J. and Vaughan, R.D. AIDS risk reduction among a multiethnic sample of urban high-school students. Journal of the American Medical Association 270(6):725-730, Aug. 11, 1993.

*Walter, H. J. and E. L. Wynder (1989). "The Development, Implementation, Evaluation, and Future Directions of a Chronic Disease Prevention Program for Children: The 'Know Your Body' Studies," Preventive Medicine 18: 59-71.

*Zuckerman, Alan E. (Dept.Community & Family Medicine, Georgetown Univ.School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007), Edna Olevsky-Peleg, Patricia J.Bush, Claire Horowitz, Frances R.Davidson, Delores G.Brown, & Heather Walter. Cardiovascular risk factors among Black schoolchildren: comparisons among four Know Your Body Studies. Preventive Medicine 18:113-132, 1989. 

21>18. Family and community in support of school's role. In the Nader study, the family is the primary locus of change rather than the school and its environment, which serve a supportive role. See Nader, Sallis, et al., 1989. See also Perry, Luepker, et al., 1988.

Nader, P. R., Sallis, J. G., Patterson, T. L., et al. (1989). A family approach to cardiovascular risk reduction: Results from the San Diego Family Health Project. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 229-44.

Nader, P. R., Sellers, D. E., Johnson, C. C., Perry, C. L., Stone, E. J., Cook, K. C., Bebchuk, J., & Luepker, R. V.. (1996). The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve Children's diet and physical activity: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine, 25, 455-64.

Perry, C. L., Luepker, R. V., Murray, D. M., et al. (1988). Parent involvement with children's health promotion: The Minnesota Home Team. American Journal of Public Health, 78,: 1156-60.

Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Nader PR, Broyles SL, Berry CC, Taras HL. (2002). Home environmental influences on children's television watching from early to middle childhood. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 127-32.
 

20&22>19. Table 8-1 studies that used PRECEDE in developing their interventions. See Bush, et al; and Walter, et al. in endnote 17 above; and Fors, Owen, et al., 1989. For commentary on these studies, see Best, 1989.

Best, J. A. (1989). Intervention perspectives on school health promotion research. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 299-306.

Fors, Stuart W., S. Owen, W. D. Hall, et al. (1989). Evaluation of a diffusion strategy for school-based hypertension education. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 255-261.

23>20. Description of the CATCH program of school-based cardiovascular interventions. Stone, et al., 1996.

Stone E. J., Osganian, S. K., McKinlay, S. M., Wu, M. C., Webber, L. S., Luepker, R. V., Perry, C. L., Parcel, G. S., & Elder, J. P.. (1996). Operational design and quality control in the CATCH multicenter Trial. Preventive Medicine, 25, 384-99.

Stone, E. J., Perry, C. L., Luepker, R. V. (1989). Synthesis of cardiovascular behavioral research for youth health promotion. Health Education Quarterly, 16,: 155-69.

24>21. Student health knowledge mediated through the family program component.  Nader, et al., 1996.

Nader, P. R., Sellers, D. E., Johnson, C. C., Perry, C. L., Stone, E. J., Cook, K. C., Bebchuk, J., & Luepker, R. V.. (1996). The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve Children's diet and physical activity: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine, 25, 455-64.

25>22. Other changes observed in the CATCH trial. Resnicow, Robinson, & Frank, 1996.

Resnicow, K., Robinson, T., & Frank, E. (1996). Advances and future directions for school-based health promotion research: Commentary on the CATCH intervention trial. Preventive Medicine, 25, 378-383.

26>23. The effects of supportive home environments in India. Gupta, Mehortra, Arora, & Saran, 1991.

Gupta, M. C., Mehrotra, M., Arora, S., Saran, M. (1991). Relation of childhood malnutrition to parental education and mother's nutrition related KAP. Indian journal of Pediatrics, 58, 269-274.

27>24. Supportive home environments in Finland. Vartiainen & Puska, 1987.

Vartiainen, E., Puska, P. (1987). The North Karelia Youth Project 1978-80: Effects of two years of educational intervention on cardiovascular risk factors and health behavior in adolescence. In B. Hetzel and G. S. Berenson (Eds.). Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: Epidemiology and Prevention, (Dublin: Elsevier), pp. 183-202.

28>25. Supportive home environments in the U.S.  Nader et al., 1996; Parcel, Kelder, & Basen-Engquist, 2000; Perry et al., 1988; 1996; Saelens et al., 2002.

Nader, P. R., Sellers, D. E., Johnson, C. C., Perry, C. L., Stone, E. J., Cook, K. C., Bebchuk, J., & Luepker, R. V.. (1996). The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve Children's diet and physical activity: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine, 25, 455-64.

Parcel, G. S., Kelder, S. H., & Basen-Engquist, K. (2000). The school as a setting for health promotion. Pp  86-120 in B. D. Poland, L. W. Green, & I. Rootman (Eds.). Settings for Health Promotion: Linking Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Perry, C. L., Luepker, R. V., Murray, D. M., et al. (1988). Parent involvement with children's health promotion: The Minnesota Home Team. American Journal of Public Health, 78,: 1156-60.

Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Nader PR, Broyles SL, Berry CC, Taras HL. (2002). Home environmental influences on children's television watching from early to middle childhood. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 127-32.

29>26. Survey of parental involvement. Metropolitan Life Foundation, 1988.

Metropolitan Life Foundation (1988). An Evaluation of Comprehensive Health Education in American Public Schools. New York: Louis Harris and Associates, for the Metropolitan Life Foundation.

30>27. Cultural and ethnic sensitivity of programs. See page 463 in Nader et al., 1996; Huff & Kline, 1999.

Huff, R. M., & Kline, M. V. (1999). The cultural assessment framework. In R. M. Huff & M. V. Kline (Eds.). Promoting health in multicultural populations: A handbook for practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Nader, P. R., Sellers, D. E., Johnson, C. C., Perry, C. L., Stone, E. J., Cook, K. C., Bebchuk, J., & Luepker, R. V.. (1996). The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve Children's diet and physical activity: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine, 25, 455-64.

32>28. International surveys of adolescent health behavior.  E.g., Haugland & Wold, 2001; Haugland, Wold, et al., 2001; Torsheim, Aaro & Wold, 2001.

Haugland S, Wold B. (2001). Subjective health complaints in adolescence--reliability and validity of survey methods. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 611-24.

Haugland S, Wold B, Stevenson J, Aaroe LE, Woynarowska B. (2001). Subjective health complaints in adolescence. A cross-national comparison of prevalence and dimensionality. European Journal of Public Health, 11, 4-10.

Torsheim T, Aaroe LE, Wold B. (2001). Sense of coherence and school-related stress as predictors of subjective health complaints in early adolescence: interactive, indirect or direct relationships? Social Science & Medicine, 53, 603-14.

33-34>29. The Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey (YMCLS), a nationally representative survey of children aged 9-13 years and their parents. CDC, 2003.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2003). Physical activity levels among children aged 9-13 years--United States, 2002. MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Reports, 52, 785-8.

30. Canadian surveys. Nationally representative data from the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey, the 1988 Campbell's Survey on the Well-being of Canadians and the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, analyzed by Tremblay & Willms, 2000.

Tremblay MS, Willms JD. (2000). Secular trends in the body mass index of Canadian children.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163, 1429-33. Erratum in: CMAJ, 164, 970. [Full text online]

36>31. The first School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS).  Kann, Collins, et al., 1995; Lowry, Kann, & Kolbe, 1996. See more recent analyses: Brener, Everett Jones, et al., 2003.

Kann, L. K., Collins, J. L., Pateman, B. C., et al. (1995). The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS): Rationale for a nationwide status report on school health programs. Journal of School Health, 65, 291-294.

Lowry, R., Kann, L., & Kolbe, L. J. (1996). The effect of socioeconomic status on chronic disease risk behaviors among US adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 792-797.

Pateman, B., Grunbaum, J. A., & Kann L. (1999). Voices from the field--a qualitative analysis of classroom, school, district, and state health education policies and programs. Journal of School Health, 69, 258-263.

37>32. Objectives for the nation in adolescent health. Healthy people 2000, 1991; 1996; Green, 1996.

Green, L. W. (1996). Commentary. In Healthy People 2000 Mid-Decade Review and Revised Objectives. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1991). Healthy People 2000  (Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Public Health Service) also published as Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, Full Report, With Commentary (Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1992.

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (1996). Healthy People 2000: Midcourse Review and 1995 Revisions (Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers).

35>33. The 2000 SHPPS. Brener, Everett Jones, et al., 2003; Grunbaum, Rutman, & Sathrum, 2001; Small, Jones, et al., 2001. A Summary Report: Journal of School Health, Vol. 71, No.7 September, 2001 (entire issue dedicated to findings from SHPPS 2000).

Brener, N. D., Everett Jones, S., Kann, L., & McManus, T. (2003). Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools. Journal of School Health, 73, 143-149.

Grunbaum,  J. A., Rutman, S. J., & Sathrum, P. R.. (2001). Faculty and staff health promotion: results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. Journal of School Health, 71, 335-9. No abstract available.

Small ML, Jones SE, Barrios LC, Crossett LS, Dahlberg LL, Albuquerque MS, Sleet DA, Greene BZ, Schmidt ER. (2001). School policy and environment: results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. Journal of School Health, 71, 325-34. No abstract available.

36>34. U.S. Community Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation on physical activity. Kahn, Ramsey, et al., 2002.

Kahn, E. B., Ramsey, L. T., Brownson, R. C., et al. The Task Force on Preventive Services. (2002). The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22 (4S), 73-107.

38>35. Canadian trends and policy actions.  Mackie & Oickle, 1997; Tremblay & Willms, 2000 (see endnote 30).

Mackie, J. W., & Oickle, P. (1997). School-based health promotion: the physician as advocate. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 156, 1301-5. Review. [Full text online]

Tremblay M. S., & Willms, J. D. (2000). Secular trends in the body mass index of Canadian children. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163, 1429-33. Erratum in: CMAJ, 164, 970.

40>36. National U.S. and European commissions on school health.  E.g., Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1989; Deutch, 1998; National Commission on the Role of the School and the Community, 1990; Williams & Jones, 1993.

Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, Task Force on Education of Young Adolescents (1989). Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Deutsch, C. (1998). The university and the health of children. Promotion & Education, 5, 5-8. Review. No abstract available.

Williams, T., & Jones, H. (1993). School health education in the European Community. Journal of School Health, 63, 133-5.

41>37. International collaboration on school health. Konu & Rimpela, 2000; World Health Organization, 1997; World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund, 1986.

Konu, A., & Rimpela, M. (2002). Well-being in schools: a conceptual model. Health Promotion International, 17, 79-87. Review.

World Health Organization (1997). Promoting health through schools. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion. Geneva: WHO Tech Rep Ser. 870: i-vi, 1-93.

World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (1986). Helping a Billion Children Learn About Health: Report of the WHO/UNICEF International Consultation on Health Education for School-Age Children, 1985. Geneva: World Health Organization.

42>38. Voluntary health organizations supporting school health. The American Cancer Society, for example, has developed programs based on the PRECEDE model. Contento, Kell, et al., 1992; Corcoran & Portnoy, 1989; Light & Contento, 1989; Pateman, Irvin, et al., 2000.

*Contento, Isobel R, Diane G. Kell, Margaret K. Keiley, Ruth D. Corcoran (1992). A formative evaluation of the American Cancer Society Changing the Course nutrition education curriculum. Journal of School Health, 62, 411-416. 

Corcoran RD, Portnoy B. (1989). Risk reduction through comprehensive cancer education: the American Cancer Society Plan for Youth Education. Journal of School Health, 59, 199-204.

*Light L, Contento IR. (1989). Changing the course: a school nutrition and cancer education curriculum developed by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. J Sch Health. 1989 May;59(5):205-9. Review.

Pateman, B., Irvin, L. H., Nakasato, S., Serna, K., & Yahata, D. K.. (2000). Got Health? The Hawaii Partnership for Standards-Based School Health Education. Journal of School Health, 70, 311-317.

43>39. CHI's policy activities related health and children and other prevention issues: www.chipolicy.org.

40. CHI’s technical assistance website: www.healthpolicycoach.org.

44>41. Federal report legitimates schools as locus for prevention of HIV/AIDS. Centers for Disease Control, 1988. The President’s Commission on the HIV Epidemic, in its 1988 report, also concluded that the school’s contribution to AIDS education should take place in the context of comprehensive school health education: Report of the Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic, 1988.

Centers for Disease Control (1988). Guidelines for effective school health education to prevent the spread of AIDS. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 37(suppl. No.S-2.): 1-14.  Also in Health Education, 19(3): 6-13.

Report of the Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic (1988). Washington, DC: The White House, June 24.

45>42. An account of the HIV/AIDS policy to school programs experience. Kolbe, Jones, et al., 1988.

Kolbe, L., Jones, J., Nelson, G., et al. (1988). School health education to prevent the spread of AIDS: Overview of a national programme. Hygie, 7, 10-3.

47>43. Justifications for the survey of school health policies and programs. Kann, Collins, 1995, p. 291.

Kann, L. K., Collins, J. L., Pateman, B. C., et al. (1995). The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS): Rationale for a nationwide status report on school health programs. Journal of School Health, 65, 291-294.

48>44. For school indicators of these and other criteria for social, epidemiological, behavioral, environmental, organizational, and educational indicators, see Kolbe, 1989.

Kolbe, L. J. (1989). Indicators for planning and monitoring school health programs. In S. B. Kar (Ed.), Health Promotion Indicators and Actions (pp. 221-248). New York: Springer.

49>45. Necessity of framing health objectives within the educational mission of schools. Green, 1988a; MacDonald & Green, 1994; 1995; 2001.

Green, L. W. (1988a). Bridging the gap between community health and school health. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 1149.

*MacDonald, M., &  Green, L.W. (1994). Health promotion and adolescent health. In Tonkin, Roger (Ed.), Current Issues of the Adolescent Patient. London: Baillier’s Clinical Paediatrics, Vol. 2(2):227-245, May 1994.

*MacDonald, M. and Green, L.W.:  Health education.  In A. Lewy (ed.) International Encyclopedia of Education.  London: Pergamon Press, 1995.

*MacDonald, M. A., & Green, L. W. (2001). Reconciling concept and context: the dilemma of implementation in school-based health promotion. Health Education & Behavior, 28, 749-68.

50>46. Australian report on health of youth gave highest priority to social problems. Australian Health Ministers Advisory Council, 1994.

Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council. (1994). The health of young Ausralians. Canberra: Australian government Printing Service.

51>47. Reciprocal relationship between health and education. Green & Potvin, 2002; Wilkenson & Marmot, 1998.

Green, L. W. &  Potvin, L. (2002). Education, health promotion, and social and lifestyle determinants of health and disease. In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole, & H. Tanaka (Eds.). Oxford textbook of public health: Vol 1: The scope of public health, 4th edition (pp. 113-130). New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilkinson, R. G., & Marmot, M. (Eds.) (1998). Social determinants of health: The solid facts. Geneva: World Health Organization.

52>48. National Commission on the Role of the School and the Community, 1990, p. 3.

National Commission on the Role of the School and the Community in Improving Adolescent Health (1990). Code blue: Uniting for healthier youth. Washington, DC: National Association of State Boards of Education and the American Medical Association.

53>49. Identification of 40 factors contributing to health of youth. See pages 54–76 in Benson, 1997. The Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behaviors Survey yields measures of the 40 developmental assets and self-reported behavioral risk factors. The survey instrument is proprietary and can be obtained from the Search Institute, 700 South Third Street, Suite 210, Minneapolis, MN 55415; www.search.org; (612) 376–8955.

50. Need for pretesting surveys in culturally different populations. Price, Kake, & Kucharewski, 2002.

Price,  J., Kake, J. A., & Kucharewski, R. (2002). Assessing assets in racially diverse, inner-city youths: psychometric properties of the Search Institute Asset Questionnaire. Family and Community Health, 25, 1-9.

63>51. Need to use multiple sources of data.  Starfield & Budetti, 1985, p. 833.

Starfield, B.,  Budetti, P. (1985). Child health risk factors. Health Services Research, 19(6, Pt. II), 817-886.

52.  The School Index. http://www.cdc.gov/Health_Youth/SHI/

53. Source of details on the application of the School Health Index in Maine. Communication with Jacqueline Ellis and Paul Primmerman, Directors of the Coordinated School Health Programs, respectively for the Maine Bureau of Health, Department of Human Services; and the Maine Department of Education, December 12-20, 2003.

54. “Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. Maine’s incorporation of the CDC School Health Index is a clear illustration of how competent practitioners “tailor” generalized products to fit their specific needs, interests, and organizational cultures. 

67>55. Consensus on types of skills needed by children and youth to protect health.  Flay, 1987; Hanewinkel & Asshauer, 2004; Midford, Munro, et al., 2002.

Flay, B. R. (1987). Social psychological approaches to smoking prevention: Review and recommendations. In W. B. Ward and P. D. Mullen (Eds.). Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 2 (pp. 121-80). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Hanewinkel, R., & Asshauer, M. (2004). Fifteen-month follow-up results of a school-based life-skills approach to smoking prevention. Health Education Research, 19, 125-37.

Midford, R., Munro, G., McBride, N., Snow, P., & Ladzinski, U. (2002). Principles that underpin effective school-based drug education. Journal of Drug Education, 32, 363-86.

68>56. Applications of PRECEDE in school cardiovascular prevention. E.g., Arbiet et al., 1992; P. Bush, Zuckerman, et al., 1987; 1989; Downey, Butcher, et al., 1987; Downey, Cressanta, & Berensen, 1989; Downey, Frank, et al., 1987; Fors et al., 1989; C. C. Johnson, Powers, Bao, Harsha, & Berenson, 1994; Meagher & Mann, 1990; Parcel, Simons-Morton, et al., 1989; Walter et al., 1987; Walter & Wynder, 1989; Zuckerman et al., 1989. See also endnote 17.

*Arbeit, M. L., Johnson, C. C., Mott, D. S., Harsha, D. W., Nicklas, T. A., Webber, L. S., & Berenson, G. S. (1992). The Heart Smart Cardiovascular School Health Promotion: Behavior correlates of risk factor change. Preventive Medicine, 21, 18-21.

*Bush, P. J., Downey, A. M., Frank, L. S., & Webber, L. S. (1987).  Implementation of "Heart Smart": Cardiovascular school health promotion program. Journal of School Health, 57, 98-104.

*Bush, P. J., Zuckerman, A. E., Taggart, V. S., Theiss, P. K., Peleg, E. O., & Smith, S.A (1989).  Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in Black school children: The 'Know Your Body' evaluation project. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 215-227.

*Bush, P. J., Zuckerman, A. E., Theiss, P. K., Peleg, E. O., & Smith, S.A.  (1989). Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black school children--2-year results of the Know Your Body Program. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 466-82.

*Downey, A. M., Butcher, A. H., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., Miner, M. H. & Berenson, G. S. (1987). Development and implementation of a school health promotion program for reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in children and prevention of adult coronary heart disease: 'Heart Smart'.  In B. Hetzel and G. S. Berenson, (Eds.), Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood: Epidemiology and prevention. Amsterdam, NY & Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., pp. 103-121.

*Downey, A. M., Cresanta, J. L., & Berenson, G. S. (1989). Cardiovascular Health Promotion in 'Heart Smart' and the Changing Role of Physicians.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 279-95.

*Downey, A. M., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., Harsha, D. W., Virgilio, S.J., Franklin, F.A., et al. (1987). Implementation of "Heart Smart:" A cardiovascular school health promotion program, Journal of School Health, 57, 98-104.

*Downey, A. M.,  Virgilio, S. J., Serpas, D. C., et al. (1988). Heart Smart--A staff development model for a school-based cardiovascular health intervention. Health Education, 19(5): 64-71.

*Fors, S. W., Owen, S., Hall, W. D., et al. (1989). Evaluation of a diffusion strategy for school-based hypertension education. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 255-261.

*Johnson, C. C., Powers, C. R , Bao, W., Harsha, D.W., & Berenson, G. S. (1994). Cardiovascular risk factors of elementary school teachers in a low socio-economic area of a metropolitan city: the Heart Smart Program. Health Education Research,  9, 183-191.

*Meagher, D., & Mann, K. V. (1990). The effect of an educational program on knowledge and attitudes about blood pressure by junior high school students: A pilot project. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 1(5): 15-22.

*Parcel, G. S., Simons-Morton, B. G., O'Hara, N. M., et al. (1989).  School promotion of healthful diet and physical activity: Impact on learning outcomes and self-reported behavior. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 181-199.

*Walter, H. J. (1989). Primary prevention of chronic disease among children: The school-based "Know Your Body" intervention trials. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 201-14.

 *Walter, H. J., & Connelly, P. A. (1985). Screening for risk factors as a component of a chronic disease prevention program for youth. Journal of School Health, 55, 183-188.

 *Walter, H. J., Hofman, A., Barrett, L.T., et al. (1987). Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among children: One-year results of a randomized intervention study. In B.Hetzel and G.S. Berenson (Eds.) Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: Epidemiology and Prevention. Rotterdam: Elsevier Science, pp. 161-181.

*Walter, H. J., Hofman, A., Connelly, P. A., Barrett, L. T., & Kost, K. L. (1985). Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. American Journal of Epidemiology, 122, 772-81.

*Walter, H. J., Hofman, A., Connelly, P. A., Barrett, L. T., & Kost, K. L. (1986). Coronary heart disease prevention in childhood: one-year results of a randomized intervention study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 239-45.

 *Walter, H. J. & Wynder, E. L. (1989). The development, implementation, evaluation, and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: The 'Know Your Body' studies. Preventive Medicine, 18, 59-71.

*Zuckerman, A. E., Olevsky-Peleg, E., Bush, P. J., Horowitz, C., Davidson, F. R., Brown, D. G., & Walter, H. (1989). Cardiovascular risk factors among Black schoolchildren: Comparisons among four Know Your Body Studies. Preventive Medicine, 18, 113-32. 

69>57. Applications of PRECEDE in school cancer prevention. E.g., C. Boyd, 1993; Contento, Kell, Keiley, & Corcoran, 1992; Corcoran & Portnoy, 1989; Iverson & Scheer, 1982; Light & Contento, 1989.

*Boyd, C. (1993). Up in smoke: Teens n’ tobacco. Tobacco-Free Canada: First National Conference on tobacco or Health, Toronto. Ottawa: Health Promotion Directorate, Health Canada.

*Contento, I. R., Kell, D. G., Keiley, M. K., & Corcoran, R. D. (1992). A formative evaluation of the American Cancer Society Changing the Course nutrition education curriculum. Journal of  School Health, 62, 411-6.

*Corcoran, R. D., & Portnoy, B. (1989).  Risk reduction through comprehensive cancer education: The American Cancer Society Plan for Youth Education. Journal of School Health 59, 199-204.

*Iverson, D. C., & Scheer, J. K. (1982). School-based cancer education programs: An opportunity to affect the national cancer problem.  Health Values: Achieving High Level Wellness, 6(3): 27-35.

*Light, L. & Contento, I. R. (1989). Changing the Course: A school nutrition and cancer education program by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. Journal Of School Health, 59, 205-209.

70>58. Applications of PRECEDE in school sexuality risk and harm reduction programs. E.g., Alteneder, 1994; Alteneder, Price, et al., 1992; de Haes, 1990; Edet, 1991; Jensen, 1997; Mathews, Everett, Binedell, & Steinberg, 1995; Nozu, Iwai, & Watanabe, 1995; Palti et al., 1997; Rubison & Baillie, 1981; Schaalma et al., 1996; Walter & Vaughan, 1993.

*Alteneder, R. R. (1994). Use of an educational program on HIV/AIDS with junior high students. International Conference on AIDS, 10(2), 355 (abstract no. PD0601).

*Alteneder, R. R., Price, J. H., Telljohann, S. K., Didion, J., & Locher, A. (1992). Using the PRECEDE model to determine junior high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about AIDS. Journal of School Health, 62, 464-470.

*de Haes, W. Can prevention be achieved through health education? [La prévention par l'éducation sanitaire est-elle possible?] (1990).  In N. Job-Spira, B. Spencer, J. P. Maalti, and E. Bouvel (Eds.), Santé Publique et Maladies à Transmission Sexuelle, (pp. 217-233). Paris : John Libby Eurotext.

*Edet, E. E. (1991). The role of sex education in adolescent pregnancy. Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 111(1), 17-18.

*Jensen, K. L. (1999). Lesbian and bisexual epiphanies: Identity deconstruction and reconstruction.  Union Institute Graduate School, Cincinnati, Ohio, September 1997, published as Lesbian Epiphanies: Women Coming Out Later in Life. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 1999. 

*Mathews, Catherine (University of Cape Town, Dept of Community Health, Medical School, Observatory 7925, Cape, South Africa), K. Everett, J. Binedell, M. Steinberg (1995).  Learning to listen: formative research in the development of AIDS education for secondary school students.  Soc. Sci. Med.  41(12): 1715-1724.

*Nozu, Y., Iwai, K., & Watanabe, M. (1995). AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and skills among high school students in Akita: Results from Akita AIDS education for Adolescent Survey (AAAS). Abstract No.234. Proceedings. Makuhari, Japan: Xvth World Conference of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, Aug.

*Palti, H. (Maternal and Child Health Unit, Dept of Social Medicine, Hadassah Medical Organization, POB 12000, Jerusalem 91120, Israel),  B Knishkowy, Y Epstein, A Halevy, M Meir, B Adler (1997).  Reported health concerns of Israeli high school students – differences by age and sex.  Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 33: 123-128.

*Rubinson, L., & Baillie, L. (1981). Planning school based sexuality programs using the PRECEDE Model. Journal of School Health, 51, 282-7.

*Schaalma, Herman P. (Dept of Health Education, Univ of Limburg, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands), G Kok, RJ Bosker, GS Parcel, L Peters, J Poelman, J Reinders (1996).  Planned development and evaluation of AIDS/STD education for secondary school students in the Netherlands: Short-term effects.  Health Education Quarterly 23, 469-487

*Walter, H. J., & Vaughan, R. D. (1993). AIDS risk reduction among a multiethnic sample of urban high-school students. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 725-30.

71>59. Applications of PRECEDE in school infectious disease control programs. Calabro, Keltge, Parness, Kouzekanani, & Ramirez, 1998; Ekeh & Adeniyi, 1989; Lafontaine & Bedard, 1997; Zapka & Averill, 1979.

*Calabro, K., Weltge, A., Parnell, S., Kouzekanani, K. & Ramirez, E. (1998). Intervention for medical students: Effective infection control.  American Journal of Infection Control, 26: 431-436.

*Ekeh, H. E., & Adeniyi, J. D. (1989). Health education strategies for tropical disease control in school children. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 92, 55-59.

*Lafontaine, G., & Bedard L. (1997).  La prevention des infections dans les services de garde a l’enfance:  les facteurs potentials d’influenceCanadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 250-54. [Prevention of infections in daycare centers: Potential factors to monitor]

*Zapka, Jane G. (School of Public Health, Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003) and B. W. Averill (1979). "Self Care for Colds: A Cost-Effective Alternative to Upper Respiratory Infection Management," American Journal of Public Health, 69:814-6.

72>60. PRECEDE applications in general school health and wellness programs. E.g., Bonaguro, 1981; R. R. Cottrell, Capwell, & Brannan, 1995a, 1995b; Simpson & Pruitt, 1989; Sutherland, Pittman-Sisco, Lacher, & Watkins, 1987; J. R. Weiss, Wallerstein, & MacLean, 1995.

*Bonaguro, J. A. (1981). PRECEDE for Wellness. Journal of School Health, 51, 501‑506.

*Cottrell, R. R,  Capwell, E., & Brannan, J. (1995).  A follow-up evaluation of non-returning teams to the Ohio Comprehensive School Health Conference. Journal of Wellness Perspectives, 12(1): 1-6.

*Simpson, G. W., & Pruitt, B. E. (1989). The development of health promotion teams as related to wellness programs in Texas schools. Health Education, 20: 26-28.

*Sutherland, M., Pittman-Sisco, C., Lacher, T., & Watkins, N. (1987). The application of a health education planning model to a school based risk reduction model. Health Education, 18(3), 47-51.

*Weiss, J. R., Wallerstein, N., & MacLean, T. (1995). Organizational development of a university-based interdisciplinary health promotion project.  American Journal of Health Promotion,  10, 37-48.

73>61. PRECEDE applications in school nutrition policy analysis and development. E.g., G. C. Frank, Vaden, & Martin, 1987.

*Frank, G. C., Vaden, A., & Martin, J. (1987). School health promotion: Child nutrition. Journal of School Health, 57, 451-460.

74>62. PRECEDE applications in school-based seat-belt and bicycle helmet-use programs. E.g., Farley, 1987; Farley, Haddad, & Brown, 1996; Jones & Macrina, 1993; Stanken, 2000.

*Farley, C. (1997).  Evaluation of a four-year bicycle helmet promotion campaign in Quebec aimed at children ages 8 to 12: Impact on attitudes, norms and behaviours. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 62-66.

*Farley, C., Haddad, S., & Brown, B. (1996).  The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle helmet use among children in Quebec. American Journal of Public Health,  86, 46-51.

*Jones, C. S., & Macrina, D. (1993). Using the PRECEDE Model to design and implement a bicycle helmet campaign. Wellness Perspectives: Research, Theory and Practice, 9, 68-95.

*Stanken BA.. (2000). Promoting helmet use among children. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 17:  85-92.

75>63. PRECEDE applications in alcohol consumption reduction programs in schools. E.g., Fawcett et al., 1997; Higgins & McDonald, 1992; Hofford & Spelman, 1996; Hunnicutt, Perry-Hunnicutt, Newman, Davis, & Crawford, 1993; Kraft, 1988; Lipnickey, 1986; Newman, Martin, & Weppner, 1982; B. G. Simons-Morton, Brink, et al., 1989; 1991; Stivers, 1994; Vertinsky & Mangham, 1991; Villas, Cardenas, & Jameson, 1994.

*Fawcett, S. B., Lewis, R. K., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V. T., Richter, K. P., Williams, E. L., & Copple, B. (1997). Evaluating community coalitions for prevention of substance abuse: The case of project freedom. Health Education & Behavior, 24, 812-828.

*Higgins, J. W. & MacDonald, M. (1992). The School-Based Prevention Model: A training handbook.  Victoria, BC: Alcohol and Drug Programs, British Columbia Ministry of Health.

*Hofford, C. W., & Spelman, K. A. (1996). The community action plan: incorporating health promotion and wellness into alcohol, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention efforts on the college campus.  Journal of Wellness Perspectives, 12, 70-9.

*Hunnicutt, D. M., Perry-Hunnicutt, C., Newman, I. M., Davis, J. M., & Crawford, J. (1993). Use of the Delphi Technique to support a comprehensive campus alcohol abuse initiative. Journal of Health Education, 24, 88-96.

*Kraft, D. P. (1988). The prevention and treatment of alcohol problems on a college campus. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 34, 37-51.

*Lipnickey, S. C. (1986). Application of the PRECEDE Model to a school-based program of drug, alcohol and tobacco education. [microform] ERIC database ED281126 Government Publications / Microforms Div. 12pp. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association (114th, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 28-Oct. 2, 1986).

*Newman, I. M., Martin, G. L., & Weppner, R. (1982). A conceptual model for developing prevention programs. The International Journal of the Addictions, 17, 493-504.

*Simons-Morton, B. G., Brink, S. G.,. Parcel, G. S , et al. (1991). Preventing alcohol-related health problems among adolescents and young adults: A CDC Intervention Handbook. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control.

*Simons-Morton, B. G., Brink, S. G.,. Simons-Morton, D. G., et al. (1989). An ecological approach to the prevention of injuries due to drinking and driving. Health Education Quarterly 16: 397-411.

*Stivers, Cathie (Assoc.Prof., Health Educ., Longwood Coll., HPER Dept., Farmville VA 23909; 804-395-2540; e-mail: cstivers@lwcvm1.lwc.edu). (1994). Drug prevention in Zuni, New Mexico: Creation of a teen center as an alternative to alcohol and drug use. Journal of Community Health, 19, 343-359.

*Vertinsky, Patricia A. (Faculty of Education, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC) & Colin Mangham. Making it fit: Matching substance-abuse prevention strategies. Victoria, BC: Alcohol and Drug Programs, Ministry of Health, British Columbia, 1991.

*Villas, P.,  Mottinger, S. G., & Cardenas, M. (1996).  PRECEDE model utilization in differentiating users and nonusers of alcohol.  Journal of Wellness Perspectives, 12, 113-122.

76>64. PRECEDE applications in other specific types of school-based services, behavioral or environmental changes. E.g., P. J. Bush, Zuckerman, Theiss, et al., 1989.

*Bush, P. J., Zuckerman, A. E., Theiss, P. K., Peleg, E. O., & Smith, S.A.  (1989). Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black school children--2-year results of the Know Your Body Program. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 466-482.

77>65. Reviews of school-related theories useful in health program planning. L. K. Bartholomew, Parcel, et al., 2001; Grunbaum, Gingiss, & Parcel, 1995; Mesters, Meertens, et al., 1993; Parcel, 1984; Parcel, Eriksen, et al., 1989; Parcel, Green, & Bettes, 1989; Parcel, O'Hara-Thompkins,et al., 1995;  Parcel, Simons-Morton, & Kolbe, 1988.

*Bartholomew, L. K, Parcel, G. S.,  Kok, G.,  & Gottlieb, N. H. (2001). Intervention mapping: Designing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programs. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co. (now McGraw-Hill).

Grunbaum, J. A., Gingiss, P., Orpinas, P., Batey, L. S., & Parcel, G. S. (1995). A comprehensive approach to school health program needs assessments. Journal of School Health. 65, 54-59.

*Mesters, I., Meertens, R., Crebolder, H., & Parcel, G. (1993). Development of a health education program for parents of preschool children with asthma. Health Education Research, 8, 53-68.

*Parcel, G. S. (1984). Theoretical models for application in school health education research.  Health Education, 15(4), 39-49.

*Parcel, G. S., Eriksen, M. P., Lovato, C. Y., Gottlieb, N. H., Brink, S. G., & Green, L. W. (1989). The diffusion of school-based tobacco-use prevention programs: Project description and baseline data. Health Education Research, 4, 111-124.

*Parcel, G. S., Green, L. W., & Bettes, B. (1989). School-based programs to prevent or reduce obesity. In N. A. Krasnagor, G. D. Grave, and N. Kretchmer (Eds.), Childhood obesity: A biobehavioral perspective, (pp. 143-157). Caldwell, NJ: Telford Press.

*Parcel, G. S., O'Hara-Tompkins, N. M., Harrist, R. B., Basen-Engquist, K. M. McCormick, L. K., Gottlieb N. H., & Eriksen, M. P. (1995). Diffusion of an effective tobacco prevention program. Part II: Evaluation of the adoption phase. Health Education Research, 10, 297-307.

*Parcel, G. S., Ross, J. G., Lavin, A. T., Portnoy, B., Nelson, G. D., & Winters, F. (1991). Enhancing implementation of the Teenage Health Teaching Modules. Journal of School Health, 61, 35-38.

*Parcel, G. S., Simons-Morton, B. G., & Kolbe, L. J. (1988). Health promotion: Integrating organizational change and student learning strategies. Health Education Quarterly, 15, 435-450.

78>66. China's smoking rates in the mid-1980s. Xin-Zhi, Zhao-guang, & Dan-yang, 1987.

Xin-Zhi, W., Zhao-guang, H., & Dan-yang, C. (1987). Smoking prevalence in Chinese aged 15 and above. Chinese Medical Journal, 100, 686-692.

79>67. Methods and preliminary results from China study were provided during a World Bank consultation with the Chinese Ministry of Health in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Information is presented here with the permission of the principle investigator, Zhang De-Xiu, M.D., Center for Health Education, Zhejiang Hygiene and Epidemic Prevention Center. See subsequent report, Zhang & Qiu, 1993.

*Zhang, D. &. Qiu, Z. (1993). School-based tobacco-use prevention--People's Republic of China, May 1989-January 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 42(19), 370-377.  [full text online]

80>68. Combining social and epidemiological diagnosis. The strategy of conducting the social and epidemiological assessment together is often practical because it encourages those planners who typically have a strong health bias to be mindful of linking health problems to salient social problems.

81>69. South Carolina teenage pregnancy reduction and program plan quality indexes. Vincent, Clearie, & Schluchter, 1987. This and other work on teenage pregnancy (e.g., Kirby, 1997) and on more general planning models, such as PRECEDE, and tools for evaluating planning such as Butterfoss, Goodman, et al., 1996, have led to a Program Plan Index to evaluate the quality of adolescent pregnancy prevention program plans (Parra-Medina, Taylor, et al., 2003).

Butterfoss, F., Goodman, R. M., Wandersman, A., Valois, R. F., & Chinman, M. (1996). The Plan Quality Index: An empowerment evaluation tool for measuring and improving the quality of plans. In D. Fetterman, S. Kaftarian, & A. Wandersman (Eds.), Empowerment evaluation: knowledge and tools for self-assessment and accountability (2nd ed., pp.304-331). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kirby, D. (1997). No easy answers: Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy. Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

*Vincent, M. L., Clearie, A. F., & Schluchter, M. D. (1987). Reducing adolescent pregnancy through school and community based education. Journal of the American Medical Association, 257, 3382-3386.

Parra-Medina, D., Taylor, D., Valois, R. F., Rousseau, M., Vincent, M. L., & Reininger, B. M. (2003). The Program Plan Index: An evaluation tool for assessing the quality of adolescent pregnancy prevention program plans. Health Promotion Practice, 4, 375-384.
 

70. The RECAPP website on sexual risk-taking behavior and programs. See: http://www.etr.org/recapp/.

82>71. A method for identifying community leadership to participate in planning and guiding the implementation of specific health programs has been developed in the context of a Precede application in North Carolina: Michielutte & Beal, 1990. For software to guide the process of identifying community leadership and participants in planning, see Gold, Green, & Kreuter, 1998.

*Gold, R., Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1998). EMPOWER: Enabling Methods of Planning and Organizing Within Everyone's Reach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing Co. [CD-ROM disk and manual, International Ver 2.25].

*Michielutte, R. & Beal, P. (1990). Identification of community leadership in the development of public health education programs. Journal of Community Health, 15, 59-68.

83>72. Limitations of school curriculum without policy support and support of other sectors. E.g., Lohrmann & Fors, 1986. See, however, Griffin, Botvin, et al., 2003; and Sussman, Dent, & Stacy, 2002.

Griffin, K. W., Botvin, G. J., Nichols, T. R., & Doyle, M. M. (2003). Effectiveness of a universal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Preventive Medicine, 36, 1-7.

Lohrmann, D. K., & Fors, S. W. (1986). Can school-based educational programs really be expected to solve the adolescent drug abuse problem?  Journal of Drug Education, 16, 327-339.

Sussman, S., Dent, C. W., & Stacy, A. W. (2002). Project Towards No Drug Abuse: A review of the findings and future directions. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26, 354-365.

84>73. Implementation issues in school health programs. Parcel, Simons-Morton, & Kolbe, 1988.

*Parcel, G. S., Simons-Morton, B. G., & Kolbe, L. J. (1988). Health promotion: Integrating organizational change and student learning strategies. Health Education Quarterly, 15, 435-50.

85>74. Earlier and more recent work on implementation issues in schools. Charter & Jones, 1973. More recent works, in the context of PRECEDE-PROCEED, include Bartholomew, Parcel, & Kok, 1998; Basch, 1984; Basch, Sliepcevich, et al., 1985; Bush, Zuckerman, et al., 1989; Bush, Downey, et al., 1987; Contento, Kell, et al., 1992; Downey, Frank, et al., 1987; MacDonald, 1998; MacDonald & Green, 2001; Ottoson & Green, 1987; Resnicow, Cohn, et al., 1992; Simpson & Pruitt, 1989; Taggart, Bush, et al., 1990; Walter & Wynder, 1989; Weiss, Wallerstein, & MacLean, 1995; Worden, Flynn, et al., 1988; 1996.

*Bartholomew, L. K. , Parcel, G. S. & Kok, G . (1998).  Intervention mapping: A process for developing theory- and evidence-based health education programsHealth Education and Behavior, 25, 545-563.

Basch, C. E. (1984). Research on disseminating and implementing health education programs in schools. Journal of School Health, 54, 57-66.

Basch, C. E., Sliepcevich, E. M., Gold, R. S., et al. (1985). "Avoiding Type III errors in health education program evaluations: A case study. Health Education Quarterly, 12, 315-331.

*Bush, Patricia J.; Zuckerman, A.E.; Taggart, V.S.; Theiss, P.K.; Peleg, E.O.; Smith, S.A (1989).  "Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevention in Black School Children: The 'Know Your Body' Evaluation Project," Health Education Quarterly, 16, 215-27.

*Bush, PJ, Downey, AM, Frank, LS & Webber, L.S. (1987).  Implementation of "Heart Smart": Cardiovascular school health promotion program. Journal of School Health, 57, 98-104.

Charter, W., & Jones, J. (1973). On the risk of appraising non-events in program evaluation. Educational Research, 2(11), 5-7.

*Contento, Isobel R, Diane G. Kell, Margaret K. Keiley, Ruth D. Corcoran (1992). A formative evaluation of the American Cancer Society Changing the Course nutrition education curriculum. Journal of School Health, 62, 411-6.

*Downey, A. M., Butcher, A. H., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., Miner, M. H., & Berenson, G. S. (1987). Development and implementation of a school health promotion program for reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in children and prevention of adult coronary heart disease: 'Heart Smart'.  In B. Hetzel and G. S. Berenson, (Eds.), Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood: Epidemiology and prevention (pp. 103-121). Amsterdam, NY & Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

*Downey, Anne M., G. C. Frank, L. S. Webber, D.W.Harsha, S.J.Virgilio, F.A.Franklin, et al. (1987). Implementation of "Heart Smart”: A Cardiovascular School Health Promotion Program.  Journal of School Health, 57, 98-104.

*MacDonald, Marjorie A.  (1998).  School-based health promotion: Reconciling concept and context.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

*MacDonald, M. A., & Green, L. W. (2001). Reconciling concept and context: The dilemma of implementation in school-based health promotion. Health Education Behavior, 28, 749-768.

*Ottoson J. M. and L. W. Green (1987).  "Reconciling Concept and Context: Theory of Implementation," in Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 2, W. B. Ward and M. H. Becker, eds. (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press), pp. 353-82.

*Resnicow, K (Director, Child Health Research, American Health Foundation, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017), L Cohn, J Reinhardt, D Cross, R Futterman, E Kirschner, EL Wynder, JP Allegrante (1992).  A three-year evaluation of the Know Your Body program in inner-city schoolchildren.  Health Education Quarterly, 19, 463-80.

*Simpson, G. W. and B. E. Pruitt (1989). "The Development of Health Promotion Teams as Related to Wellness Programs in Texas Schools," Health Education, 20, 26-8.

*Taggart, Virginia S., Patricia J.Bush, Alan E.Zuckerman (Georgetown Univ.Sch.Med., 3900 Reservoir Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20007), & Patricia K. Theiss. (1990).  A process evaluation of the District of Columbia "Know Your Body" Project. Journal of School Health, 60(2):60-66. 

*Walter, H. J. and E. L. Wynder (1989). "The Development, Implementation, Evaluation, and Future Directions of a Chronic Disease Prevention Program for Children: The 'Know Your Body' Studies," Preventive Medicine, 18, 59-71.

*Weiss, Joann R. (College of Nursing, Nursing/Pharmacy Building, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131-1061), N. Wallerstein, T. MacLean (1995).  Organizational development of a university-based interdisciplinary health promotion project.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 10(1): 37-48.

*Worden, J. K., Flynn, B. S. Geller, B. M., et al. (1988). Development of a smoking prevention mass-media program using diagnostic and formative research. Preventive Medicine, 17, 531-558.

*Worden, J. K., Flynn, B. S., Solomon, L. J., Secker-Walker, R. H., Badger, G. J., & Carpenter, J. H. (1996). Using mass media to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescent girls. Health Education Quarterly, 23, 453-468.

SUPPLEMENTARY LINKS TO NEWS FROM THE GENERAL PRESS and from HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE IN SCHOOLS

2005

Bush's 2006 budget and it's implications for school and child health. Feb 7, 2005.

Arkansas : Bill would repeal school body mass assessment program. Associated Press, Jan 25, 2005 .  

Pennsylvania: Schools see promising results from obesity campaign “School district shows early success in fighting childhood obesity”. Associated Press, Jan 1, 2005.    

California: Cities and towns make effort to keep tobacco from minors. “Fee helps snuff out tobacco sales to minors. Monterey County Herald   Jan 1, 2005.  M.S. Enkoji

South Carolina: Quirk in state’s tattoo law comes to light. “Tattoo law comes with sticking point”

Charlotte Observer, Jan 2, 2005. Henry Eichel

News from Health & Health Care in Schools, Jan-Feb 2005

2004

December
Looking Back—and Ahead—at Child Health Issues in Congress
Congress Makes Procedural Changes in IDEA
'Precursor Drugs'--One Molecule Away from Methamphetamine
May Pharmacists Refuse to Fill Prescriptions for Emergency Contraception?
Worth Noting

November
Plan B for Influenza: Antiviral Medications
First-Year Experiences under HIPAA
Bacterial Meningitis Gets New Attention
Does Parent Notification Affect Reproductive Health Services for Minors? Worth Noting

October
Preventing Childhood Obesity
Child Health: A Progress Report
What the Party Platforms Say about Health
How Good Are the Best Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatments?
Worth Noting

September
Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drinks, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes
Tobacco Use During Adolescence: 'The Battle Isn't Over'
Immunotherapy for Allergy to Insect Stings in Children
Athletes and Performance-Enhancing Drugs
Worth Noting

August
Report Cites Increases in Immunization of Infants
When Schools Conduct Surveys—What’s the Law?
Controversy Grows about Steroid Use by High Schoolers
Influenza Update
Worth Noting

July
Congress Gives Schools Two Years to Improve Nutrition/Wellness
Examining the Tragedy of Youth Suicide
Are Schools a Factor When Parents Refuse Immunization?
Young Teens and Emergency Contraception—the Debate Continues
Worth Noting

June 
A Trial of School-Based Asthma Treatment
Youth Risk Behaviors Show Improvement but Concerns Continue
What Has Happened to Immunization Registries?
Health Consequences of Smoking-It's Even Worse Than We Thought
Worth Noting
 

May 
It Takes A Village: What Happened When a State Dropped Its Youth Anti-Tobacco Program
Identifying the Risk Factors for Adolescent Overweight
A Review of Competitive Foods Available in Schools
In Congress

April 
House Bill Makes Only Minor Changes in School Food
FDA Has Questions About Antidepressant Medications for Children
An Update on Health Insurance for Adolescents
On Washing Hands—A Cautionary Tale
Worth Noting

March
'Our Voices, Our Lives'—A Report on Youth and STDs
Separate SCHIP Programs Meet Needs of Special Children
Why Did a Highly Vaccinated School Population Come Down with Chickenpox?
New Congress Addresses Health Issues
Worth Noting

February
The Strange Case of the Disappearing Disparities
The State of Sex Education in American Schools
Doctors Often Don't Ask, Don't Tell Young Patients about Tobacco Cessation
Fast Food and Obesity—Is There a Connection?
First Steps in Pediatric Drug Testing: Setting Ethics and Standards
Worth Noting

January
Flu in Children Calls Attention to Reye Syndrome
Pediatricians Take Position on Soft Drinks in Schools
Students Who Bully and Their Victims: Should They Be Treated Differently?
FDA Will Prohibit Sale of Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedra
Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule—United States, January-June 2004
Worth Noting

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Go to Endnotes: Preface  Chap 1 Chap 2  Chap 3 Chap 4 Chap 5 Chap 6  Chap 7  Chap 8  Chap 9