If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

 

Home  Precede-Proceed     Endnotes: Chap 1  Chap 2  Chap 3  Chap 4 Chap 5  Chap 7 Chap 8 Chap 9

Health Program Planning, 4th edition

Chapter 6 (formerly Chap. 8 in previous editions) [This revision is in progress]

Applications in Community Settings

Table of Contents (Click on the section to go to the new endnotes and references for that section)

COMMUNITY: A MEDIUM FOR CHANGE AND A CHANGING MEDIUM

Defining Community

Community Interventions and Interventions in Communities

The Epidemiological Case for the Community Approach

The Social-Psychological Case for the Community Approach

The Economic Case for the Community Approach

The Political Case for the Community Approach

The Demonstration and “Multiplier” Value of Smaller Programs

Community Participation

The Dilemma of Complex Problems and Multiple Stakeholders 

Tackling Complex Community Problems

The Dilemma of External Funding

Two Points of View

COALITIONS: COMPELLING, IMPORTANT, BUT NOT EASY AND NOT A PANACEA

The capacities of communities to support health programs

The Politics of Coalitions and Community Power

Coalitions: Some Basic Principles

Basic Steps to Keep in Mind

Creating an Organizational Framework

APPLICATIONS IN COMMUNITIES

A Kentucky Case Study

Results

Strategy: Multiple Tactics

Implications for Practitioners

Implementation Lesson 

The North Karelia Project

The Design

The Impact

                        Diffusion

Penetrate the Community

Never Promise Too Much Too Soon

Selecting Multiple Strategies

Ideas from PATCH

Intervention Matrix

Intervention Mapping

Reaching the Masses

Segmenting

A Su Salud

Social Marketing: Square One for a Campaign

            Take It Outside

Examples from Developing Countries

        So Much to Know and Do, So Little Time! 

SUMMARY

EXERCISES

NOTES AND CITATIONS

New endnotes and references:

COMMUNITY: A MEDIUM FOR CHANGE AND A CHANGING MEDIUM

1.  Definition and meanings of community. Green & Ottoson, 1999, pp. 40–41.

2.  Sense of community.  Israel, 1985, p. 72. Sense of community is defined and illustrated in J. Allen & Allen, 1990; Chavis & Wandersman, 1990; Kegler & Wyatt, 2003; McMillan & Chavis, 1986.

Allen, J. and R. F. Allen (1990). "A Sense of Community, a Shared Vision and a Positive Culture: Core Enabling Factors in Successful Culture-based Change," in Community Organization: Traditional Principles and Modern Applications, R. D. Patton and W. B. Cissel, eds. (Johnson City, TN: Latchpins Press), pp. 5-18.

Chavis, D. M. &  Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of community in the urban environment: A catalyst for participation and community development. American Journal of Community Psychology 18: 55-81.

Israel, B. A. (1985). "Social Networks and Social Support: Implications for Natural Helper and Community Level Interventions," Health Education Quarterly 12: 65-80.

Kegler MC, Wyatt VH. (2003). A multiple case study of neighborhood partnerships for positive youth development. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27, 156-69.

McMillan, D. W. and D. M. Chavis (1986). "Sense of Community: A Definition and Theory," Journal of Community Psychology 14: 6-23.

3. Formal vs informal community political influence. E. R. Brown, 1984. Brown’s phases of development in community health care policy were later applied in the development of indicators of community action to promote “social health.” See Rothman & Brown, 1989.

Brown, E. R. (1984). "Community Organization Influence on Local Public Health Care Policy: A General Research Model and Comparative Case Study," Health Education Quarterly 10: 205-34.

Rothman, J. and E. R. Brown (1989). "Indicators of Societal Action to Promote Social Health," in Health Promotion Indicators and Actions S. B. Kar, ed. (New York: Springer Publishing Co.), pp. 202-220.

4. Another dimension of community is the community of interest. National advocacy organizations such as Public Voice for Food Policy, the Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Center, Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, and others all relate to a constituency of concerned citizens scattered around a country. Voluntary health associations and professional associations, similarly, advocate and develop health promotion initiatives through their networks of members and chapters distributed around the country. Each of these represents a community in every sense except for the locality criterion applied in this chapter. Some can support local initiatives. Much of the discussion in this chapter, however, can be applied to organizing through these interest groups on a state, national, or international scale. For more on national advocacy groups and their methods, see Paehlke, 1989; Pertschuk & Erikson, 1987; Pertschuk, 2001;  Wallack, Dorfman, Jernigan, & Themba, 1993.

Paehlke, R. C. (1989).  Environmentalism and the future of progressive politics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Pertchuck, M. (2001). Smoke in their eyes: Lessons in movement leadership from the tobacco wars. Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press.

Pertschuk, M. and Erikson, A. (1987). Smoke Fighting: A Smoking Control Movement Building Guide (New York: American Cancer Society).

Wallack, L., Dorfman, L. Jernigan, D.& Themba, M. (1993).  Media advocacy and public health: Power for prevention. Newbury Park: Sage Publishing Co.

5. We have purposefully separated community-based from national, provincial, or state levels, but the positive, complementary effect that national and regional policies and campaigns have on local efforts should not be minimized. In fact, where appropriate and feasible, community-based programs should try to time their interventions to coordinate with larger population campaigns to obtain the media benefits as well as other resources that support the campaign. See, for example, Green & Shoveller, 2000;  Ling & Glantz, 2002; Shoveller & Green, 2002. Most of the principles and methods that apply to community health promotion can be applied with adaptation at the state-provincial or national level. See Arkin, 1990. For synthesis of PRECEDE-PROCEED with other models in guiding media campaigns, see Flynn et al., 1992; Green & McAlister, 1984; Worden, Flynn, Geller, et al, 1988; Worden, Solomon, et al., 1990.

Arkin, E. B. (1990). "Opportunities for Improving the Nation's Health Through Collaboration with the Mass Media," Public Health Reports 105: 219-23.

Flynn, B. S., Worden, J. K., Secker-Walker, R. H., Badger, G. J., Geller, B. M., & Costanza, M. C.  (1992). Prevention of cigarette smoking through mass media intervention and school programs. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 827-34.

Green, L. W. & McAlister, A. L. (1984). Macro-intervention to support health behavior: Some theoretical perspectives and practical reflections. Health Education Quarterly 11, 323-39.

Green, L. W. & Shoveller, J. A. (2000). Local versus central influences in planning for community health. In R. F. Woollard, & A. S. Ostry (Eds.). Fatal consumption: Rethinking sustainable development (pp. 166-196). Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Ling, P. M., & Glantz, S. A. (2002). Using tobacco-industry marketing research to design more effective tobacco-control campaigns. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 2983-9.

Shoveller, J. & Green, L.W. (2002). Decentralization and public health. In L. Breslow, B. D. Goldstein, L.W. Green, C. W. Keck, J. Last, & M. McGinnis (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Public Health, Vol.  (pp. 309-10). New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

Worden, J. K., Flynn, B. S. Geller, B. M., et al. (1988). Development of a smoking prevention mass-media program using diagnostic and formative research. Preventive Medicine, 17, 531-58.

Worden, J. K., Soloman, L. J., Flynn, B. S., Costanza, M. C., Foster, R. S., Dorwaldt, A. L., & Weaver, S. O. (1990). A community-wide program in breast self-examination training and maintenance.  Preventive Medicine, 19, 254-69.

6. The ideal of community. Morone, 1990, p. 7.

Morone, J. A. (1990). The democratic wish: Popular participation and the limits of American government. New York, Basic Books.

7. Studies supporting the ideals and principles of community-based approaches. E. g., Berkman & Breslow, 1983; Berkowitz, 2001; Farquhar, 1978; Goodman, Wandersman, et al., 1996; Holder, Gruenewald, et al., 2000.

Berkman, L. F., &  Breslow, L. (1983). Health and ways of living: The Alameda County study. New York: Oxford University Press.

Berkowitz, B. (2001). Studying the outcomes of community-based coalitions, American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 213-227.

Farquhar, J. W. (1978). "The Community-based Model of Life Style Intervention Trials," American Journal of Epidemiology 108: 103-11.

Goodman, R. M., Wandersman, A., Chinman, M., Imm, P., & Morrisey, E. (1996). An ecological assessment of community-based interventions for prevention and health promotion: Approaches to measuring community coalitions. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 33-61.

Holder, H. D., Gruenewald, P. J., Ponicki, W. R., et al. (2000). Effect of community-based interventions on high-risk drinking and alcohol-related injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 2341–7.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

8.  Community health demonstration successes. Farquhar, Fortmann et al., 1990; Kottke, Puska, et al., 1985; Laatikainen, Delong, et al., 2002; Puska, 2000a.

Farquhar, J. W., S. P. Fortmann, J. A. Flora, et al. (1990). "Effects of Community-wide Education on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors--the Stanford 5-city Project," Journal of the American Medical Association 264: 359-365.

Kottke, T. E., P. Puska, J. T. Solonen, et.al. (1985).  "Projected Effects of High-risk Versus Population-based Prevention Strategies in Coronary Heart Disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 121:697-704.

Laatikainen, T., Delong, L., Pokusajeva, S., Uhanov, M., Vartiainen, E., Puska, P. (2002). Changes in cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviours from 1992 to 1997 in the Republic of Karelia, Russia. European Journal of Public Health 1, 37-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11968519&dopt=Abstract

Puska, P. (2000a). Do we learn our lessons from the population-based interventions? (Editorial). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54, 562-3.

Community Interventions and Interventions in Communities

9. The trade-off of “most good for the most people” vs. reduction of disparities by focus on high-risk. Kottke, Puska, et al., 1985; Rose, 1992 (see Chapter 2, What Needs to Be Prevented? pp 6-14).

Kottke, T. E., P. Puska, J. T. Solonen, et.al. (1985).  "Projected Effects of High-risk Versus Population-based Prevention Strategies in Coronary Heart Disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 121:697-704.

Rose G., The Strategy of Preventive Medicine. Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford 1992 (see Chapter 2 What Needs to be Prevented? pp 6-14.

10. Early community-wide trials in immunization and family planning. Cuca & Pierce, 1977; Green & McAlister, 1984.

Cuca, R. and C. S. Pierce (1977). Experiments in Family Planning: Lessons from the Developing World (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, for the World Bank).

Green, L. W. & McAlister, A. L. (1984). Macro-intervention to support health behavior: Some theoretical perspectives and practical reflections. Health Education Quarterly 11, 323-39.

11. Cardiovascular community trials. E.g., Carlaw, Mittlemark, et al., 1984; Farquhar, Fortmann, Wood, & Haskell, 1983; Lasater et al., 1984; Nutbeam & Catford, 1987; Puska & Uutela, 2000; Shea & Basch, 1990; Vartiainen, Jousilahti, et al., 2000.

Carlaw, R. W., Mittlemark, M., Bracht, N., & Luepker, R. (1984). Organization for a community cardiovascular health program: Experiences from the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Health Education Quarterly, 11, 243-52.

Farquhar, J. W., S. P. Fortman, P. D. Wood and W. L. Haskell (1983). "Community Studies of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention," in Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease: Practical Management of Risk Factors, N. M Kaplan and J. Stamler, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Lasater, T., D. Abrams, L. Artz, L., et al. (1984). Lay volunteer delivery of a community-based cardiovascular risk factor change program: The Pawtucket experiment. In  J. D. Matarazzo, S. M. Weiss, J. A. Herd, et al., (Eds.), Behavioral health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention. New York: Wiley.

Nutbeam, D. and J. Catford (1987). "The Welsh Heart Programme Evaluation Strategy: Progress, Plans and Possibilities," Health Promotion 2: 5-18.

Puska, P., & Uutela, A. (2000). Community intervention in cardiovascular health promotion: North Karelia, 1972-1999. In: Schneiderman N, Speers MA, Silva JM, Tomes H, Gentry JH (Eds.), Integrating Behavioral and Social Sciences with Public Health. (pp. 73-96). United Book Press, Inc., Baltimore: American Psychological Association.

Shea, S. and C. E. Basch (1990). "A Review of Five Major Community-Based Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programs. Part I: Rationale, Design, and Theoretical Framework," American Journal of Health Promotion 4: 203-13.

Vartiainen, E., Jousilahti, P., Alfthan, G., Sundvall, J., Pietinen, P., Puska, P.. (2000). Cardiovascular risk factor changes in Finland, 1972-1997. International Journal of Epidemiology, 29, 49-56. 

12. Government-sponsored chronic disease community trials.  E.g., Elder, Schmid, et al., 1993; Michielutte, Dignan, et al., 1989; Plough & Olafson, 1994.

Elder, J.P., T. L. Schmid, P. Dower, and S. Hedlund (1993). "Community Heart Health Programs: Components, Rationale, and Strategies for Effective Interventions,"  Journal of Public Health Policy 14: 263-79.

Michielutte, R., Dignan, M. B., Wells, H. B., Young, L. D., Jackson, D. S., & Sharp, P. C. (1989). Development of a community cancer education program: The Forsyth County, NC, Cervical Cancer Prevention Project. Public Health Reports, 104, 542-51.

Plough, A. and F. Olafson (1994).  "Implementing the Boston Healthy Start Initiative: A Case Study of Community Empowerment and Public Health," Health Education Quarterly 21: 221-34.

13. Philanthropy-sponsored community trials. Butler, Abed, et al., 1996; Green & Kreuter, 2003; Hallfours, et al., 2003; Kaiser Family Foundation, 1987; Schorr, 1997; Wickizer, Wagner, & Perrin, 1998; Williams, 1990.

Butler, M.O, Abed, J., Goodman, K., Gottlieb, N., Hare, M., & Mullen, P. (1996). A case-study evaluation of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation’s Community Health Promotion Grants Progrram in the southern states: Phase 2 final report. Arlington, VA, Menlo Park, CA, and Atlanta, GA: Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, and Centers for Disease Control.

Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (2002). Fighting back, or fighting themselves? Community coalitions against substance abuse and their use of best practices. American Journal of Preventive Medicine  23, 303-6.

Hallfors, D., Cho, H., Livert, D., & Kadushin, C. (2002). How are community coalitions “Fighting Back” against substance abuse, and are they winning? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 237-45.

Kaiser Family Foundation (1989).  Strategic Plan for the Health Promotion Program, 1989-1991 (Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation).

Schorr, L. B. (1997). Common purpose: Strengthening families and neighborhoods to rebuild America. New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday.

Wickizer, T. M., Wagner, E., & Perrin, E. B. (1998). Implementation of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation’s Community Health Promotion Grant Program: A process evaluation. Milbank Quarterly, 76, 121-53.

Williams, R. M. (1990). Rx: Social Reconnaissance, Foundation News 31(4), 24-29.

14. Environmental movement toward community-wide initiatives. Freudenberg, 1984; Paehlke, 1989.

Freudenberg, N. (1984). Not in our backyards! Community action for health and the environment. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Paehlke, R. C. (1989).  Environmentalism and the future of progressive politics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

15. HIV/AIDS epidemic revived community approaches to communicable disease control. Becker & Joseph, 1988; Leviton & Valdiserri, 1990; Markland & Vincent, 1990; McKinney, 1993. Patton, 1985; L. S. Williams, 1986; For more specific applications of PRECEDE-PROCEED to community action on HIV/AIDS, see Freudenberg, 1989; Kroger, 1991; Mantell, DiVittis, & Auerbach, 1997, esp. pp. 199–203; Meredith, O’Reilly, & Schulz, 1989; Trussler & Marchand, 1997; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1988a, esp. Section D.

Becker, M. H., and J. Joseph (1988). "AIDS and Behavioral Change to Reduce Risk: A Review," American Journal of Public Health 78: 394-410.

*Freudenberg, N. (1989). Preventing AIDS: A Guide to Effective Education for the Prevention of HIV Infection. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

*Kroger, F. (1994). Toward a Healthy Public. American Behavioral Scientist, 38, 215-223.

Leviton L. C., and R. O. Valdiserri (1990). "Evaluating AIDS Prevention: Outcome, Implementation, and Mediating Variables," Evaluation and Program Planning 13: 55-66.

*Mantell, J. E., AT DiVittis, MI Auerbach (1997). Evaluating HIV Prevention Interventions. New York: Plenum Press (especially pp 199-203).

Markland, R. E. and M. L. Vincent (1990). "Improving Resource Allocation in a Teenage Sexual Risk Reduction Program," Socio-Economic Planning Science 24: 35-48.

McKinney, M. M. (1993). "Consortium Approaches to the Delivery of HIV Services Under the Ryan White CARE Act," AIDS and Public Policy Journal, 8, 115-25.

*Meredith, K., O’Reilly, K., & Schulz, S. L. (1989). Education for HIV Risk Reduction in the Hemophilia Community: Report of the Meeting, Convening a Panel of Expert Consultants; Atlanta, GA.

Patton, C. (1985). Sex and Ggerms: The Ppolitics of AIDS. (Boston: South End Press).

*Trussler, T. & Marchand, R. Taking care of each other: Field guide community HIV health promotion. Vancouver, BC: AIDS Vancouver / Health Canada, 1997.

*U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1988). CDC and minority communities stopping the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. Atlanta: Office of the Deputy Director (AIDS), Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service.

16. Public health arguments for community-wide approaches. Integration of Risk Factor Interventions, 1986; Kottke et al., 1985; Rose, 1992.

Integration of Risk Factor Interventions (1986). Washington, D.C.: ODPHP Monograph Series, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

17. Complementarity of the two approaches. B. Lewis, Mann, & Mancini, 1986. For a case illustration of the systematic integration of community-wide and high-risk strategies using PRECEDE-PROCEED, see Daniel & Green, 1995. For further reflections on balancing these two perspectives in the context of health care and community, see Chapter 9 and Green, Costagliola, & Chwalow, 1991; Green, Lewis, & Levine, 1980.

*Green, L.W., Costagliola, D., and Chwalow, A.J. (1991). Diagnostic éducatif et évaluation de stratégies éducatives (modèle PRECEDE): Méthodology pratique pour induire des changements de comportements et d'état de santé. Journées Annuelles de Diabétologie de l'Hotel Dieu (Paris: Flammarion Médecine-Sciences, 1991), pp. 227-40.

*Green, L. W., F. M. Lewis, and D. M. Levine (1980). "Balancing Statistical Data and Clinician Judgments in the Diagnosis of Patient Educational Needs," Journal of Community Health, 6, 79-91.

*Daniel, M., & Green, L. W. (1995). Application of the Precede-Proceed model in prevention and control of diabetes: A case illustration from an Aboriginal community. Diabetes Spectrum, 8, 80-123.

Lewis, B., J. I. Mann, and M. Mancini (1986). "Reducing the Risks of Coronary Heart Disease in Individuals and in the Population. Lancet, 14, 956-9.

    The Epidemiological Case for the Community Approach

18. Initial reach times effectiveness = large number in Finland. Puska, McAlister, et al., 1981.

Puska, P., A. McAlister, J. Pekkola, and K. Koskela (1981). "Television in Health Promotion: Evaluation of a National Programme in Finland," International Journal of Health Education, 24, 2-14.

19. Australian “Quit for Life” campaign’s reach. Dwyer, Pierce, Hannam, & Burke, 1986; Pierce, Macaskill, & Hill, 1990.

Dwyer, T., J. P. Pierce, C. D. Hannam, and N. Burke (1986). "Evaluation of the Sydney "Quit. For Life" Anti-smoking Campaign: Part II: Changes in Smoking Prevalence," Medical Journal of Australia 144: 344-7.

Pierce, J. P., P. Macaskill, and D. Hill (1990). "Long-Term Effectiveness of Mass Media Led Antismoking Campaigns in Australia," American Journal of Public Health 80: 565-9.

20. Focused intervention gets higher effectiveness, but lower reach. Glasgow, et al., 1999; 2003; Lando, Loken, Howard-Pitney, & Pechacek, 1990; Lando, McGovern, Barrios, & Etringer, 1990.

Glasgow RE, Lichtenstein E, Marcus AC. (2003). Why don't we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 2003 Aug;93, 1261-7.

Glasgow, R. E., Vogt, T. M., & Boles, S. M. (1999) Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: The RE-AIM framework. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1323-7.

Glasgow RE. McKay HG. Piette JD. Reynolds KD. The *RE-AIM* framework for evaluating interventions: what can it tell us about approaches to chronic illness management?. [Review] [33 refs] [Journal Article.Review, Tutorial] Patient Education & Counseling. 44(2):119-27, 2001 Aug./

Glasgow RE, Klesges LM, Dzewaltowski DA, Bull SS, Estabrooks P. The future
of health behavior change research: What is needed to improve translation research into health promotion practice? Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2004;27(1):3-12.

Lando, H. A., B. Loken, B. Howard-Pitney, and T. Pechacek (1990). "Community Impact of a Localized Smoking Cessation Contest," American Journal of Public Health 80: 601-3.

Lando, H. A., P. G. McGovern, F. X. Barrios, and B. D. Etringer (1990). "Comparative Evaluation of American Cancer Society and American Lung Association Smoking Cessation Clinics," American Journal of Public Health 80: 554-9.

21. Canadian example of reach vs effectiveness. Millar & Naegele, 1987.

Millar, W. J. and B. E. Naegele (1987). "Time to Quit Program," Canadian Journal of Public Health 78: 109-14.

    The Social-Psychological Case for the Community Approach

22. U.S. 1% per year reduction in smoking produced 200,000 premature deaths over 14 years. Warner & Murt, 1983.

Warner, K. E. and Murt, H. A. (1983). "Premature Deaths Avoided by the Antismoking Campaign," American Journal of Public Health 73: 672-7.

23. Denormalizing health risk behavior. Solomon & DeJong, 1986, p. 314.

Bal DG, Lloyd JC, Roeseler A, Shimizu R. (2001). California as a model. J Clin Oncology, 19, (18 Suppl):69S-73S.

Solomon, M. Z. and W. DeJong (1986). "Recent Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Efforts and Their Implications for AIDS Health Education," Health Education Quarterly 13: 301-316.

24. Making community norms supportive of health behavior. Dwore & Kreuter, 1980; Green, 1970b, 1970c; Green & McAlister, 1984. For applications of the concept of norms within PRECEDE-PROCEED planning or evaluation efforts, see Farley, 1997; Farley et al., 1996; 2003; N. H. Gottlieb et al., 1990; Kristal et al., 1995; Maxwell, Bastani, & Warda, 1998; Newman & Martin, 1982; M. W. Ross & Simon-Rosser, 1989; Schumann & Mosley, 1994; Secker-Walker, Flynn, & Solomon, 1996; B. G. Simons-Morton, Brink, & Simons-Morton et al., 1989; Sleet, 1987; Sloane & Zimmer, 1992.

Dwore, R. B. and M. W. Kreuter (1980). "Update: Reinforcing the Case for Health Promotion," Family and Community Health 2: 103-19.

Farley, C. (1997). Evaluation of a four-year bicycle helmet promotion campaign in Quebec aimed at children ages 8 to 12: Impact on attitudes, norms and behaviours. Canadian Journal of Public Health 88: 62-66.

Gottlieb, N. H., Eriksen, M. P., Lovato, C. Y., et al. (1990). Impact of a restrictive work site smoking policy on smoking behavior, attitudes, and norms. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 32, 20-3.

Green, L.W. (1970b). "Should health education abandon attitude-change strategies? Perspectives from Rrecent Rresearch.," Health Education Monographs 1(30): 25-48.

Green, L.W. (1970c). Status Identity and Preventive Health Behavior (Berkeley: Pacific Health Education Reports No. 1, University of California School of Public Health).

Green, L. W. and& A. L. McAlister, A. L. (1984). "Macro-Iintervention to Ssupport Hhealth Bbehavior: Some Ttheoretical Pperspectives and Ppractical Rreflections.," Health Education Quarterly 11,: 323-39.

Kristal, A. R., Patterson, R. E., Glanz, K., Heimendinger, J., Herbert, J. R., Feng, Z., & Probart, C. (1995). Psychosocial correlates of healthful diets: baseline results from the working well study. Preventive Medicine, 24, 221-8.

Maxwell, A. E., Bastani, R., & Warda, U. S. (1998). Mammography utilization and related attitudes among Korean-American women. Women and Health, 27, 89-107.

Newman, I. M., and& G. L. Martin, G. L. (1982). Attitudinal and normative factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Australia and the USA: A methodology to assist health education planning. Community Health Studies, 6,: 47-56.

Ross, Michael W., BR Simon Rosser (STD/AIDS Services, South Australian Health Commission, Adelaide, South Australia) (1989) Education and AIDS risks: a review. Health Education Research 4(3): 273-284.

Schumann, D. A., & Mosley, W. H. (1994). The household production of health: Introduction. Social Science and Medicine 38(2): 201-204, 1994.

Secker-Walker, R. H., Flynn, B. S., Solomon, P. M. (1996). Helping women quit smoking: baseline observations for a community health education project. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12, 367-77.

Simons-Morton, B. G., S. G. Brink, S. G.,D. G. Simons-Morton, D. G et al. (1989). "An Eecological Aapproach to the Pprevention of Iinjuries Ddue to Ddrinking and Ddriving.," Health Education Quarterly 16: 397-411.

Sleet, D. A. (1987). "Health Eeducation approaches to motor vehicle injury prevention.," Public Health Reports 102: 606-8.

Sloane, B. C. & Zimmer, C. H. Health education and health promotion on campus. In H. M. Wallace, K. Patrick & G. S. Parcel (Eds.), Principles and Practices of Student Health: Volume Three, College Health (pp.540-557). Oakland, CA: Third Party Press, 1992.

25. Low-fat menus becoming more of a norm in restaurants. Samuels, 1990.

Samuels, S. E. (1990). "Project LEAN: A national campaign to reduce dietary fat consumption. American Journal of Health Promotion, 4, 435-40.

26. Relative efficacy of targeted interventions. Campbell et al., 1994; Kreuter, Vehige, & McGuire, 1996; Zabora, Morrison, Olsen, & Ashley, 1997.

Campbell, M. K., Demark-Wahnefried W, Symons, M., Kalsbeek, W. D., Dodds, J., Cowan, A., Jackson, B., Motsinger, B., Hoben, K., Lashley, J., Demissie, S., & McClelland, J.W. (1999). Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevention of cancer: the Black Churches United for Better Health Project. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1390-1396.

Kreuter, Matthew. W., E. Vehige and A. G. McGuire (1996). “Using computer-tailored calendars to promote childhood immunization,” Public Health Reports March/April: 176-178.

27. Social cognitive theory. Bandura, 1986; 2004; N. M. Clark, 1987.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall).

Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education and Behavior, 31 143-64.

Clark, N. M. (1987). "Social Learning Theory in Current Health Education Practice," in Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 2, W. B. Ward, S. K. Simonds, P. D. Mullen, and M. H. Becker, eds., (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press), pp. 251-75.
 

28. Educational vs environmental dichotomy counterproductive. Kemm, 2003.

Kemm J. (2003). Health education: a case for resuscitation. Public Health, 117, 106-11.

29. Smoke-free environments as an environmental support for behavior change. Dijkstra & Borland, 2003; Willemsen, deVries, van Breukelen, & Oldenburg, 1996.

Crone, M. R., Reijneveld, S. A., Willemsen, M. C., van Leerdam, F. J., Spruijt, R. D., & Sing R. A. (2003). Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: A school based intervention study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57, 675-80.

Dijkstra A, Borland R. (2003). Residual outcome expectations and relapse in ex-smokers. Health Psychology, 22, 340-6.

    The Economic Case for the Community Approach

30. Health as instrumental value for social, cultural and economic ends.  Karanek, et al., 2000.

Karanek, N., Sockwell, D., Jia, H., & CDC. (2000). Community indicators of health-related quality of life—United States, 1993-1997. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 49, 281-285.

31. Socioeconomic determinants of health. J. W. Frank, 1995, p. 162.

Frank, J. W. (1995). Why “population health?” Canadian Journal of Public Health, 86, 162-164.

32. Diffusion theory is described in Chapter 4 and later in this chapter.

33. Distribution of low-fat and fast-food restaurants. Green & Ottoson, 1999; Green & McAlister, 1984; Samuels, 1990. We are cognizant, however, of the limitations of this argument as it relates to the poorest segments, the unemployed and welfare-dependent; see W. J. Wilson, 1987.

Green, L. W. & McAlister, A. L. (1984). Macro-intervention to support health behavior: Some theoretical perspectives and practical reflections. Health Education Quarterly 11, 323-39.

Green, L. W., and J. M. Ottoson (19998). Community and Population Health, 8th ed. (St. LouisNew York and Toronto: WCB/McGraw-Hill).

Samuels, S. E. (1990). "Project LEAN: A national campaign to reduce dietary fat consumption. American Journal of Health Promotion, 4, 435-40.

Wilson, W. J. (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press).

34. Japan Tobacco Inc’s declining sales. http://www.jti.co.jp/JTI_E/Release/03/031028_E.html (site accessed: 12/10/03)

35. Alaska state tax and Canadian tobacco tax experiences. Schumacher, 2000.

Schumacher, C. (2000). The Impact of the 1997 Tobacco Tax Rate Increase in Alaska: An Update. Alaska Department of Revenue and Alaska Department of Health, Juneau, Alaska.

36. Price elasticity rate for smoking and tax increases on tobacco.  Chaloupka, 1999. see also: http://tigger.uci.edu/~fic; www.uci.edu/orgs/impacteen.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11072413demand for tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Research, 1 (Suppl 1), S105-9.

Chaloupka, F. J. (1999). Macro-social influences: The effects of prices and tobacco-control policies on the demand for tobacco products. Nicotine Tobacco Research, 1 (Suppl 1), S105-9.

    The Political Case for the Community Approach

37. Politics of health. Rose, op cit., p. 123-124.

Rose G. (1992) The Strategy of Preventive Medicine. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications.

38. Helping corporations become good citizens. The Corporate Citizenship Company, London, http://www.corporate-citizenship.co.uk.

39. Corporate accountability on global health issues. UPS Chairman releases Corporate Sustainability Report, Atlanta Business Chronicle, Novermber 14, 2003 – Full report called: Operating in Unision; www.sustainablity.ups.com.

 

The Demonstration and “Multiplier” Value of Smaller Programs

40. Value of support across sectors of community. Perry, C., 2000, p. 122.

Perry, C. (2000). Commentary: School as a setting for health promotion. In B. D. Poland, L. W. Green & I. Rootman (Eds.). Settings for health promotion: Linking theory to practice.  Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

41. For a detailed account of the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria see: http://www.apin.harvard.edu/program-arfh.html.

42. Demonstration and diffusion effect of programs that are emulated. Northridge, Vallone, et al., 2000.

Northridge, M. E., Vallone, D., Merzel, C., Greene, D., Shepard, P., Cohall, A., & Healton, C. G. (2000). The adolescent years: An academic-community partnership in Harlem comes of age. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 6, 53-60.

43. The multiplier effect of one program when it is adopted by other organizations with many outlets. Carlaw, Mittlemark, Bracht, & Luepker, 1984; Green, Gottlieb, & Parcel, 1991. An alternative view of organizational adoption of innovations sees the process as largely internal and rational or responsive to consumer demands rather than imitative or interorganizational. See for example R. M. Goodman, Steckler, & Kegler, 1997; Schiller, Steckler, Dawson, & Patton, 1987.

Carlaw, R. W., M. Mittlemark, M.,N. Bracht, N., &and R. Luepker, R. (1984). "Organization for a community cardiovascular health program: Experiences from the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Health Education Quarterly, 11, 243-52.

Green, L. W., N. H. Gottlieb, and G. S. Parcel (1991). "Diffusion theory extended and applied.," In W. Ward & F. M. Lewis (Eds.). Advances in Health Education and Promotion vol. 3, W. Ward and F. M. Lewis, eds. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

44. The multiplier effects of several mutually supportive programs. Shimkin, 1986–1987, pp. 154–155.

Shimkin, D. (1986-87). "Improving Rural Health: The Lessons of Mississippi and Tanzania," International Quarterly of Community Health Education 7: 149-65.

45. The multiplier effect of demonstration projects. Schooler, Farquhar, Fortmann, & Flora, 1997.

Schooler, C., Sundar, S. S., Flora, J. (1996). Effects of the Stanford five-city project media advocacy program. Health Education Quarterly, 23,:346–64.

Community Participation

    The Dilemma of Complex Problems and Multiple Stakeholders 

46. Complex problems require varied solutions. Hoenig, 2000.

 Hoenig, C. (2000). The problem solving journey, Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.

47. Wicked problems.  Rittel & Webber, 1973; Sandberg, 1999.

Rittel, H. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155-69.

Sandberg, L. A. (1999). Telemedicine continues to wrestle wicked problems: reimbursement, licensure, and bandwidth rules (or is it compliance?). Health Management & Technology, 20, 134, 133. No abstract available.
 

    Tackling Complex Community Problems

48.  Understanding cultural differences. Fadiman, 1998.

Fadiman, A. (1998). The spirit catches you and you fall down. New York: Farrar, Straus,& Giroux, New York, 1998.

49. Additive rather than alternative thinking. Salk, 1973.

Salk, J. (1973). The survival of the wisest. Harper and Row, New York, 1973.

 50. Social capital. Kreuter & Lezin, 2002.

Kreuter MW and Lezin N. (2002). Social capital theory: Implications for community-based health promotion. In DiClementi RJ, Crosby RA, Kegler MC (Eds). Emerging Theories of Health Promotion Practice and Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

The Dilemma of External Funding

 51. Dilemma of outside funding and community participation. Green, 1977, 1986f; Green & Mercer, 2001; McGowan & Green, 1995.

Green, L. W. (1977). "Evaluation and mMeasurement: Some dDilemmas for Hhealth Eeducation.," American Journal of Public Health, 67,: 155-61.

Green LW, Mercer SL. (2001). Participatory research: Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities? American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1926-9. [Full text]

McGowan, P., & Green, L. W. (1995). Arthritis self-management in native populations of British Columbia: An application of health promotion and participatory research principles in chronic disease control. Canadian Journal of Aging, 14,  201-12.

 52. Grant funding for community research often fails to support programs. Altman, 1995; R. M. Goodman & Steckler, 1989a,b; Shediac-Rizkallah & Bone, 1998.

Altman, D. G. (1995). "Sustaining Interventions in Community Systems: On the Relationship Between Researchers and Communities," Health Psychology 14: 526-536.

Goodman, R. M. and A. Steckler (1989a). "A Framework for Assessing Program Institutionalization," Knowledge in Society 2: 57-71.

Goodman, R. M. and A. B. Steckler (1989b). "A Model for the Institutionalization of Health Promotion Programs," Family and Community Health 11(4): 63-78.

53. IOM recommends clustering grant categories.

Institute of Medicine. (2003). The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century. Washington DC: The Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, National Academies Press.

 

Two Points of View

54. Centralized support vs local control. Bozzini, 1988, p. 369; see also Green & Shoveller, 2000.

Bozzini, L. (1988). "Local Community Services Centers (LCSC) in Quebec: Description, Evaluation, Perspectives," Journal of Public Health Policy 9: 346-375.

Green, L. W. & Shoveller, J. A. (2000). Local versus central influences in planning for community health. In R. F. Woollard, & A. S. Ostry (Eds.). Fatal consumption: Rethinking sustainable development (pp. 166-196). Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

55. Community participation. Minkler & Pies, 1997, p. 134.

Minkler, M., & Pies, C. (1997). Ethical issues in community organization and community participation. In M. Minkler (Ed.), Community Organizing and Community Building for Health. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

 

COALITIONS: COMPELLING, IMPORTANT, BUT NOT EASY AND NOT A PANACEA

56. Range of participatory options. Wandersman & Florin, 2000.

Wandersman, A. & Florin, P. (2000). Citizen participation and community organizations. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.). Handbook of community psychology (pp. 247-272). New York: Academic/Plenum.

57. Coalition's capacity. Altman et al., 1991; Berkowitz, 2000; Braithwaite, Taylor, & Austin, 2000; Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002; Green & Ottoson, 1999.

Berkowitz, B. (2001). Studying the outcomes of community-based coalitions, American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 213-227.

Braithwaite, R. L., Taylor, S., & Austin, J. (2000). Building health coalitions in the Black community. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Butterfoss, F. R., & Kegler, M. C. (2002). Toward a comprehensive understanding of community coalitions: Moving from practice to theory. Ch 7 In DiClementi, R. J., Crosby, R. A., & Kegler, M. C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass), pp. 157-193.

58. PRECEDE’s help with “wicked problems.” Kass & Freudenberg, 1997.

Kass, D., & Freudenberg, N. (1997). Coalition building to prevent childhood lead poisoning: A case study from New York City. In M. Minkler (Ed). Community organizing and community building for health. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

59. Nigerian examples. Brieger, Onyido, &Ekanem, 1996. For Precede-Proceed applications with Nigerians, see: Adenyanju, 1987-88; Gayle, 1987.

*Adeyanju, O. M. (1987-88). A community-based health education analysis of an infectious disease control program in Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 8, 263-279.

Brieger, W. R., Onyido, A. E., & Ekanem, O. J. (1996). Monitoring community response to malaria control using insecticida-impregnated bed nets, curtains and residual spray at Nsukka, Nigeria. Health Education Research, 11, 133-146.

Gayle J. A. (1987). Health as the universal language. International students as teaching resources. Health Education, 18(2), 29.

60. Collaboration in minority communities. E. B. Fisher et al., 1992; R. M. Goodman & Steckler, 1987–1988, 1989a, 1989b; Green, 1989; Shediac-Rizkallah & Bone, 1998.

Goodman, R. M. and A. Steckler (1989a). "A Framework for Assessing Program Institutionalization," Knowledge in Society 2: 57-71.

Goodman, R. M. and A. B. Steckler (1989b). "A Model for the Institutionalization of Health Promotion Programs," Family and Community Health 11(4): 63-78.

Green, L. W. (1989). "Comment: Is Iinstitutionalization the Pproper Ggoal of Ggrantmaking?" American Journal of Health Promotion 3: 44.

Shediac-Rizkallah, M. C., & Bone, L. R. (1998). Planning for the sustainability of community-based health programs: Conceptual frameworks and future directions for research, practice and policy. Health Education Research, 13, 87-108.

61. Healthy communities process and health policy. Farrant & Taft, 1988. Cf. Wharf Higgins & Green, 1994.

Farrant, W., & and A. Taft, A. (1988). "Building healthy public in an unhealthy political climate: A case study from Paddington and North Kensington.," Health Promotion International, 3, 287-92.

Wharf Higgins, J. and L. W. Green (1994). “The APHA Criteria for Development of Health Promotion Programs Applied to Four Healthy Community Projects in British Columbia,” Health Promotion International 9: 311-20.

62. Health services access for rural homeless. Dahl, Gustafson, & McCullagh, 1993.

Dahl, S., Gustafson, C., & McCullagh, M. (1993). Collaborating to develop a community-based health service for rural homeless persons. Journal of Nursing Administration, 23, 41-45.

63. Examining the elements of effective community-based programs. E.g., Brownson & Smith, 1996; Egan, & Lackland, 1998; Shea, Basch, Lantiua, et al, 1992.  

Brownson, R. C., Smith, C. A. (1996). Preventing cardiovascular disease through community-based risk reduction: The Bootheel Project. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 206-212.

Egan, B. M., & Lackland, D. T. (1998). Strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention: The importance of public and community health programs. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, 8, 228-239.

Shea, S., Basch, C. E., Lantiua, R., et al. (1992). The Washington Heights-Inwood Health Heart Program: A third generation cardiovascular disease prevention program in a disadvantaged urban setting. Preventive Medicine, 21, 203-217.

64. From efficacy to effectiveness. Fishbein, 1996; Flay, 1986.  

Fishbein, M. (1996). Great expectations, or do we ask too much from community level interventions? American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1075-76.

Flay, B. R. (1986). Efficacy and effectiveness trials in the development of health promotion programs. Preventive Medicine, 15, 451-74.

65.  Communities for a Clean Bill of Health: see: www.mhap.org/communities/ccbh.

66. Systematic review of coalitions. Kreuter, Lezin, & Young, 2000.

Kreuter, Marshall. W., and N. Lezin, N., & Young, L. (19982000). “AreEvaluating community-based collaborative mechanisms: Implications for practitioners,” Health Promotion Practice, 1, 49-63.

67. Caveats on coalitions; praise for partnerships. Green, 2000. 

Green, L. W. (2000). In praise of partnerships: Caveats on coalitions. Health Promotion Practice, 1, 64-65.

 

The capacities of communities to support health programs

68. Developing community capacity. R. M. Goodman et al., 1996, p. 36.

Goodman, R. M., Wandersman, A., Chinman, M., Imm, P., & Morrisey, E. (1996). An ecological assessment of community-based interventions for prevention and health promotion: Approaches to measuring community coalitions. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 33-61.

69. Social cohesion concept. Berkman, & Glass, 2000.

Berkman, L.F. & Kawachi, I. (2000). Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.

70. Social capital concept. Kreuter & Lezin, 2002.

71. Ecological analyses of community social capital and health. Edmondson, 2003; Kawachi, 1999a.

Edmondson, R. (2003). Social capital: A strategy for enhancing health? Social Science and Medicine, 57, 1723-33.

Kawachi, I. (1999). Social capital and community effects on population and individual health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 120-30.

72. Social capital’s influence on community change. Tempkin  & Rohe, 1998, p. 70. 

Tempkin, K., & Rohe, W. (1998). Social capital and neighborhood stability: An empirical investigation. Housing Policy Debate, 9(1), 61-88.

73. Bonding social capital vs bridging social capital. Putnam, 2000.

Putnam, R. D.  (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

74. Social capital in planning and developing community health. Adapted from Kreuter and Lezin, 2002.

 

    The Politics of Coalitions and Community Power

75. Gaming theory on politics.  J. M. Clark, 1939.

Clark, J. M. (1939). The Social Control of Business, New York: McGraw-Hill.

76. Politician on gaming. H. Smith, 1988.

Smith, H. (1988). The Power Game, How Washington Works (New York: Random House).

77. Community ownership of the initiative. Flynn, 1995; Green & Mercer, 2001; Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003.

Flynn, B. (1995). Measuring community leaders’ perceived ownership of health education programs: initial tests of reliability and validity. Health Education Research, 10, 27-36.

Green LW, Mercer SL. (2001). Participatory research: Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities? American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1926-9. [Full text]

Minkler, M. & Wallerstein, N. (2003). Community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

 

Coalitions: Some Basic Principles

78. Guidance on coalition building. Braithwaite, Taylor, & Austin, 2000; Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002; Wandersman, Goodman, & Butterfoss, 1997.

Braithwaite, R. L., Taylor, S., & Austin, J. (2000). Building Hhealth Ccoalitions in the Black Ccommunity. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Butterfoss, F. R., & Kegler, M. C. (2002). Toward a comprehensive understanding of community coalitions: Moving from practice to theory. Ch 7 In DiClementi, R. J., Crosby, R. A., & Kegler, M. C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass), pp. 157-193.

79. Accounts of coalition efforts. Bibeau, Howell, Rife, & Taylor, 1996; DeFrank & Levenson, 1987; Fisher, Strunk, et al., 1995; Freudenberg & Golub, 1987; S. Gottlieb, 1986, Kumpfer, Turner, Hopkins, Librett, 1993; Lefebvre et al., 1986; R. K. Lewis et al., 1996; McKinney, 1993; I. Miller, 1987; Orthoefer, Bain, Empereur, & Nesbit, 1988.

*Fisher, E. B., R.C. Strunk, R. C., L.K. Sussman, L. K., Arfken, C., Sykes, R. K., Munor, J. M., Haywood, S., Harrison, D., & Bascom, S. et al. (1995). Acceptability and feasibility of a community approach to asthma management: The Neighborhood Asthma Coalition (NAC). Journal of Asthma, 33, 367-83.

Freudenberg, N. and M. Golub (1987). "Health Education, Public Policy and Disease Prevention: A Case History of the New York City Coalition to End Lead Poisoning," Health Education Quarterly, 14, 387-401.

Gottlieb, S. (1986). "Ensuring Access to Health Care: What Communities Can Do to Make a Difference through Private Sector Coalitions, Inquiry 23: 322-9.

Lefebvre, R. C., G. S. Peterson, S. A. McGraw, et al. (1986). "Community Intervention to Lower Blood Cholesterol: The "Know Your Cholesterol" Campaign in Pawtucket, Rhode Island," Health Education Quarterly 13: 117-29.

McKinney, M. M. (1993). "Consortium Approaches to the Delivery of HIV Services Under the Ryan White CARE Act," AIDS and Public Policy Journal 8: 115-25.

New:  Darrow, WW,  JE Montanea, PB Fernandez, UF Zucker, DP Stephens, and H Gladwin
Eliminating disparities in HIV disease: community mobilization to prevent HIV transmission among Black and Hispanic young adults in Broward County, Florida. Ethnicity & Disease, June 1, 2004; 14(3 Suppl 1): S108-16.

80. Survey of professionals on their coalition experience: Kreuter & Lezin, 1997.

81. The researchers and practitioners who participated in this survey included David Altman, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest, NC; William Beery, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, WA; James Frankish, Institute of Health Promotion Research, University of British Columbia; Robert Goodman, School of Public Health, Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA; Brick Lancaster, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA; Katherine Marconi, Bureau of Health Resources and Development, HRSA, Rockville, MD; Martha McKinney, Community Health Solutions, Inc.; Dearell Niemeyer, NCCDPHP, CDC; Randy Schwartz, Division of Health Promotion and Education, Maine Bureau of Health; and Nancy Watkins, NCCDPHP, CDC. The survey was conducted by telephone during April 1997.

    Basic Steps to Keep in Mind

82. Specificity of objectives has been addressed in previous chapters as an issue in planning and evaluation. The issue here is with specificity as a facilitator of interorganizational understanding, commitment and cooperation in implementing a policy or common objective. See Elmore, 1976; Pressman & Wildavsky, 1973; Van Meter & Van Horn, 1975.

Elmore, R. (1976). "Follow Through Planned Variation," in Social Program Implementation, W. Williams, and R. Elmore, eds. (New York: Academic Press).

Van Meter, D., and& C. Van Horn, C. (1975). "The Ppolicy Iimplementation Pprocess: A Cconceptual Fframework.," Administration and Society, 6,: 445-88.

83. Leadership identification for coalition. Nix, 1977, pp. 90–91. For software, see Gold, Green, & Kreuter, 1997.

Nix, H. L. (1977). The community and its involvement in the study action planning process. (Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Centers for Disease Control, HEW- CDC-78-8355).

Gold, R., L. W. Green, L. W.,and & M. W. Kreuter, M. W. (19978). EMPOWER: Enabling Methods of Planning and Organizing Within Everyone's Reach. (Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing Co. [CD-ROM disk and manual]). , International Ver 2.25].

84. Media representation on coalition. Steckler, Orville, Eng, & Dawson, 1989.

Steckler, A., K. Orville, K.E. Eng, E.L. & Dawson, L. (1989). PATCHing it Together: A Formative Evaluation of CDC's Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH) Program (Chapel Hill, NC: Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina).1992). Summary of a formative evaluation of PATCH. Journal of Health Education, 23, 174-8.

85. Faith community on coalitions.  Eng, Hatch, & Callan, 1985; Hatch & Jackson, 1981; Markland & Vincent, 1990; Vincent, Clearie, & Johnson, 1988; Vincent, Clearie, & Schluchter, 1987; B. L. Wells, DePue, Lasater, & Carleton, 1988.

DePue, J. D., Wells, B. L., Lasater, T. M., & Carleton, R. A. (1987). Training volunteers to conduct heart health programs in churches. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3, 51-57.

Markland, R. E. and M. L. Vincent (1990). "Improving Resource Allocation in a Teenage Sexual Risk Reduction Program," Socio-Economic Planning Science 24: 35-48.

Wells, B. L., J. D. DePue, T. M. Lasater, and R. A. Carleton (1988). "A Report on Church Site Weight Control," Health Education Research, 3, 305-16.

    Creating an Organizational Framework

APPLICATIONS IN COMMUNITIES

86. Community applications in domestic violence. Sanders-Phillips, 1996; P. H. Smith, Danis, & Helmick, 1998.

*Sanders-Phillips, K. (1996). Correlates of health promotion behaviors in low-income black women and Latinas. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12, 450-8.

*Smith, P. H., Danis, M., & Helmick, L. C. (1998) Changing the health care response to battered women: A health education approach. Family & Community Health, 20, 1-18.

87. Community applications child pedestrian injuries. Stevenson, Jones, Cross, Howat, & Hall, 1996.

 

88. Community applications in cervical cancer. Dignan, Michielutte, Wells, & Bahnson, 1994; Michielutte, Dignan, Wells, et al., 1989.

*Dignan, M. B., Michielutte, R ., Wells, H. B., & Bahnson, J. (1994). The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project--I. Cervical cancer screening for black women. Health Education Research, 9, 411-20.

*Michielutte, R., Dignan, M. B., Wells, H. B., Young, L. D., Jackson, D. S., & Sharp, P. C. (1989). Development of a community cancer education program: The Forsyth County, NC, Cervical Cancer Prevention Project. Public Health Reports, 104, 542-51.

89. Community applications in breast cancer screening. Danigelis, et al., 1995 ; Gold, Green, & Kreuter, 1998.

*Danigelis, N. L., Roberson, N. L., Worden, J. K., Flynn, B. S., Dorwaldt, A. L., Ashley, J. A., Skelly, J. M., & Mickey, R. M. (1995). Breast screening by African-American women: Insights from a household survey and focus groups. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 11, 311-317.

90. Community applications in maternal nutrition. Parvanta, Cottert, Anthony, & Parlato, 1997.

*Parvanta, C. F., Gottert, P., Anthony, R., & Parlato, M. (1997). Nutrition promotion in Mali: Highlights of a rural integrated nutrition communication program (1989-1995). Journal of Nutrition Education, 29, 274-280.

    A Kentucky Case Study

91. Kentucky case study. Kotchen et al., 1986.

Kotchen, J. M., H. E. McKean, S. Jackson-Thayer, et al. (1986). "Impact of a Rural High Blood Pressure Control Program on Hypertension Control and Cardiovascular Mortality," Journal of the American Medical Association 255: 2177-82.

92. Mailing and other screening follow-up reminders. D. M. Murray et al., 1988. For examples of direct mail strategies applied to other issues in health promotion, see also Kaplan, et al., 2000.

Kaplan, C. P., Bastani, R., Belin, T. R., Marcus, A., Nasseri, K., Hu, M. Y. (2000). Improving follow-up after an abnormal pap smear: results from a quasi-experimental intervention study. Journal of Womens Health & Gender Based Medicine, 9, 779-90.

Murray, D. M., C. L. Kurth, J. R. Finnegan, Jr., et al. (1988). "Direct Mail as a Prompt for Follow-up Care Among Persons at Risk for Hypertension," American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4: 331-5.

93. Media considerations. There was no need in rural Kentucky for more expensive communication efforts (such as a paid media campaign) given the efficiency of existing informal communications networks and the ready cooperation of the local radio and newspaper. We hasten to point out, however, that more expensive campaigns may be cost-effective when indicated by geographic, demographic, and media characteristics.

94. Perception of importance by professionals. Personal communication, Jane Kotchen, August 25, 1989.

 

    The North Karelia Project

95. The North Karelia project. P. Puska et al., 1985, pp. 162–163.

Puska, P., A. Nissinen, A., J. Tuomilehto, J., et al. (1985). "The Ccommunity-Bbased Sstrategy to Pprevent Ccoronary Hheart Ddisease: Conclusions from the Tten Yyears of the North Karelia Project," Annual Review of Public, 6:, 147-93.

96. Twenty-seven-year results of North Karelia community program. Puska, Uutela, 2000.

Puska, P., Uutela, A. (2000). Community intervention in cardiovascular health promotion: North Karelia, 1972-1999. In: Schneiderman N, Speers MA, Silva JM, Tomes H, Gentry JH (Eds.), Integrating Behavioral and Social Sciences with Public Health. (pp. 73-96). United Book Press, Inc., Baltimore: American Psychological Association.

97. Early process evaluation and tracking of results. McAlister, Puska, Salonen, et al., 1982.

McAlister, A., P. Puska, J. T. Salonen, et al. (1982). "Theory and Action for Health Promotion--Illustrations from the North Karelia Project," American Journal of Public Health 72: 43-50.

98. Consumption data. See discussion on page 503 in Vartiainen et al., 1994. See also Pietinen, et al., 1992.

Pietinen, P. Nissinen, A., Vartiainen, E., Tuomilehto, J., Uusitalo, U., Ketola, A., Moisio, S., & Puska, P. (1992). Dietary changes in the North Karelia Project (1972-1982). Preventive Medicine, 17,183-93.

Vartiainen, E., P. Puska, P. Jousilahti, H. J. Korhonen, J. Toumilehto, and A. Nissinen (1994). “Twenty-year Trends in Coronary Risk Factors in North Karelia and in Other Areas of Finland,” International Journal of Epidemiology 23: 495-504.

99. “Boots deep in the mud.” Personal conversation between Marshall Kreuter and Pekka Puska in Budapest, May 31, 1996 [audiotaped].

100. Bootheel project. R. C. Brownson et al., 1996; Smith, Dean, et al., 1998.

Brownson, R. C., Smith, C. A. (1996). Preventing cardiovascular disease through community-based risk reduction: The Bootheel Project. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 206-212.

Smith CA, Dean C, Dabney S, Brownson RC. (1998). Cardiovascular risk reduction in rural minority communities: The Bootheel Heart Health Project. Journal of Health Education, 29, 158-165.

 

101. Go forth at community’s pace. Smith, Dean, Dabney, & Brownson, 1998, p. 161.

Smith CA, Dean C, Dabney S, Brownson RC. (1998). Cardiovascular risk reduction in rural minority communities: The Bootheel Heart Health Project. Journal of Health Education, 29, 158-165.

102. Don’t promise unachievable outcomes. Hancock et al., 1997.

Hancock, L., R. W. Sanson-Fisher, S. Redman, R. Burton, L. Burton, J. Butler, A. Girgis, R. Gibberd, M. Hensley, A. McClintock, A. Reid, M. Schofield, T. Tripodi, and R. Walsh (1997). “Community Action for Health Promotion: A Review of Methods and Outcomes 1900-1995,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 13: 229-239.

    Selecting Multiple Strategies

103. Community Health Promotion Grant Program of: Kaiser Family Foundation, 1989.

Kaiser Family Foundation (1989). Strategic Plan for the Health Promotion Program, 1989-1991 (Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation).

104. Problem of translation of experimental trials to everyday practice settings. Green, 2001 (full text online at http://www.ajhb.org/25-3.htm); Glasgow, et al., 2003. For Glasgow’s RE-AIM online course on planning for the translation of behavioral research to programs, http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec6851/index.htm.

Glasgow RE, Lichtenstein E, Marcus AC. (2003). Why don't we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. Am J Public Health, 93, 1261-7.

Green, L.W. (2001b). From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (American Academy of Health Behavior Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior, 25,: 165-178.

105. Community application tools and resources from PATCH. Kreuter, 1992; Green & Kreuter, 1992; C. F. Nelson, Kreuter, & Watkins, 1986; C. F. Nelson, Kreuter, Watkins, & Stoddard, 1986, Chap. 47. For the fully downloadable PATCH manuals, including the guides for community coordinators and planners, meeting guides, visual aides, and other tools, go to http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/patch/.

*Green, L.W., Kreuter, Marshall W. (1992). CDC's Planned Approach to Community Health as an application of PRECEDE and an inspiration for PROCEED. Journal of Health Education, 23, 140-47.

*Kreuter, Marshall W. (1992). PATCH: Its origin, basic concepts, and links to contemporary public health policy. Journal of Health Education 23(3): 135-139.

*Nelson, C. F., M. W. Kreuter, M. W.,and N. B. Watkins, N. B., & Stoddard, R. R. (1986). "A pPartnership Bbetween the Ccommunity, Sstate, and Ffederal Ggovernment: Rhetoric or Rreality.," Hygie (Paris) 5(3),: 27-31.

*Nelson, C. F., M. W. Kreuter, N. B. Watkins, and R. R. Stoddard (1987). "Planned Approach to Community Health: The PATCH Program," in Community-Oriented Primary Care: From Principle to Practice, P. A. Nutting, ed. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, HRS-A-PE 86-1), chap. 47.

106. NACCHO survey of local health departments on PATCH. National Association of County and City Health Officials and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1995, p. 60.

National Association of County and City Health Officials. (1995). 1992-1993 National profile of local health departments. Washington, DC: National Association of County and City Health Officials. Atlanta, GA: Public Health Practice Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

107. Adams County application of PATCH. Based on personal interview (12/10/03) with Julie Shepard, Director of Health Promotion, Adams County Health Department, Quinicy, Illinois.  http://www.co.adams.il.us/health/promotion/patch.htm, accessed Dec 16, 2003.

108. Exercise facilities as a health program setting. Sallis et al., 1990.

Sallis, J. F., M. F. Hovell, and C. R. Hoffstetter, et al. (1990). "Distance Between Homes and Exercise Facilities Related to Frequency of Exercise Among San Diego Residents," Public Health Reports 105: 179-85.

109. Religious sites and settings for health programs. DePue, Wells, Lasater, & Carleton, 1990; Eng, Hatch, & Callan, 1985; Markland & Vincent, 1990; Ransdell & Rehling, 1996; S. Thomas, Quinn, Billingsley, & Caldwell, 1994.

DePue, J. D., B. L. Wells, T. M. Lasater, and R. A. Carleton (1990). "Volunteers as Providers of Heart Health Programs in Churches: A Report on Implementation," American Journal of Health Promotion, 4: 361-6.

See endnotes 15 and 85.

110. Health fairs as settings for health program activities. Clayman, Chamberlain, & Hong, 1995; Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1981; Spoon, Benedict, & Buonamici, 1997. Shepherd, Smart, & Marley, 2004.

Shepherd AL, Smart L, Marley J. (2003). Developing an innovative approach to tackling men's health issues.
Professional Nurse, 19, 234-7. Review.
 

111. Bars and restaurants as settings for health program activities. Biener & Siegel, 1997; R. L. Miller, Klotz, & Eckholdt, 1998; Mosher, 1990; O’Donnell, 1985; Perry, Bishop, et al., 2004; Saltz, 1987.

Mosher, J. F. (1990). Community Responsible Beverage Service Programs: An Implementation Handbook (Palo Alto, CA: The Health Promotion Resource Center, Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention).

Perry CL, Bishop DB, Taylor GL, Davis M, Story M, Gray C, Bishop SC, Mays RA, Lytle LA, Harnack L. (2004). A randomized school trial of environmental strategies to encourage fruit and vegetable consumption among children. Health Education and Behavior, 31, 65-76.

Saltz, R. (1987). "The Role of Bars and Restaurants in Preventing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: An Evaluation of Server Intervention," Evaluation and Health Professions 10: 5-27.

112. Grocery stores as settings for health program activities. Cheadle et al., 1990; Ernst et al., 1986; Hunt et al., 1990 Kristal, Goldenhar, & Morton, 1997; Mayer, Dubbert, & Elder, 1989; Mullis et al., 1987; Paine-Andrews, Fancisco, & Coen, 1996; Pennington, Wisniowski, & Logan, 1988.

Cheadle, A., B. Psaty, E. Wagner, et al. (1990). "Evaluating Community-based Nutrition Programs: Assessing the Reliability of a Survey of Grocery Store Product Displays," American Journal of Public Health 80: 709-11.

Hunt, M. K., C. Lefebvre, M. L. Hixson, et al. (1990). "Pawtucket Heart Health Program Point-of-Purchase Nutrition Education Program in Supermarkets," American Journal of Public Health 80: 730-1.

113. Outreach to homes in rural areas. A program that thoroughly applied the Precede model to planning for the prevention of a veterinary health problem required direct outreach to individual dairy farmers: W. B. Brown, Williamson, & Carlaw, 1988. Results of the program are reported in N. B. Williamson et al., 1988. See also Soubhi & Potvin, 1999.

Brown, W. B., N. B. Williamson, and R. A. Carlaw (1988). "A Diagnostic Approach to Educating Minnesota Dairy Farmers in the Prevention and Control of Bovine Mastitis," Preventive Veterinary Medicine 5: 197-211.

Williamson, N. B., M. J. Burton, W. B. Brown, et al. (1988). "Changes in Mastitis Management Practices Associated with Client Education and the Effects of Adopting Recommended Mastitis Control Procedures on Herd Production," Preventive Veterinary Medicine 5: 213-23.

114. Stages of change and diffusion theory. Prochaska, Redding, & Evers, 2002; Rossi, Greene, et al., 2001; Rogers, 1995.

Prochaska, J. O., C. A. Redding, C. A., & K. E. Evers, K. E. (2002). “The Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change. In Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Lewis, F. M. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3rd edition. Pp. 99-120, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of Iinnovations, 4th ed. (New York: Free Press).

Rossi SR, Greene GW, Rossi JS, Plummer BA, Benisovich SV, Keller S, Velicer WF, Redding CA, Prochaska JO, Pallonen UE, Meier KS. (2001). Validation of decisional balance and situational temptations measures for dietary fat reduction in a large school-based population of adolescents. Eating Behavior, 2, 1-18.

115. Intervention mapping. Bartholomew, Parcel, Kok, & Gottlieb, 2001.

Bartholomew, L. K, Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., & Gottlieb, N. H. (2001). Intervention mapping: Designing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programs. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co. (now McGraw-Hill).

116. Mass media. E.g., Agha, 2003; R. Blum & Samuels, 1990; Green, Mullen, & Maloney, 1984; Green, Murphy, & McKenna, 2002; Stephenson, 2003. See examples of mass media spots developed by Health Canada for their national tobacco control program: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-sesc/tobacco/facts/mild/tvads.html (accessed March 21, 2004).

Agha S. (2003). The impact of a mass media campaign on personal risk perception, perceived self-efficacy and on other behavioural predictors. AIDS Care, 15, 749-62.

Green, L.W., Murphy, R.L., McKenna, J.W. (2002). New insights into how mass media works for and against tobacco. Journal of Health Communications 7, 245-248.

Stephenson MT. (2003). Mass media strategies targeting high sensation seekers: what works and why. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27, Suppl 3, S233-8.

 

    Reaching the Masses

117. Community-level mass media component of programs. For example, Alcalay et al., 1987–1988; Farquhar et al., 1990; Lefebvre et al., 1986; H. V. McCoy, Dodds, & Nolan, 1990. For examples of mass media applied within Precede-Proceed planning processes, see Ashley, 1993; Bakdash, 1983; Bakdash, Lange, & McMillan, 1983; Bartlett & Green, 1980; Centers for Disease Control, 1987; Dignan et al., 1991; Flynn et al., 1992; Ramirez & McAlister, 1989; Worden et al., 1990, 1996.

*Ashley, N. (1993). King County Regional Domestic Violence Public Education Campaign. Seattle: Human Services Roundtable.

*Bakdash, M. B. (1983). "The Use of Mass Media in Community Periodontal Education," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 43: 128-31.

*Bakdash, M. B., A. L. Lange, and D. G. McMillan (1983). "The Effect of a Televised Periodontal Campaign on Public Periodontal Awareness," Journal of Periodontology 54: 666-70.

*Centers for Disease Control (1987). Information/Education Plan to Prevent and Control AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Service.

*Dignan, M., Bahnson, J., Sharp, P. Beal, P., Smith, M., & Michielutte, R. (1991). Implementation of mass media community health education: The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project. Health Education Research, 6, 259-66.

Farquhar, J. W., S. P. Fortmann, J. A. Flora, et al. (1990). "Effects of Community-wide Education on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors--the Stanford 5-city Project," Journal of the American Medical Association 264: 359-365.

*Flynn, B. S., Worden, J. K., Secker-Walker, R. H., Badger, G. J., Geller, B. M., & Costanza, M. C. (1992). Prevention of cigarette smoking through mass media intervention and school programs. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 827-34.

Lefebvre, R. C., G. S. Peterson, S. A. McGraw, et al. (1986). "Community Intervention to Lower Blood Cholesterol: The "Know Your Cholesterol" Campaign in Pawtucket, Rhode Island," Health Education Quarterly 13: 117-29.

*Ramirez, A. G. and A. L. McAlister (1989). "Mass Media Campaign--A Su Salud," Preventive Medicine 17: 608-21.

*Secker-Walker, R. H., Worden, J. K., Holland, R. R., Flynn, B. S., Detsky, A. S. (1997). A mass media program to prevent smoking among adolescents: costs and cost effectiveness. Tobacco Control, 6, 207-12.

*Worden, J. K., B. S. Flynn, B. S.B. M. Geller, B. M., et al. (1988). Development of a smoking prevention mass-media program using diagnostic and formative research. Preventive Medicine, 17, 531-58.

Worden, J. K., BS Flynn, LJ Solomon, RH Secker-Walker, GJ Badger, JH Carpenter (1996). Using mass media to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescent girls. Health Education Quarterly 23(4): 453-468.

*Worden, J. K., L. J. Solomon, B. S. Flynn, et al. (1990). A community-wide program in breast self-examination training and maintenance. Preventive Medicine, 19, 254-69.

118. Planning mass media component. General references include Glanz & Rimer, 1995; Kotler, 1989; Lefebvre & Rochlin, 1997; Leviton, Mrazek, & Stoto, 1996; Manoff, 1985; K. Tones & Tilford, 1994; Walsh, Rudd, Moeykens, & Maloney, 1993. For applications of PRECEDE, see also Bonaguro & Miaoulis, 1983; De Pietro, 1987; Kotler & Roberto, 1989, esp. pp. 285–294, which describes Project LEAN as a case study of planning a national social marketing program for dietary fat consumption; Miaoulis & Bonaguro, 1980–1981; Novelli, 1990; Romer & Kim, 1995.

*Bonaguro, J. A., and& G. Miaoulis, G. (1983). Marketing: A tool for health education planning. Health Education, 14 (Jan/Feb),: 6-11.

*De Pietro, R. (1987). "A Marketing Research Approach To Health Education Planning," in Advances in Health Education and Promotion vol. 2, W. B. Ward and S. K. Simonds, eds. (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.), pp. 93-118.

*Glanz, K, and B. Rimer (1995). Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No. 95-3896, Public Health Service, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, July.

*Kotler P. &and E. L. Roberto, E. L (1989). Social marketing: Strategies for changing public behavior. (New York: The Free Press).

*Miaoulis G. and J. Bonaguro (1980-81). "Marketing Strategies in Health Education," Journal of Health Care Marketing, 1: 35-44.

Tones, K., & Tilford, S. (1994).Health education: Effectiveness, efficiency and equity, 2nd edition. (London: Chapman & Hall).

119. Seven benefits of mass media. Manoff, 1985, pp. 76–77.

Manoff, R. K. (1985). Social Marketing: New Imperative for Public Health (New York: Praeger).

120. The Community Guide to Preventive Services: see: http://www.thecommunityguide.org (accessed March 21, 2004).

121. Types of intervention and segments of community they reach. Preston, Baranowski, & Higginbotham, 1988–1989.

Preston, M. A., T. Baranowski, and J. C. Higginbotham (1988-89). "Orchestrating the Points of Community Intervention," International Quarterly of Health Education, 9, 11-34.

122. Alignment of Diffusion-Adoption categories with predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors (early, middle, and late adopters). Green, 1976; Green, Gottlieb, & Parcel, 1991.

Green, L. W. (1976). "Change Process Models in Health Education," Public Health Reviews 5: 5-33.

Green, L. W., N. H. Gottlieb, and G. S. Parcel (1991). "Diffusion theory extended and applied. In W. Ward & F. M. Lewis (Eds.). Advances in Health Education and Promotion vol. 3, W. Ward and F. M. Lewis, eds. (London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers).

123. A Su Salud case.  Ramirez & McAlister, 1989.

Ramirez, A. G. and A. L. McAlister (1989). "Mass Media Campaign--A Su Salud," Preventive Medicine 17: 608-21.

124. Model of social modeling. Bandura, 1977; 2004. See also R. I. Evans et al., 1981; Parcel & Baranowski, 1981.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education and Behavior, 31 143-64.

Parcel, G. S., & Baranowski, T. (1981). Social Learning Theory and health education. Health Education, 12(3):, 14-18.

125. Social marketing. Lefebvre & Flora, 1988.

Lefebvre C. R. and J. A. Flora (1988). Social Marketing and Public Health Intervention. Health Education Quarterly, 15, 299-315.

126. Kansas Health Foundation’s Take It Outside program. Telephone conversation with Tammi Bradley, Vice President for Communications, Kansas Health Foundation, Wichita, July 8, 1998; “Let’s Take It Outside,” 1998. See also Herreria, 1998.

Herreria J. (1998). "Let's take it outside" campaign raises awareness, changes attitudes. Kansas Health Foundation. Profiles in Healthcare Marketing, 14(5), 19-24.

127. African social marketing application.  Brieger, Ramakrishna, & Adeniyi, 1986–1987.

Brieger, W. R., J. Ramakrishna, and J. D. Adeniyi (1986-87). "Community Involvement in Social Marketing: Guineaworm Control," International Quarterly of Community Health Education 7: 19-31.

128. Ivory Coast use of focus groups in child ciarrhea and malaria programs. Glik et al., 1987–1988.

Glik, D., A. Gordon, W. Ward, et al. (1987-88). "Focus Group Methods for Formative Research in Child Survival: An Ivoirian Example," International Quarterly of Community Health Education 8: 297-316.

129. Bangladesh family planning application of social marketing. Schellstede & Ciszewski, 1984.

Schellstede, W. P. and R. L. Ciszewski (1984). "Social Marketing of Contraceptives in Bangladesh," Studies in Family Planning 15(1) (Jan./Feb.): 30-9.

130. Dominican Republic application of media in dengue fever program. A. J. Gordon, 1988.

Gordon, A. J. (1988). "Mixed Strategies in Health Education and Community Participation: An Evaluation of Dengue Control in the Dominican Republic," Health Education Research, Theory and Practice 3: 399-419.

 

    So Much to Know and Do, So Little Time! 

131. Community Toolbox. Berkowitz, Fawcett, et al., 2003; Fawcett, Francisco, et al., 2000; Fawcett, Schultz, et al., 2003; Shultz, Fawcett, et al., 2003. Online at http://ctd.ku.edu. See also, Getting to Outcomes, Wandersman et al.

Berkowitz B, Fawcett, SB, Francisico VT, Rabinowitz, P Schultz J, and Wolff, T. (2003). An Internet-based textbook for promoting community health development. Lawrence, KS; University of Kansas.

Fawcett, S. B., Francisco, V. T., Schultz, J. A., Nagy, G., Berkowitz, B., & Wolff, T. J. (2000). The Community Tool Box: An Internet -based resource for building healthier communities. Public Health Reports, 115, 274-278.

Fawcett, S. B., Schultz, J. A., Carson, V. L., Renault, V. A., & Francisco, V. T. (2003). Using Internet based tools to build capacity for community based participatory research and other efforts to promote community health and development. In M. Minkler & N. Wallerstein (Eds.). Community-based participatory research for health (pp. 155-178). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schultz, J. A., Fawcett, S. B., Francisco, V. T., & Berkowitz, B. (2003). Using information systems to build capacity: A public health improvement toolbox. In P. O’Carroll, W. A. Yasnoff, et al. (Eds.). Public Health Informatics and Information Systems: A Contributed Work (pp. 644-660). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publications.

Wandersman A. (2003). Community science: bridging the gap between science and practice with community-centered models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 227-42.
 

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