If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

 

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Health Program Planning, 4th edition

Chapter 5 (formerly Chap. 6 in previous editions) [New sections highlighted in yellow]

Program, Administrative and Policy Assessment and Evaluation: Turning the Corner from PRECEDE to PROCEED

Table of Contents (Click on the section to go to the new endnotes for that section)

Some Definitions

Some Principles of Best Practices and Best Processes    

Aligning Priority Determinants with Program Components                                                       

    Alignment 1: Intervention Matching, Mapping, Pooling and Patching

        Matching Ecological Levels of Outcomes and Mediators with Program Components

        Mapping Causal Theory, Action Theory, and Program Theory 

        Pooling and Patching Prior and Existing Interventions

    Alignment 2: Formative Evaluation and Blending Interventions into Comprehensive Programs

        "Best practices"

        "Best experiences"

        "Best processes"

        Innovate and Evaluate

        What is an Innovation?

        A Summary of the Developmental Process Steps to a Comprehensive Program

        Fidelity to "Best Practices" Vs Adaptation to Population and Circumstances

    Alignment 3: From Formative Evaluation to Process Evaluation: Pretesting Components of Program for Feasibility, Acceptability and Fit

The Administrative Assessment and Process Evaluation

    Step 1: Assessment of Resources Needed

    Step 2: Assessment, Enhancement, & Process Evaluation of Available Resources

    Step 3: Assessment, Modification, and Process Evaluation of Factors Influencing Implementation

Policy Assessment and Accountability

    Step 1: Assessment of the Organizational Mission, Policies, and Regulations

    Step 2: Assessing Political Forces

Implementation and Evaluation: Assuring Reach, Coverage, Quality, Impact, and Outcomes

Endnotes* (Besides the table of contents above, you can search this page for references by topic or by key words, theories, models, authors, journals, dates, etc. using the "Find" command in the Edit menu)

*Many of the articles cited below are hyperlinked to their abstracts or full text online. If the hyperlink does not take you directly to the abstract, you might need to copy the hyperlink to your browser "Go to" line, or the citation to a word processing document to be able to click on the title and get to the linked abstract or document. Articles or book references with a lead asterisk are applications, evaluations, or descriptions of PRECEDE-PROCEED.

Endnote numbers refer to 4th edition, unless followed by >, in which case the first number refers to the third edition, and the number after the > refers to the new endnote number in the forthcoming 4th edition.

Some Definitions

>1. Best practices vs. best processes. Green, 2001. E.g., Kaplan et al., 2000, demonstrate how methods previously shown in more controlled efficacy trials of getting women to return for follow-up when they have a positive pap smear are highly variable in their effectiveness across settings and subpopulations in which they are applied in a broader community trial. This illustrates the importance of adapting the "best practice" methods with "best processes" of diagnosing predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors when they are applied in settings, populations, or circumstances not well represented in the controlled studies from which they were derived.

Green, L.W. (2001). From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (American Academy of Health Behavior Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior, 25, 165-78. Full text online at http://www.ajhb.org/25-3.htm.

Kaplan, C. P., Bastani, R., Belin, T. R., Marcus, A., Nasseri, K., Hu, M.Y. (2000). Improving follow-up after an abnormal pap smear: Results from a quasi-experimental intervention study. Journal of Women's Health & Gender Based Medicine, 9, 779-90.


 

>2. Ecological matching: Multilevel Approach to Community Health (MATCH). Developed by Simons-Morton, et al., 1988; described most thoroughly in Simons-Morton, Greene, & Gottlieb, 1995, pp. 152-84. See also Butler, 2001, pp. 279-83.

Butler, J. T. (2001). Principles of health education and health promotion. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Simons-Morton DG, Simons-Morton BG, Parcel GS, Bunker JF. (1988). Influencing personal and environmental conditions for community health: a multilevel intervention model. Family & Community Health, 11, 25-35.

Simons-Morton, B. G., Greene, W. H., & Gottlieb, N. H. (1995). Introduction to health education and health promotion. 2nd ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.

Figure 5-2.  Multilevel Approach to Community Health (MATCH). This simplified rendition of Simon-Morton et al's model shows steps in aligning interventions with levels of an ecological system and the objectives associated with each. Source: Adapted from Simons-Morton, Greene, & Gottlieb, 1995, p. 154.

>3. The renaissance of ecological approaches in public health, community and population health. Best, Stokols, et al., 2004; Green, Poland, & Rootman, 2000, esp. pp. 10-2; Kickbusch, 1989; McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988; Stokols, Allen, & Bellingham, 1996; Stokols, Grzywacz, J. G., et al., 2003.

*Best, A., Stokols, D., Green, L. W., et al. (2003). An integrative framework for community partnering to translate theory into effective health promotion strategy. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18, 168-76.

Green, L. W., Poland, B. D., & Rootman, I. (2000). The settings approach to health promotion. In Poland, B. D., Green, L.W., &  Rootman, I. (Eds.). Settings in health promotion: Linking theory and practice (pp. 1-43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Institute of Medicine (2002). The Future of Public Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press. Full-text online.

Institute of Medicine (2003). Who will keep the public healthy? Educating public health professionals for the 21st century. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press. Full-text online.

Kickbusch, I. (1989). Approaches to an ecological base for public health. Health Promotion, 4, 265-8.

McLeroy, K. R., Bibeau, D., Steckler, A., & Glanz, K. (1988). An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly, 15, 351-77.

Stokols, D., Allen, J., Bellingham, R. L. (1996). The social ecology of health promotion: Implications for research and practice. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 247-51.

Stokols, D., Grzywacz, J. G., McMahan, S., Phillips, K. (2003). Increasing the health promotive capacity of human environments. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18, 4-13.

>4. The use of city and statewide averages and trends to estimate health goals.  For your data, go to this endnote in http://www.lgreen.net/hpp/Endnotes/Chapter5Endnotes.htm for the addresses of websites containing continuously updated statistics, for example, on data from (1) the CDC 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System as printed in Table III of the MMWR each week; (2) state cancer profiles with 25-year trends, and more detailed 5-year trends on mortality and incidence rates, for each of eleven cancer sites, by age, sex, and race or ethnic group, and for all 50 states and the District of Columbia; and prevalence estimates (3) fatal injury reports, by year, type of injury, cause of injury, by age, race/ethnic group, sex, and age; and years of life lost from injuries; (4) asthma, by state since 1999, adult reported lifetime and current rates; (5) HIV/AIDS statistics, state and international, by exposure categories, age, race and ethnicity; (6) oral health indicators; (7) nutritional indicators; (8) alcohol-related health indicators; and others. Most states health department websites also carry within-state breakdowns of health data by age, sex, and county, region, and/or major cities.

Mortality for 121 cities at http://wonder.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwrmort.asp, by age.

Cancer profiles: http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/cgi-bin/quickprofiles/profile.pl?00&047. Cancer prevalence estimates: http://srab.cancer.gov/prevalence/statistics.html or http://seer.cancer.gov/query/.

Injury mortality reports: http://webapp.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/mortrate.html, and years of potential life lost data for fatal injuries: http://webapp.cdc.gov/sasweb/dionne/ncipc/ypll.html.

Asthma, adult lifetime and current prevalence, http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/airpollution/asthma/brfss/default.htm.

HIV/AIDS state and international,  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/hasrlink.htm.

Oral health indicators: http://www.cdc.gov/nohss/

Nutritional status, in infants and children http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/pednss.htm.

Alcohol-related health data: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/databases/qf.htm.

Others to be added.

>5. Higher ecological levels provide context that moderates individual behavior. As stated by Wilcox, 2003, "...community-level contextual effects can impact directly both group and individual-level behavior (e.g. main effects), and they can also condition the effects of individual-level factors on individual behaviors (e.g. moderating effects)."

Wilcox, P. (2003). An ecological approach to understanding youth smoking trajectories: Problems and prospects. Addiction, 98 (Suppl 1), 57-77. [quotation from p. 57]

>6. Environmental effects through, or independent of, behavioral effects on health outcomes. E.g., Acevedo-Garcia, Lochner, et al., 2003; Chan & Austin, 2003; Molnar, Buka, et al., 2003. We covered these relationships in the previous two chapters, but revisit them here from the standpoint of selecting levels for intervention. Although their causal arrows approach health through individual behavior, Simons-Morton, et al., 1995, recognize "the influence of environmental factors on health behavior and on health itself (e.g., air pollution)..." (p. 155).

Acevedo-Garcia, D., Lochner, K. A., Osypuk, T. L., & Subramanian, S. V. (2003). Future directions in residential segregation and health research: a multilevel approach. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 215-21.

Chan, B. T., & Austin, P. C. (2003). Patient, physician, and community factors affecting referrals to specialists in Ontario, Canada: a population-based, multi-level modelling approach. Medical Care, 41, 500-11.

Molnar B. E., Buka, S. L., Brennan, R. T., Holton, J. K., & Earls, F. (2003). A multilevel study of neighborhoods and parent-to-child physical aggression: results from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods. Child Maltreatment, 8, 84-97.
 

Figure 5-3. Problem theory seeks to identify the causes or etiologies of certain problems or effects. Causal theory explains the causal relationship or mechanism by which the "determinant" causes the effect. Action theory posits an expectation of change in one or more causes that will follow from the intervention or program. It serves planning by specifying the presumed link between what we can do by way of interventions and what we hope to achieve as outcomes. This link is often expressed as a complex “logic model” showing the pathways of influence set in motion by one or more interventions in a program.

Box 5-1.

>7. The weak link between science and its appropriate application "has much to do with the variability of the targets--the populations and their circumstances. These circumstances include the particular population's health needs and resources that biomedical scientists and epidemiologists would have us analyze. They also include their cultural traditions that anthropologists would have us understand, their socioeconomic conditions that sociologists and economists would have us appreciate, and the contingencies of their behavior that psychologists would have us consider" (Green, 2001, Foreword, p. xiii).

Green, L. W. (2001). Foreword. In S. Sussman (Ed.). Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice (pp. xiii-xiv). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Seidel, Robert J.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Kett, Allyson L. From Principles of Learning to Strategies for Instruction. NY: Springer, 2005. 

>8. Early delineation of intermediate variable model in public service and social action programs. Suchman, 1967, p. 173. Though less plentiful than mortality data, state-level data on intermediate variables such as behavioral risk factors or environmental conditions, are widely available on websites.

Suchman, E. A. (1967). Evaluative research: Principles and practice in public service and social action programs. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

State data on cancer-related behaviors: http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/cgi-bin/risk/risk.pl?03&0&1&1&1

State BRFSS profiles of behavior, rates and trends since 1995 or earlier for some of the same cancer-related behaviors and 20 other health-related behaviors: http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/#interactive

Oral health behaviors, services, and environments (fluoridation): http://www.cdc.gov/nohss/.

>9. Pooling information about prior interventions. D'Onofrio, 2001, p. 158. For a spirited and passionate plea and a compelling case for more reliance on replication of model programs and less dependence on the plodding pace of randomized trials to educe "best practices," see Schorr, 1997, esp. her "elements of successful replication" (pp. 60-4).

Schorr, L. B. (1997). Common purpose: Strengthening families and neighborhoods to rebuild America. New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday.

>10. Sources of information for pooling of prior interventions. D’Onofrio, 2001, pp. 177-93.

D'Onofrio, C. N. (2001). Pooling information about prior interventions: A new program planning tool. In S. Sussman (Ed.). Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice (pp. 158-203). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

>11. Existing Community Programs and Policies Matrix in PATCH.  CDC, 2001, Chap. 4, & Chap. 5, Table 2 (full text downloadable from http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/patch/00binaries/PATCHCh5.pdf.

>12. Research-Tested Intervention Programs guidelines for choosing and adapting from prior interventions. For examples of model programs in nutrition, physical activity, tobacco control, sun exposure, and various cancer screening interventions, go to http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/rtips/. For guidelines on adaptation of these or other prior interventions, go to http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/rtips/adaptation_guidelines.pdf. The programs and interventions recommended for replication and adaptation are scored on their “dissemination capability” (replicability, adaptability), cultural appropriateness for each of several ethnic groups, age appropriateness for each broad age category, gender appropriateness, integrity, and utility. The program descriptions on the website also indicate the appropriateness for each of several settings, the intended audience, and required resources. The published references on which the scoring and description of the programs are based are also listed. For example, the Commit to Quit program for smoking cessation by women, based on intensive physical activity, is now in a second generation of trials to evaluate the effectiveness of moderate physical activity (see Marcus, Lewis, et al., 2003).

Marcus, B. H., Lewis, B. A., King, T. K., Albrecht, A. E., Hogan, J., Bock, B., Parisi, A. F., & Abrams, D. B. (2003). Rationale, design, and baseline data for Commit to Quit II: An evaluation of the efficacy of moderate-intensity physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation in women. Preventive Medicine, 36, 479-92.

>13. Sussman’s Six-Step Program Development Chain Model. Sussman, 2001.

Sussman, S. (Ed.). (2001). Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice (pp. 158-203). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

>14. Mediators as causal, intermediate variables between interventions and behavior change. Simons-Morton, Greene, & Gottlieb, 1995, p. 170.

>15. Mediator variable as conditioning the effect of a causal variable. Sussman & Sussman, 2001, p. 81.

>16. Moderator variables as independent variables that enhance or suppress the effect of other variables. Sussman & Sussman, 2001, p. 81. For more examples of the simple relationships shown in Figure 5-4, see Donaldson, 2001, pp. 473-93.

Donaldson, S. I. (2001). Mediator and moderator analysis in program development. In S. Sussman (Ed.).  Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice (pp. 470-96). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

"Best practices"

>17. Systematic reviews and guidelines for "best practices" from the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. For the continuously updated reviews, go to www.thecommunityguide.org. For the background and methods, see Hopkins & Fielding, 2001; Task Force on Community Preventive Services, 2000; and specific reviews, e.g., Norris & Isham, 2002; Ramsey & Brownson, 2002.

Hopkins, D. P., & Fielding, J. E. (Eds.). (2001). The Guide to Community Preventive Services: Tobacco Use Prevention and Control, Reviews, recommendations, and expert commentary. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 20 (Suppl. 2S), 1-88.

Norris, S. L., & Isham, G. J. (Eds.). (2002). The Guide to Community Preventive Services: Reducing the burden of diabetes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22 (Suppl. 4S), 1-66.

Ramsey, L. T., & Brownson, R. C. (Eds.) (2002). Increasing physical activity: Recommendations from the Task Force on Community Preventive Services, reviews of evidence, and expert commentary. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22 (Suppl. 4S), 67-108.

Task Force on Community Preventive Services. (2000). Introducing the Guide to Community Preventive Services: Methods, first recommendations and expert commentary. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18 (Suppl. 1S), 1-142.

 

Selected resources for comprehensive prevention planning, from The Guide to Community Preventive Services: What Works to Promote Health? CDC, 2004.

Assessment

          National Public Health Performance Standards (www.naccho.org/project48.cfm)

          MAPP:  Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (www.naccho.org/project77.cfm)

          APEX-PH:  Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (www.naccho.org/project47.cfm)

 

Objective Setting

          Healthy People 2010 Objectives (www.healthypeople.gov)

In most states, Healthy People objectives have been tailored for state-level priorities. Your state health department will be able to provide you with state-specific objectives.

          Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators (www.healthypeople.gov/LHI/)

          HEDIS:  Health Plan Employer Data Set performance measures (www.ncqa.org/Programs/HEDIS/)

 

Intervention Selection

          Guide to Clinical Preventive Services (www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm)

          Guide to Community Preventive Services (www.thecommunityguide.org)

          National Guideline Clearinghouse (www.guideline.gov)

 

Intervention Implementation and Evaluation

         www.PreventionInfo.org has links to resources for intervention implementation

         Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health can be found at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/RR/RR4811.pdf 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

>18. Other sources of “Best Practices” based on systematic reviews of multiple studies.  Atkins, Best, & Shapiro, 2001; Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 2002; Fiori, Bailey, et al., 2000; International Union for Health Promotion & Education, 1999;

Atkins, D., Best, D., & Shapiro, E. N. (Eds.). (2001). The Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: Background, methods, and first recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 20 (Suppl. 3S), 1-108.

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (2002). A practitioner's guide to science-based interventions: A handbook of promising, effective, and model programs. Washington, DC: CSAP, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://204.215.192.214/igto/images/HB.pdf and http://www.modelprograms.samhsa.gov/.

Fiore, M. C., Bailey, W. C., Cohen, S. J., et. al. (2000). Treating tobacco use and dependence: Quick reference guide for clinicians. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. October 2000.

Ikeda, R., & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.). (2001). Youth violence prevention: The Science of moving research to practice. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 20 (Suppl. 1S), 1-71.

>19. Sussman’s step 2, pooling and creating plausible intervention activities. Sussman, pp. 17-18, quotation from p. 13. See also Chapters 7 and 8: D’Onofrio, 2001; and Niego & Peterson, 2001.

Niego, S., & Peterson, J. (2001). The program archive on sexuality, health, and adolescence (PASHA): A study of activity warehousing. In Sussman, S. (Ed.). Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice, pp. 210-36. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

>20. Screening pooled experiences to identify the ones with greatest perceived efficacy and appropriateness. Sussman, pp. 18-19, quotation from p. 13; see Chapter 9 for description and classification of methods, Ayala & Elder, 2001; and chapters 10-12 for case examples: Sussman, Lichtman, & Dent, 2001; Nezami, Davison, & Hoffman, 2001; Dent, Lichtman, & Sussman, 2001. See also Brieger, Nwankwo, et al., 1996.

Ayala, G. X., & Elder, J. P. (2001). Verbal methods in perceived efficacy work. In Sussman, S. (Ed.). Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice, pp.239-63. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

*Brieger, W. R., Nwankwo, "E., Ezike, V. I., Sexton, J. D., Breman, J. G., Parker, K. A., Ekanem, Ol J., & Robinson, T. (1996). Social and behavioral baseline for guiding implementation of an efficacy trial of insecticide impregnated bed nets for malaria control at Nsukka, Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 16, 47-61.

Sussman, S. (Ed.). Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice (pp. 158-203). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

>21. Concept evaluation and “product-market fit” approaches of communications research and social marketing. Kotler & Roberto, 1989, pp. 28-30; see also pp. 285-294 for a case study of Project LEAN, a national nutrition program.

Kotler, P., & Roberto, E. L. (1989). Social marketing: Strategies for changing public behavior. New York: The Free Press.

>22. Definition of perceived efficacy. Ayala and Elder, 2001, p. 240, citing Hinkle, Fox-Cardamone, et al., 1996.

Hinkle, S., Fox-Cardamone, L., Haseleu, J. A., Brown, R., & Irwin, L. M. (1996). Grass roots political action as an intergroup phenomenon. Journal of Social Issues, 52, 39-51.

>23. Best experiences of states or communities based on comparisons of outcomes, as a basis of recommending components of a comprehensive program. Pechacek, Starr, Judd, Selin, Fishman, et al., 1999. For the resulting (and largely disappointing) allocation of tobacco settlement funds by states to their tobacco control programs, see Albuquerque, Pechacek, & Kelly, 2001. For the annual payments to each state under the tobacco settlement, go to National Association of Attorneys General. Annual Payments to Each State. http://www..naag.org.

Albuquerque, M., Pechacek, T. F., Kelly, A. (2001). Investment in tobacco control: State highlights--2001. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Full text online at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco.

Pechacek, T. F., Starr, G. B., Judd, B. T., Selin, H. J., Fishman, J. A., et a. (1999). Best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs, August 1999. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Full text online at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco. [Note that the use of the term "Best Practices" here is as we have used the term "best experiences".] 

>24. "Plausibility criteria" to apply to "best experiences" from prior or concurrent programs that have not been formally tested with controlled experimental trials: Cameron, Jolin, Walker, McDermott, & Gough, 2001. Plausible practices are also referred to elsewhere as "promising practices" (e.g., Lambert, Donahue, Mitchell, & Strauss, 2003; available online at www.samhsa.gov).

Cameron, R., Jolin, M. A., Walker, R., McDermott, N., & Gough, M. (2001). Linking science and practice: Toward a system for enabling communities to adopt best practices for chronic disease prevention. Health Promotion Practice 2, 35-42.

Lambert, D., Donahue, A., Mitchell, M., & Strauss, R. (2003). Rural mental health outreach: Promising practices in rural areas. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

>25. Example of retracing the diagnostic data and logic model in framing interventions for a program. Ramey, et al., 2003. See also the procedures for preparing diagnostic data for presentation to community groups, in the PATCH Guide for the Local Coordinator, 2003, pp. CG3-35ff.

*Ramey, S. L., Shelley, M. C., Welk, G. J., & Franke, W. D. (2003). Cardiovascular disease risk reduction efforts among law enforcement officers: An application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model. Evidence-Based Preventive Medicine, 1(1): in press.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1996, Updated 2003). Planned Approach to Community Health: Guide for the Local Coordinator. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/patch/index.htm accessed Nov 26, 2003).

>26. Procedures for mapping theory to interventions required for coverage of gaps in the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors have been outlined in five detailed steps in a textbook by Bartholomew, Parcel, Kok, & Gottlieb, 2001.

Bartholomew, L. K, Parcel, G. S.,  Kok, G.,  & Gottlieb, N. H. (2001). Intervention mapping: Designing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programs. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co. (now McGraw-Hill). See website: http://www.interventionmapping.unimaas.nl/ with bibliography of other published applications of this model. 

>27. The RE-AIM evaluation framework (see Glasgow, Vogt, & Boles, 1999; http://www.re-aim.org/a99-gr-ajph.html) which stands for consideration of five elements: reach into the target population, efficacy or effectiveness of an intervention outcome, adoption of interventions by settings or communities, implementing the intervention program, and maintenance of behavior change or change programs. See also:  http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec6851/index.htm.

Glasgow, R. E., Vogt, T. M., & Boles, S. M. (1999) Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: The RE-AIM framework. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1323-7. Full text at  http://www.re-aim.org/a99-gr-ajph.html.

>28. Quantitative approach to effecting outcomes. E.g., Resnicow et al., 1992, specifically altered the intensity and exposure time of students to the "Know Your Body" program, which was based on the Precede Model and Social Learning Theory. They showed that "...program effects for several outcome variables were linearly related to level of student exposure to the curriculum, suggesting a dose-response effect" (p. 463). Similarly, programs that achieve a greater reach, such as self-help "cold-turkey" smoking cessation programs through the mass media, even if they are less effective than the more intensive alternative such as behavioral counseling, can achieve a much greater population effect (Shiffman, Mason, & Henningfield, 1998, p. 337; see also Table 7-1 in previous edition of this text, Green & Kreuter, 1999b, p. 223).

Resnicow, K., Cohn, L., Reinhardt, J., Cross, D., Futterman, R., Kirschner, E., Wynder, E. L., & Allegrante, J. P. (1992).  A three-year evaluation of the Know Your Body program in inner-city schoolchildren. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 463-80.

Shiffman, S., Mason, K. M., & Henningfield, J. E. (1998). Tobacco dependence treatments: Review and prospectus. Annual Review of Public Health, 19, 335-58.

>29. Innovation gains in cost per unit of delivery without loss of effectiveness through use of indigenous personnel whose familiarity and identity with the clients compensate for their technical qualifications (e.g., Green, 1975; 1979). Among the classic studies in this vein, Cuskey & Premkuman (1973) demonstrated that a drug treatment center serving about 1,000 addicts could save up to $100,000 annually with ex-addict counselors in place of professional counselors with graduate-level training. Fisher (1974; 1975) took this logic a step further, experimentally demonstrating that unpaid patients of a family planning clinic, given postcards to distribute to their friends achieve recruitment rates at approximately one-third the cost per new appointment in comparison with the next most cost-effective method. Fletcher (1973; Fletcher, Appel, & Bourgois, 1974) demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of a clerk in the emergency room assigned to call and remind patients of their return appointments, thereby reducing broken appointments. Whether this increased continuity of care improved long-term quality of care, however, depended on other interventions (Fletcher, Appel, & Bourgois, 1975). Examples of more recent work on the use of indigenous personnel to innovate in health interventions and programs include Altpeter, Earp, Bishop, & eng, 1999; Eng, Parker, & Harlan, 1997; Green, Wang, & Ephross, 1976; Struthers, Hodge, De Cora, & Geishirt-Cantrell, 2003.

Altpeter, M., Earp, J., Bishop, C., & Eng, E.(1999). Lay health advisor activity levels: Definitions from the field. Health Education & Behavior, 26, 495-512.

Cuskey, W. R., & Premkumar, T. (1973). A differential counselor role model for the treatment of drug addicts. Health Services Reports, 88, 663-8.

Eng, E., Parker, E. A., & Harlan, C. (Eds.). (1997). Lay health advisors: A critical link to community capacity building (Special issue). Health Education & Behavior, 24, 407-510.

Fisher, A. A. (1974). The characteristics of family planning opinion leaders and their influence on the contraceptive behavior of others. Doctor of Science dissertation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.

Fisher, A. A. (1975). The measurement and utility of the opinion leadership concept for family planning programs. Health Education Monographs, 3, 168-80. [Click on author for abstract]

Fletcher, S. W. (1973). A study of effectiveness of a follow-up clerk in an emergency room. Master of Science thesis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, School of Public Health.

Fletcher, S. W., Appel, F. A., & Bourgeois, M. (1974). Improving emergency-room patient follow-up in a metropolitan teaching hospital. Effect of a follow-up check. New England Journal of Medicine, 291, 385-8.

Fletcher, S. W., Appel, F. A., & Bourgeois, M. (1975). Management of hypertension. Effect of improving patient compliance for follow-up care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 233, 242-4.

Green, L. W. (1975). Diffusion and adoption of innovations related to cardiovascular risk behavior in the public. In A. Enelow & J. B. Henderson (Eds.). Applying behavioral sciences to cardiovascular risk. New York: American Heart Association.

Green, L. W. (1979). Health promotion policy and the placement of responsibility for personal health care. Family and Community Health, 2, 51-64.

Green, L. W., Wang, V. L., & Ephross, P. (1974). A three-year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of nutrition aides on rural poor homemakers. American Journal of Public Health 64, 722-4.

Struthers, R., Hodge, F. S., De Cora, L., & Geishirt-Cantrell, B. (2003). The experience of native peer facilitators in the campaign against type 2 diabetes. Journal of Rural Health, 19, 174-80.

 

>30. Tailoring as a way to achieve the effectiveness of personalized, culturally appropriate communications while also gaining the reach and economies of scale of mass media, Caburnay, Kreuter, & Donlin, 2001; Kreuter, Lukwago, et al., 2003. A classic study that combined the use of an indigenous aide with a standardized tape recorded message, believed to be the first truly randomized clinical trial in health education, was Roberts, Mico, & Clark, 1963. Kreuter, Oswald, et al. (2000) note the prospect that tailored interventions will gradually lose their edge in controlled trials comparing them with other approaches developed by methods outlined in this and the foregoing chapter: “…if non-tailored materials increasingly address important constructs from theories of health behavior change, there will be less and less of a difference between these materials and materials developed via behavioral construct tailoring” (p. 314).

Caburnay, C. A., Kreuter, M. W., Donlin, M. J. (2001). Disseminating effective health promotion programs from prevention research to community organizations. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 7, 81-9.

Kreuter, M. W., Lukwago, S. N., Bucholtz, R. D., Clark, E. M., & Sanders-Thompson, V. (2003). Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: targeted and tailored approaches. Health Education & Behavior, 30, 133-46.

Kreuter, M. W., Oswald, D. L., Bull, F. C., & Clark, E. M. (2000). Are tailored health education materials always more effective than non-tailored materials? Health Education Research, 15, 305-15.

Kreuter, M. W., Caburnay, C. A., Chen, J. J., & Donlin, M. J. (2004). Effectiveness of individually tailored calendars in promoting childhood immunization in urban public health centers.  American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1, XX-XX (in press).

Roberts, B. J., Mico, P. R., & Clark, E. W. (1963). An experimental study of two approaches to communication. American Journal of Public Health, 53, 1361-81.

>31. Necessity of professional discretion and adaptation at the point of implementation, Ottoson & Green, 1997. A more recent application of PRECEDE-PROCEED in the analysis of factors limiting the effective implementation of Information Technology systems and programs is provided by Kukafka, Johnson, Linfante, & Allegrante, 2003.

*Kukafka, R., Johnson, S. B., Linfante, A., & Allegrante, J. P. (2003). Grounding a new information technology implementation framework in behavioral science: A systematic analysis of the literature on IT use. Journal of Biomedical Information, 36, 218-27.

*Ottoson J. M. and L. W. Green (1987).  Reconciling concept and context: Theory of implementation, In W. B. Ward and M. H. Becker (Eds). Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 2, pp. 353-382.Greenwich, CT: JAI Press,.

>32. Example of pretesting as final step in formative evaluation, first step in process evaluation, Burhansstipanov, Krebs, et al., 2003, quotation from p. 29; other examples within Precede-Proceed planning applications, Contento, Kell, et al., 1992; Dignan, Sharp, et al., 1995.

Burhansstipanov,  L., Krebs, L. U., Bradley, A., Gamito, E., Osborn, K., Dignan, M. B., & Kaur, J. S. (2003). Lessons learned while developing "Clinical Trials Education for Native Americans" curriculum. Cancer Control, 10 (5 Suppl), 29-36.

*Contento, I. R., Kell, D.G., Keiley, M. K., & Corcoran, R.D. (1992). A formative evaluation of the American Cancer Society Changing the Course nutrition education curriculum. Journal of School Health 62, 411-16.

*Dignan, M., Sharp, P., Blinson, K., Michielutte, R., Konen, J., Bell, R., & Lane, C. (1995). Development of a cervical cancer education program for native American women in North Carolina. Journal of Cancer Education, 9, 235-42.

>33. Pretesting of measurement instruments, e.g., Beaman, Reyes-Frausto, & Garcia-Pena, 2003. Examples within the context of Precede-Proceed applications include Black, Stein, & Loveland-Cherry, 2001; Burglehaus, Smith, et al., 1997; Grisé, Gauthier-Gagnon, & Martineau, 1993; Han, Baumann, & Cimprich, 1996; Hiddink, Hautvast, et al., 1999.

Beaman, P. E., Reyes-Frausto, S., & Garcia-Pena C. (2003). Validation of the Health Perceptions Questionnaire for an older Mexican population. Psychological Reports, 92 (3 Pt 1), 723-34.

*Black, M. E. A., Stein, K. F., Loveland-Cherry, C. J. (2001). Older women and mammography screening behavior: Do possible selves contribute? Health Education and Behavior, 28, 200-16.

*Burglehaus, M. J., Smith, L. A., Sheps, S. B., & Green, L. W. (1997). Physicians and breastfeeding: Beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy and counselling practices.  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88 (6): 383-387.

*Grisé, M-C. L.,  Gauthier-Gagnon, C., & Martineau, G. G. (1993). Prosthetic profile of people with lower extremity amputation: Conception and design of a follow-up questionnaire. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 74, 862-70.

*Han, Y., Baumann, L. C., & Cimprich, B. (1996). Factors influencing registered nurses teaching breast self-examination to female clients. Cancer Nursing, 19, 197-203.

*Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., van’t Hot, M. A., & Fieren, C. J. (1999).  Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of nutrition guidance by primary care physicians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53 (Suppl. 2), S35-S43.

>34. The cart before the horse in considering resources last? As co-authors, we have debated the relative merits of putting so much into the developmental work represented by this and the preceding chapters before giving formal attention to the resources that will pull this program cart of proposed interventions. One of us leaned toward putting the administrative and resource assessment first, the other toward sticking with the creation of the "best" (not to say ideal) program proposal, and letting it sell itself to those who might allocate resources to it. We come to no right or wrong answers, just a recognition of the trade-offs, the pros and cons of either approach. Such debate has begun to emerge within societal decisions on the allocation of medical care resources, and how much these should be guided by or even dictated by evidence-based "best practices" (e.g., Nunes, 2003). Mooney (2002) also emphasizes the ultimate need, in the inevitable absence of some certainty about the evidence-based practices, "...to exercise value judgments...also a word of caution on the dangers of over-reliance on waiting for perfect evidence" (p. 65)

Nunes, R. (2003). Evidence-based medicine: a new tool for resource allocation? Medical and Health Care Philosophy, 6, 297-301.

Hutubessy,  R. C., Baltussen, R. M., Torres-Edejer, T. T., & Evans, D. B. (2002). Generalised cost-effectiveness analysis: an aid to decision making in health. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 1, 89-95.

Mooney, G. (2002). Priority setting in mental health services. Applied Health Economics & Health Policy, 1, 65-74.

>35. For this and the following steps in Administrative and Policy Diagnosis and Analysis, see the module in the interactive "EMPOWER" (Expert Methods of Planning and Organizing Within Everyone's Reach) CD-ROM program and manual for fill-in blanks and checklists, and a summary report of each, for assessing existing resources (p. 68), budget development (pp. 68-71), development of a Gantt Chart (pp. 71-2), assessment of staff commitment and attitudes (pp. 72-4), assessment of policy and organizational factors (pp. 74-5), and assessment of political factors (pp. 76-7). A sample “Summary Report” is shown on p. 78 of the manual (Gold, Green, & Kreuter, 1998).

Gold, R., Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1998). EMPOWER: Enabling Methods of Planning and Organizing Within Everyone's Reach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing Co. [CD-ROM disk and manual, International Ver 2.25].

2>36. Software programs for computer construction of Gantt charts and other tools for planning the flow and cost of program activities are commercially available. For specific applications of cost analyses in PRECEDE-PROCEED, see Bertera, E. M. & Bertera, 1981; Cantor, Morisky, et al., 1985; Cote, Gregoire, et al., 2003; Frauenknecht, Brylinsky, & Zimmer, 1998; Gold, Green, & Kreuter, 1998; Green, Wang, & Ephross, 1974; Hatcher, Green, Levine, & flagle, 1986; Sayegh & Green, 1976.

Bertera, E. M., & Bertera, R. L. (1981). The cost-effectiveness of telephone vs. clinic counseling for hypertensive patients: A pilot study. American Journal of Public Health, 71, 626-9.

Cantor, J. C., Morisky, D. E., Green, L. W., et al. (1985). Cost-effectiveness of educational interventions to improve patient outcomes in blood pressure control. Preventive Medicine, 14, 782-800.

Cote I, Gregoire JP, Moisan J, Chabot I, Lacroix G. (2003). A pharmacy-based health promotion programme in hypertension: cost-benefit analysis. Pharmacoeconomic, 21, 415-28.

*Frauenknecht, M.,  Brylinsky, J. A.,  Zimmer, C. G. (1998). “Healthy Athlete 2000”: Planning a health education initiative using the PRECEDE model.  Journal of Health Education, 29 (5): 312-318.

Gold, R., Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1998). EMPOWER: Enabling Methods of Planning and Organizing Within Everyone's Reach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing Co. [CD-ROM disk and manual, International Ver 2.25].

Green, L. W., Wang, V. L., & Ephross, P. (1974). A three-year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of nutrition aides on rural poor homemakers. American Journal of Public Health, 64, 722-4.

Hatcher, M. E.,. Green, L. W., Levine, D. M., & Flagle, C. E. (1986). Validation of a decision model for triaging hypertensive patients to alternate health education interventions. Social Science and Medicine 22, 813-19.

Sayegh, J., & Green, L. W. (1976). Family planning education: Program design, training component and cost-effectiveness of a post-partum program in Beirut. International Journal of Health Education, 19 (suppl.), 1-20.

3>37. Personnel are usually the most expensive line item in health program budgets, but personnel costs are also sensitive to technological, organizational, and community capacity, e.g.,  Bolman & Deal, 1991; Boulton, Malouin, et al., 2003; Miller, Bedney, et al., 2003; Pelletier, 2001; Potter, Ley, et al., 2003; and to new challenges, e.g., Fitch, Raber, & Imbro, 2003; Gewin, 2003.

Bolman, L. and Deal, T. (1991). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Boulton, M. L., Malouin, R. A., Hodge, K., & Robinson, L. (2003). Assessment of the epidemiologic capacity in state and territorial health departments--United States, 2001. MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Reports, 52, 1049-51.

Fitch, J. P., Raber, E., & Imbro, D. R. (2003). Technology challenges in responding to biological or chemical attacks in the civilian sector. Science, 302, 1350-4.

Gewin V. (2003). With the United States on high alert over the possibility of bioterror attacks, epidemiologists are in huge demand. Nature 423, 784--5.

Miller, R. L., Bedney, B. J., Guenther-Grey, C., & CITY Project Study Team. (2003). Assessing organizational capacity to deliver HIV prevention services collaboratively: Tales from the field. Health Education & Behavior, 30, 582-600.

Pelletier, K. R. (2001). A review and analysis of the clinical- and cost-effectiveness studies of comprehensive health promotion and disease management programs at the worksite: 1998-2000 update. American Journal of Health Promotion, 16, 107-116.

Potter MA, Ley CE, Fertman CI, Eggleston MM, Duman S. (2003). Evaluating workforce development: perspectives, processes, and lessons learned. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 9, 489-95.

>38. Preparing materials and pretesting them might have been done as last step in the previous design and selection phase of interventions development, or might be the first step in the implementation phase. Much media evaluation in the selection phase tends to be done by checklists of desirable generic qualities in any communication, rather than by formal pretesting or evaluation against process, impact, or outcome objectives. Gilbert & Sawyer, 2000, p. 215, note "...a paucity of meaningful evaluation...a sad commentary, particularly in the light of how frequently such materials are used today," so they caution planners to view them critically, using the various checklists (e.g., Martin & Stainbrook, 1986). In fairness to some of the producers and vendors of such audiovisual materials, they typically offer catalogues of multiple pamphlets, videotapes, etc. that provide variations on messages that have been tested, in which the variations are designed to appeal to different audiences by age and ethnicity, for example, based on well grounded theories and previously evaluated generic models. Because such materials must be fresh and contemporary, it is probably impractical to expect each variation to have had a formal evaluation, but pretesting for a new setting and population for your program then becomes even more essential.

Gilbert, G. and Sawyer, R. (2000). Health Education: Creating strategies for school and community health. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Martin, C., & Stainbrook, G. L. (1986). An analysis checklist for audiovisuals when used as educational resources. Health Education, 17(4): 31-33.

4>39. Use of volunteer health workers. Examples within PRECEDE-PROCEED applications include Adeyanju, 1987-88; Bertera, 1990b; DePue, Wells, et al., 1987; Hall & Best, 1997; Lasater, Abrams, et al., 1984; Seiden & Blonna, 1983; Watson, Horowitz, et al., 2001. Francisco, Paine, & Fawcett, 1993, count "volunteers recruited" as one of eight key measures in their instrument to monitor and evaluate community coalitions. Stiell, Nichol, et al., 2003, found that "citizen CPR" produced good quality-of-life outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors.

Adeyanju, O. M.  (1987-88). A community-based health education analysis of an infectious disease control program in Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 8, 263-79.

Bertera, R. L. (1990b). Planning and implementing health promotion in the workplace: A case study of the Du Pont Company experience, Health Education Quarterly, 17, 307-27.

DePue, J. D., Wells, B. L., Lasater, T. M., & Carleton, R. A. (1987).  Training volunteers to conduct heart health programs in churches. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3, 51-57.

Francisco, V. T., Paine, A. L., & Fawcett, S. B. (1993). A methodology for monitoring and evaluating community health coalitions. Health Education Research 8, 403-16.

Hall, N., & Best, J. A.  (1997).  Health promotion practice and public health: Challenge for the 1990s.  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 409-15.

Lasater, T., D. Abrams, L. Artz, L., et al. (1984). Lay volunteer delivery of a community-based cardiovascular risk factor change program: The Pawtucket experiment. In  J. D. Matarazzo, S. M. Weiss, J. A. Herd, et al., (Eds.), Behavioral health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention. New York: Wiley.

Seiden, T. M., & Blonna, R. (1983). A Profile of volunteers at the VD National Hotline.  Spring '83 Hotliner Spring (American Social Health Association, VD National Hotline, Palo Alto, CA), p. 6.

Stiell I, Nichol G, Wells G, De Maio V, Nesbitt L, Blackburn J, Spaite D; OPALS Study Group. (2003). Health-related quality of life is better for cardiac arrest survivors who received citizen cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation, 108, 1939-44.

Watson, M. R., Horowitz, A. M., Garcia, I., & Canto, M. T. (2001). A community participatory oral health promotion program in an inner-city Latino community. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 61, 34-41.

>40. Evaluations of lay health workers, most with application of Precede-Proceed model: Bird, Otero-Sabogal, et al., 1996; Dignan, Michielutte, Blinson, et al., 1996; Dignan, Michielutte, Wells, et al., 1998; Dignan, Sharp, et al., 1995; Earp, Eng, et al., 2002; Eng, 1993; Harrison, Li, et al., 2003; Kironde & Bajunirwe, 2002; Lam, McPhee, et al., 2003; Paskett, Tatum, et al., 1999; Sharp, Dignan, et al., 1999.

Bird, J. A., Otero-Sabogal, R., Ha, N.-T., & McPhee, S. J. (1996).  Tailoring lay health worker interventions for diverse cultures: lessons learned from Vietnamese and Latina communities. Health Education and Behavior, 23 (Suppl.), S105-S122.

Dignan, M., Michielutte, R., Blinson, K., Wells, H. B., Case, L. D., Sharp, P., Davis, S., Konen, J., & McQuellon, R. P. (1996). Effectiveness of health education to increase screening for cervical cancer among eastern-band Cherokee Indian women in North Carolina.  Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 88, 1670-76.

Dignan, M. B., Michielutte, R., Wells, H. B., Sharp, P., Blinson, K., Case, L. D., Bell, R., Konen, J., Davis, S., & McQuellon, R. P. (1998). Health education to increase screening for cervical cancer among Lumbee Indian women in North Carolina. Health Education Research, 13, 545-56.

Dignan, M., Sharp, P., Blinson, K., Michielutte, R., Konen, J., Bell, R., & Lane, C. (1995). Development of a cervical cancer education program for native American women in North Carolina. Journal of Cancer Education, 9, 235-42.

Earp, J. A., Eng, E., O'Malley, M. S., Altpeter, M., Rauscher, G., Mayne, L., Mathews, H. F., Lynch, K. S., & Qaqish, B. (2002). Increasing use of mammography among older, rural African American women: results from a community trial. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 646-54.

Eng, E. (1993). The Save our Sisters Project: A social network strategy for reaching rural black women. Cancer, 72(3, Suppl.), 1071-77.

Harrison, R. L., Li, J., Pearce, K, & Wyman, T. (2003). The Community Dental Facilitator Project: reducing barriers to dental care. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 63, 126-8.

Kironde, S., & Bajunirwe, F. (2002). Lay workers in directly observed treatment (DOT) programmes for tuberculosis in high burden settings: Should they be paid? A review of behavioural perspectives. African Health Sciences, 2, 73-8.

Lam, T. K., McPhee, S. J., Mock, J., Wong, C., Doan, H. T., Nguyen, T., Lai, K. Q., Ha-Iaconis, T., & Luong, T.-N. (2003). Encouraging Vietnamese-American women to obtain Pap Tests through lay health worker outreach and media education. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18, 516-24.

Paskett, E. D., Tatum, C. M., D'Agostino, R. Jr., Rushing, J., Velez, R., Michielutte, R., & Dignan, M. (1999).  Community-based interventions to improve breast and cervical cancer screening: Results of the Forsyth County Cancer Screening (FoCaS) Project. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 8, 453-59.

Sharp, P. C., Dignan, M. B., Blinson, K., Konen, J. C., McQuellon, R., Michielutte, R., Cummings, L., Hinojosa, L., & Ledford, V. (1998). Working with lay health educators in a rural cancer-prevention program.  American Journal of Health Behavior, 22, 18-27.

5>41. Drawing on, or pooling, resources from other organizations. We will delve more deeply into the issues of interorganizational exchange, and the forming, maintaining, and management of community coalitions in Chapter 6 on community applications of the Precede-Proceed Model. For purposes here, we refer the reader to a few key references on the transfer of resources among organizations: Berkowitz, 2001; Braitwaite, Taylor, & Austin, 2000; Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002; Chavis, 2001; Fawcett, Lewis, et al., 1997; Goodman & Wandersman, 1994; Kwait, Valente, & Celentano, 2001; Stachenko, 1996; and some caveats on coalitions as vehicles for community collaboration, Green, 2000; Green & Kreuter, 2002; Hallfors, Cho, et al., 2002.

Berkowitz, B. (2001). Studying the outcomes of community-based coalitions. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 213-227.

Braithwaite, R. L., Taylor, S., & Austin, J. (2000). Building health coalitions in the Black community. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Butterfoss, F. R., & Kegler, M. C. (2002). Toward a comprehensive understanding of community coalitions: Moving from practice to theory. In DiClementi, R. J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 157-93.

Chavis, D. M. (2001). The paradoxes and promise of community coalitions. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 309-20.

Fawcett, S. B., Lewis, R. K., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V. T., Richter, K. P., Williams, E. L., & Copple, B. (1997). Evaluating community coalitions for prevention of substance abuse: The case of Project Freedom. Health Education & Behavior, 24, 812-28

Foster-Fishman, P., Berkowitz, S., Lounsbury, D., Jacobson, S., & Allen, N. (2001). Building collaborative capacity in community coalitions: A review and integrative framework. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 241-257.

Goodman, R. M.,& Wandersman, A. (1994). FORCAST: A formative approach to evaluating community coalitions and community-based initiatives. Journal of Community Psychology [Special Issue], 6-25.

Green, L. W. (2000). In praise of partnerships: Caveats on coalitions. Health Promotion Practice, 1, 64-65.

Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (2002). Fighting back, or fighting themselves? Community coalitions against substance abuse and their use of best practices. American Journal of Preventive Medicine  23, 303-6.

Hallfors, D., Cho, H., Livert, D., & Kadushin, C. (2002). How are community coalitions “Fighting Back” against substance abuse, and are they winning? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 237-45.

Kwait, J., Valente, T. W., & Celentano, D. D. (2001). Interorganizational relationships among HIV/AIDS service organizations in Baltimore: a network analysis. Journal of Urban Health, 78, 468-87.

Stachenko, S. (1996). The Canadian Heart Health Initiative: Dissemination perspectives. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 87(Suppl. 2), S57-S59.

6>42. Threshold level of spending, below which one should not expect a palpable effect of the program. Green, 1977.

Green, L. W. (1977).  Evaluation and measurement: Some dilemmas for health education. American Journal of Public Health 67,155-61.

7>43. Few studies of the threshold level in health programs. Bertera & Green, 1979; Chwalow, Green, et al., 1978; Connell, Turner, & Mason, 1985; Green, Wang, & Ephross, 1974; Holtgrave, 1998, especially chapter 14 on "Threshold Analysis of AIDS Outreach and Intervention;" Risser, Hoffman, et al., 1985. The federal Office on Smoking and Health estimated the threshold requirements for state spending on tobacco control to obtain effects comparable to those of California and Massachusetts (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999a).

Bertera, R. & Green, L. W. (1979). Cost-Effectiveness of a home visiting triage program for family planning in Turkey. American Journal of Public Health 69, 950-3.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1999a). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - August 1999. Atlanta, GA:  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

*Chwalow,  A. J., Green, L. W., Levine, D. M., & Deeds, S. G. (1978). Effects of the multiplicity of interventions on the compliance of hypertensive patients with medical regimens in an inner-city population. Preventive Medicine 7, 51.

Connell, D. B., Turner, R. R., & Mason, E. F. (1985). Summary of findings of the School Health Education Evaluation: Health promotion effectiveness, implementation, and costs. Journal of School Health, 55, 316-21.

Green, L. W., Wang, V. L., & Ephross, P. (1974). A three-year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of nutrition aides on rural poor homemakers. American Journal of Public Health, 64, 722-4.

Hatcher, M. E., Green, L. W. Levine, D. M, & Flagle, C. E. (1986). Validation of a decision model for triaging hypertensive patients to alternate health education interventions. Social Science and Medicine, 22, 813-19.

Holtgrave, D. (1998). Handbook of Economic Evaluation of HIV Prevention Programs. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp.

Risser, L. W., Hoffman, H. M., Bellah, G. G., & Green, L. W. (1985). A cost-benefit analysis of preparticipation sports examinations of adolescent athletes. Journal of School Health, 55, 270-3.

8>44. Point of diminishing returns in program spending. Fielding, 1982a; Green, 1977; Wang, Ephross & Green, 1975.

Fielding, J. E. (1982). Effectiveness of employee health improvement programs. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 24, 907-16.

Green, L. W. (1974). Toward cost-benefit evaluations of health education: Some concepts, methods, and examples. Health Education Monographs, 2 (Suppl. 1), 34-64.

Green, L. W. (1977).  Evaluation and measurement: Some dilemmas for health education. American Journal of Public Health, 67,155-61.

Wang, V. L., Ephross, P., & Green, L. W. (1975). The point of diminishing returns in nutrition education through home visits by aides: An evaluation of EFNEP. Health Education Monographs, 3, 70-88; also in J. Zapka (Ed.). The SOPHE heritage collection of health education monographs, vol. 3.. Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing Co., pp. 155-73.

9>45. Factors influencing implementation. Ottoson & Green, 1987. For specific case analyses of implementation issues within PRECEDE-PROCEED applications, some of which will be examined in Chapters 6-8, see for arthritis self-care programs, Brunk & Goeppinger, 1990; for asthma, Fisher, Strunk, et al., 1995; for cystic fibrosis, Bartholomew, Czyzewski, et al., 2000;  for environmental sustainability, Boothroyd, Green, et al., 1994;  for cardiovascular risk prevention programs, Bush, Downey, et al., 1987; Bush, Zuckerman, et al., 1989; Elliott, Taylor, et al., 1998; Morisky, Levine, et al., 1981; Paradis, O’Loughlin, et al., 1995; Taggart, Bush, et al., 1990; Taylor, Elliott, & Riley, 1998; Taylor, Elliott, Robinson, et al., 1998; Ward, Levine, et al., 1982; for drug abuse prevention programs, Lohrmann & Fors, 1986; MacDonald & Green, 2001;  for HIV prevention, Cain, Schyulze, & Preston, 2001; for staff adoption of planning tools (EMPOWER software; Information Technology), Chiasson & Lovato, 2000; Kukafka, Johnson, et al., 2003; Lovato, Potvin, et al., 2003; Lehoux, Potvin, & Proulx, 1999; Lehoux, Proulx, et al., 1997; Roulx, Potvin, et al., 1999; for injury prevention, Cross, Hall, & Howatt, 2003; Wortel, de Vries, & de Geus, 1995; for organizational and behavioral change of practitioners in support of clinical preventive services, Curry, 1998; Eriksen, Green, & Fultz, 1988; Goodson, Gottlieb, & Radcliffe, 1999; Laitakari, Miilunpalo, & Vuori, 1997; Lomas, 1993; Mahlock, Taylor, et al., 1993; Mann & Putnam, 1989; Miilunpalo, Jukka, & Ilkka, 1995; Smith, Danis, & Helmick, 1998; Thompson, 1996; 1997; Thompson, Rivara, et al., 2000; Thompson, Taplin, et al., 1995; for breast cancer mammography screening, Dignan, Bahnson, et al., 1991; Dignan, Beal, et al., 1990; Dignan, Sharp, et al., 1995;  Eng, 1993;  Mahlock, Taylor, et al., 1993; Thompson, Taplin, Carter, et al., 1988; for cervical cancer screening, Michielutte & Dignan, 1989; for physical activity programs, Hopman-Rock, 2000: for worksite programs, Bertera, 1990b; Gottlieb, Lovato, et al., 1992; Parkinson and Associates, 1982; Pucci & Haglund, 1994; for campus health promotion programs, J. R. Weiss, Wallerstein, & MacLean, 1995; for multi-factor community health promotion, Green & Kreuter, 1992; Green & McAlister, 1984; Hecker, 2000; Swannell, Steele, et al., 1992; Wickizer, Wagner, & Perrin, 1998; and for various other applications, Brink, Simons-Morton, et al., 1988; Ottoson, 1997.

*Bartholomew, L. K., Czyzewski, D. I., Swank, P. R., McCormick, L., & Parcel, G. S. (2000). Maximizing the impact of the cystic fibrosis family education program: Factors related to program diffusion. Family & Community Health, 22,  27-47.

*Bertera, R. L. (1990b). Planning and implementing health promotion in the workplace: A case study of the Du Pont Company experience, Health Education Quarterly, 17, 307-27.

*Boothroyd, P., Green, L. W., Hertzman, C., Lynam, J., McIntosh, J., Rees, W., Manson Singer, S., Wackernagel, M., & Woollard, R. (1994). Tools for sustainability: Iteration and implementation. Chap. 10 in C. Chu & R. Simpson (Eds.). Ecological public health: From vision to practice. Toronto: Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, pp. 111-121.

*Brink, S. G., Simons-Morton, D., Parcel, G., & Tiernan, K. (1988). Community intervention handbooks for comprehensive health promotion programming, Family and Community Health, 11, 28-35.

*Brunk, S. E. & Goeppinger, J. (1990). Process evaluation: Assessing re-invention of community-based interventions. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 13, 186-203.

*Bush, P. J., Downey, A. M., Frank, L. S., & Webber, L. S. (1987).  Implementation of "Heart Smart": Cardiovascular school health promotion program. Journal of School Health, 57, 98-104.

*Bush, P. J., Zuckerman, A. E., Theiss, P. K., Peleg, E. O., & Smith, S. A.  (1989). Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black school children--2-year results of the Know Your Body Program. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 466-82.

*Cain, R. E., Schyulze, R. W., & Preston, D. B. (2001). Developing a partnership for HIV primary prevention for men at high risk for HIV infection in rural communities. Promotion and Education: International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 8: 75-8.

*Chiasson, M. W., & Lovato, C. Y. (2000). The health planning context and its effect on a user’s perceptions of software usefulness. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 91, 225-8.

*Cross, D., Hall, M., & Howat, P. (2003). Using theory to guide practice in children's pedestrian safety education. American Journal of Health Education, 34 (5, Suppl. Sept/Oct), S42-S47.

*Curry, S. J. (1998). Building effective strategies to decrease tobacco use in a health maintenance organisation: Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. Tobacco Control, 7 (Suppl), S21-3; discussion S24-5. [click on title for full text].

*Dignan, M., Bahnson, J., Sharp, P. Beal, P., Smith, M., & Michielutte, R. (1991).  Implementation of mass media community health education: The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project. Health Education Research, 6, 259-66.

*Dignan, M. B., Beal, P. E., Michielutte, R., Sharp, P. C., Daniels, L. A., & Young, L. D.. (1990). Development of a direct education workshop for cervical cancer prevention in high risk women: the Forsyth County project. Journal of Cancer Education, 5, 217-23.

*Dignan, M., Sharp, P., Blinson, K., Michielutte, R., Konen, J., Bell, R., & Lane, C. (1995). Development of a cervical cancer education program for native American women in North Carolina. Journal of Cancer Education, 9, 235-42.

*Downey, A. M., Butcher, A. H., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., Miner, M. H., & Berenson, G. S. (1987). Development and implementation of a school health promotion program for reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in children and prevention of adult coronary heart disease: 'Heart Smart'.  In B. Hetzel and G. S. Berenson, (Eds.), Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood: Epidemiology and prevention. Amsterdam, NY & Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., pp. 103-121.

*Downey, A. M., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., Harsha, D. W., Virgilio, S.J., Franklin, F.A., et al. (1987). Implementation of "Heart Smart:" A cardiovascular school health promotion program, Journal of School Health, 57, 98-104.

*Elliott, S. J., Taylor, S. M., Cameron, R., & Schabas, R. (1998). Assessing public health capacity to support community-based heart health promotion: The Canadian Heart Health Initiative, Ontario Project (CHHIOP).  Health Education Research, 13, 607-22.

*Eng, E. (1993). The Save our Sisters Project: A social network strategy for reaching rural black women. Cancer, 72(3, Suppl.), 1071-77.  

*Eriksen, M. P.,. Green, L. W., & Fultz, F. G. (1988). Principles of changing health behavior. Cancer, 62, 1768-75.

*Fisher, E. B., Strunk, R. C., Sussman, L. K., Arfken, C., Sykes, R. K., Munor, J. M., Haywood, S., Harrison, D., & Bascom, S. . (1995). Acceptability and feasibility of a community approach to asthma management: The Neighborhood Asthma Coalition (NAC). Journal of Asthma, 33, 367-83.

*Goodson, P., Gottlieb, N. H., Radcliffe, M. (1999). Put Prevention into Practice: Evaluation of program initiation in nine Texas clinical sites. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 17, 73-78.

*Gottlieb, N. H., Lovato, C. Y., Weinstein, R., Green, L.W., & Eriksen, M. P. (1992). The implementation of a restrictive worksite smoking policy in a large decentralized organization. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 77-100.

*Green, L.W., Kreuter, M.W. (1992). CDC's Planned Approach to Community Health as an application of PRECEDE and an inspiration for PROCEED. Journal of Health Education, 23,140-47.

*Green, L. W. & McAlister, A. L. (1984). Macro-intervention to support health behavior: Some theoretical perspectives and practical reflections. Health Education Quarterly, 11, 323-39.

*Hecker, E. J. (2000). Feria de Salud: Implementation and evaluation of a communitywide health fair. Public Health Nursing, 17, 247-56.

*Hopman-Rock, M. (2000). Towards implementing physical activity programmes: The health promotion approachScience and Sports, 15, 180-186.

*Kukafka, R., Johnson, S. B., Linfante, A., & Allegrante, J. P. (2003). Grounding a new information technology implementation framework in behavioral science: A systematic analysis of the literature on IT use. Journal of Biomedical Information, 36, 218-27.

*Laitakari. J, Miilunpalo, S., & Vuori, I. (1997). The process and methods of health counseling by primary health care personnel in Finland: a national survey.  Patient Education and Counseling, 30, 61-70.

*Lehoux, P., Potvin, L., Proulx, M. (1999). Linking users’ views with utilization processes in the evaluation of interactive software. The Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 14, 117-40.

*Lehoux, P., Proulx, M., Potvin, L., & Green, L. (1997).  An evaluation in Montreal of interactive software to support decisions in planning screening mammography programs [abstract]. Annual Meeting of International Society of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 13, 94.

*Lohrmann, D. K. & Fors, S. W. (1986). Can School-Based Educational Programs Really be Expected to Solve the Adolescent Drug Abuse Problem?  Journal of Drug Education, 16, 327-39.

*Lomas, J. (1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: Who should do what? In K. S. Warren & F. Mosteller (Eds.). Doing more good than harm: The evaluation of health care interventions (pp. 226-237). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 703. Also in: Lomas, J. (1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: who should do what? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 703, 226-37.

*Lovato, C., Potvin, L., Lehoux, P., Proulx, M., Chiasson, M., Milligan, D., Tremblay, M., Gariepy, E, Dingwell, G., & Green, L. W. (2003). Implementation and use of software designed for program planning: A case study. Promotion & Education: International Journal of Health Promotion & Education, 10, in press.

*MacDonald, M. A., & Green, L. W. (2001). Reconciling concept and context: The dilemma of implementation in school-based health promotion. Health Education & Behavior, 28, 749-68.

*Mahloch, J., Taylor, V., Taplin, S., & Urban, N. (1993). A breast cancer screening educational intervention targeting medical office staff. Health Education Research, 8, 567-79.

*Mann, K.V., & Putnam, R.W. (1989). Physicians' perceptions of their role in cardiovascular risk reduction. Preventive Medicine, 18, 45-58.

*Michielutte, R., Dignan, M. B., Wells, H. B., Young, L. D., Jackson, D. S., & Sharp, P. C. (1989). Development of a community cancer education program: The Forsyth County, NC, Cervical Cancer Prevention Project. Public Health Reports, 104, 542-51.

*Miilunpalo, S., Jukka, L., & Ilkka, V. (1995). Strengths and weaknesses in health counseling in Finnish primary health care. Patient Education and Counseling, 25, 317-28.

*Morisky, D. E., Levine, D. M. Wood, J. C., et al. (1981). Systems approach for the planning, diagnosis, implementation and evaluation of community health education approaches in the control of high blood pressure. Journal of Operations Research, 50, 625-34.

*Ottoson, J. M. (1997). After the applause: Exploring multiple influences on application following adult education programs. Adult Education Quarterly,  47, 92-107.

*Ottoson J. M. and L. W. Green (1987).  Reconciling concept and context: Theory of implementation, In W. B. Ward and M. H. Becker (Eds.). Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 2, pp. 353-382.Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

*Paradis, G., O’Loughlin J., Elliott, M., Masson, P., Renaud, L., Sacks-Silver, G., & Lampron, G. (1995). Coeur en Santé St-Henri - A heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada: Theoretical model and early field experience.  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 49, 503-12.

*Parkinson, R. S. & Associates (Eds). (1982). Managing health promotion in the workplace: Guidelines for implementation and evaluation. Palo Alto: Mayfield.

*Proulx, M., Potvin, L., Lehoux, P., Gariépy, E., & Tremblay, M. (1999).  L’action structurante de l’utilisation d’un modèle pour la planification de programmes en promotion de la santé (Structuring action from the use of a model for planning programs in health promotion).  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 90, 23-26.

*Pucci, L. G., & Haglund, B. (1994). “Naturally Smoke Free”: A support program for facilitating worksite smoking control policy implementation in Sweden. Health Promotion International, 9, 177-87.

*Smith, P. H., Danis, M., & Helmick, L. (1998). Changing the health care response to battered women: A health education approach. Family & Community Health, 20, 1-18.

*Swannell, R., Steele, J., Harvey, P., Bruggemann, J., Town, S., Emery, E., & Schmid, T.L. (1992).  PATCH in Australia: Elements of a successful implementation. Journal of Health Education, 23,171-3.

*Taggart, V. S., Bush, P. J., Zuckerman, A. E., & Theiss, P. K. (1990).  A process evaluation of the District of Columbia "Know Your Body" Project. Journal of School Health, 60, 60-6. 

*Taylor, S. M.,  Elliott, S., & Riley, B.  (1998).  Heart health promotion: Predisposition, capacity and implementation in Ontario public health units, 1994-96. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 89, 410-14.

*Taylor, S. M., Elliott, S. Robinson, K., & Taylor, S. (1998). Community-based heart health promotion: Perceptions of facilitators and barriers.  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 89, 406-09.

*Thompson, R. S. (1996).  What have HMOs learned about clinical prevention services?  An examination of the experience at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound.  The Milbank Quarterly, 74, 469-509.

*Thompson, R. S. (1997). Systems approaches and the delivery of health services (Editorial). Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 670-1.

*Thompson, R. S., Rivara, F. P., Thompson, D.C., Barlow, W. E., Sugg, N. K., Maiuro, R. D., Rubanowice, D. M. (2000).  Identification and Management of Domestic Violence:  A Randomized Trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19, 253-62.

*Thompson, R. S., Taplin, S., Carter, A. P., et al. (1988). A risk based breast cancer screening program. HMO Practice, 2, 177-91.

*Thompson, R. S., Taplin, S. H., McAfee, T. A., Mandelson, M. T., & Smith, A. E. (1995). Primary and secondary prevention services in clinical practice: Twenty years' experience in development, implementation, and evaluation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1130-5.

*Ward, W. B., Levine, D. M., Morisky, D., Bone, L. R., Ward, E., Soff, G., & McKinney, R. (1982). Controlling high blood pressure in inner city Baltimore through community health education. In R. W. Carlaw (Ed.). Perspectives on Community Health Education: A Series of Case Studies. Vol 1: United States (pp. 73-79). Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing Co.

*Weiss, J. R., Wallerstein, N., & MacLean, T. (1995). Organizational development of a university-based interdisciplinary health promotion project.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 37-48.

*Wickizer, T. M., Wagner, E., & Perrin, E. B. (1998). Implementation of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation’s Community Health Promotion Grant Program: A process evaluation. Milbank Quarterly, 76, 121-153.

*Wortel, E., de Vries, H., de Geus, G. H. (1995). Lessons learned from a community campaign on child safety in The Netherlands. Family and Community Health, 18, 60-77.

46. Staff attitudes as necessary but not sufficient predispositions for implementation. See the application of PRECEDE in the survey and analysis of implementation experience in a Canadian heart health program: Elliott, Taylor, et al., 1998; Taylor, Elliott, & Riley, 1998; Taylor, Elliott, Robinson, & Taylor, 1998.

*Elliott, S. J., Taylor, S. M., Cameron, R., & Schabas, R. (1998). Assessing public health capacity to support community-based heart health promotion: The Canadian Heart Health Initiative, Ontario Project (CHHIOP).  Health Education Research, 13, 607-22.

*Taylor, S. M.,  Elliott, S., & Riley, B.  (1998).  Heart health promotion: Predisposition, capacity and implementation in Ontario public health units, 1994-96. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 89, 410-14.

*Taylor, S. M., Elliott, S. Robinson, K., & Taylor, S. (1998). Community-based heart health promotion: Perceptions of facilitators and barriers. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 89, 406-09.

10>47. Resolving conflicting goals within and between collaborating organizations. The classic framework on this issue is that of Van Meter & Van Horn, 1975. See also Conway, Hu, & Harrington, 1997 for a community example. This problem has arisen most saliently in recent years with the dilemmas of physicians and other healthcare workers faced with conflicts between the economic, cost-containment goals of managed care organizations or federal guidelines, and their professional guidelines or goals that seek to maximize health outcomes without a primary consideration of cost, e.g., Avorn, 2003; Oldroyd, Proudfoot, et al., 2003; Scheid, 2003. 

Avorn, J. (2003). Balancing the cost and value of medications: the dilemma facing clinicians.
Pharmacoeconomics, 20 (Suppl. 3), 67-72.

Conway, T., Hu, T.-C., & Harrington, T. (1997). Setting health priorities: Community boards accurately reflect the preferences of the community residents. Journal of Community Health, 22, 57-68.

Oldroyd, J., Proudfoot, J., Infante, F. A., Powell Davies, G., Bubner, T., Holton, C., Beilby, J. J., & Harris, M. F. (2003). Providing healthcare for people with chronic illness: The views of Australian GPs. Medical Journal of Australia, 179, 30-3.

Scheid, T. L. (2003). Managed care and the rationalization of mental health services. J Health Soc Behavior, 44, 142-61.

Van Meter, D., & Van Horn, C. (1975).  The policy implementation process: A conceptual framework. Administration and Society, 6, 445-88.

11>48. Change the program goals to fit policy, or change the policy to fit goals? H. S. Ross & Mico, 1980, p. 222.

Ross, H. S. & Mico, P. R. (1980). Theory and practice in health education. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.

49. Enabling and reinforcing staff who must implement programs where goals of the organization and goals of the program are inconsistent. MacDonald & Green, 2001.

MacDonald, M. A., & Green, L. W. (2001). Reconciling concept and context: The dilemma of implementation in school-based health promotion. Health Education & Behavior, 28, 749-68.

12>50. Rate of change, incremental vs. radical change, "trialability." The classic study on the rate of  change expected by program planners or policy makers and the implementation of change within organizations was T. Smith, 1973. But rate of change also relates to a characteristic of innovations, called "trialability," the feature of an innovation that allowed those responsible for its implementation to break it down into incremental steps, which was studied among other characteristics of agricultural innovations many years earlier in the classic diffusion research tradition of agricultural extension and rural sociology by Gross, 1942; Ryan, 1948; and Ryan & Gross, 1943. This tradition of research has been brought prominently to the study of public health innovations by Rogers, 1995 (first published in 1962); and to health care innovations and their adoption by physicians, by Coleman, Katz, & Menzel, 1957. Marshall Becker (1969, 1970) combined these two traditions with his study of the implementation of innovations by public health officials, as did Green (1970; 1975) in family planning and cardiovascular disease preventive innovations in the public. The recent developments in this line of research and application to health programs is reviewed by Oldenburg & Parcel, 2002. Whereas rate of change translates in diffusion theory as "trialability," the previous considerations of both staff commitment and program goals are part of what diffusion theory calls “compatibility.”

Becker, M. H. (1969). Predictors of innovative behavior among local health officers. Public Health Reports, 84, 1063-8.

Becker, M. H. (1970). Factors affecting diffusion of innovations among health professionals. American Journal of Public Health, 60, 294-304.

Coleman, J. S., Katz, E., & Menzel, H. (1957). The diffusion of an innovation among physicians. Sociometry, 20, 253-70.

Gross, N. C. (1942). The diffusion of a culture trait in two Iowa townships. Master of Science thesis. Ames: Iowa State College.

Oldenburg, B. & Parcel, G. S. (2002). Diffusion of innovations. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & F. M. Lewis (Eds.). Health behavior and health education, 3rd ed. (pp. 312-34). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, 4th ed. New York: Free Press.

Ryan, B. (1948). A study in technological diffusion. Rural Sociology, 13, 273-85.

Ryan, B. & Gross, N. C. (1943). The diffusion of hybrid seed corn in two Iowa communities. Rural Sociology, 8, 273-85.

Smith, T. (1973). Policy roles: An analysis of policy formulators and policy implementers. Policy Sciences, 4, 297-307.

14>51. Familiarity as a predictor of implementation. For examples of the familiarity principle in health policy and planning applications of the Precede-Proceed model, see N. H. Gottlieb, Lovato, Weinstein, Green, & Eriksen, 1992; MacDonald & Green, 2002.

*Gottlieb, N. H., Lovato, C. Y., Weinstein, R., Green, L.W., & Eriksen, M. P. (1992). The implementation of a restrictive worksite smoking policy in a large decentralized organization. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 77-100.

*MacDonald, M. A., & Green, L. W. (2001). Reconciling concept and context: The dilemma of implementation in school-based health promotion. Health Education & Behavior, 28, 749-68.

15>52. Complexity as a predictor of implementation. The early work on this variable as applied within human service organizations was P. Berman & McLaughlin, 1976; Chase, 1979. In their analysis of the implementation of EMPOWER software as an innovation for using the Precede-Proceed Model in Montreal, Proulx, Potvin, et al., 1999, observed that the planning process guided by the model produced the necessary complexity of a robust plan, but also served to guide the planners through preparing for the implementation issues created by that complexity: "four functions of the model were identified: direction, coordination, articulation and transmission. Analysis of these functions demonstrated the structuring action of the model on planning" (p. 23). In another process evaluation of the implementation of EMPOWER, Chiasson & Lovato, 2000; 2001, developed measures of each of the dimensions of compatibility, complexity, trialability, and other features of the innovation to assess their role in the implementation experience of users. They found that the software was complex, but at least it was simpler than the textbook (Green & Kreuter, then in its 2nd edition)!

Berman, P. & McLaughlin, M. (1976). Implementation of educational innovation. The Educational Forum, 40, 347-70.

Chase, G. (1979). Implementing a human services program: How hard can it be? Public Policy, 27, 385-435.

*Chiasson, M. W. (2000). The health planning context and its effect on a user's perceptions of software usefulness. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 91, 225-8.

*Chiasson M.W., & Lovato C.Y. (2001). Contextual factors influencing the formation of a user’s perceptions of a software innovation. Database for Advances in Information Sciences, 32(3), 16-35.

*Lovato, C., Potvin, L., Lehoux, P., Proulx, M., Chiasson, M., Milligan, D., Tremblay, M., Gariepy, E, Dingwell, G., & Green, L. W. (2003). Implementation and use of software designed for program planning: A case study. Promotion & Education: International Journal of Health Promotion & Education, 10, in press.

*Proulx, M., Potvin, L., Lehoux, P., Gariépy, E., & Tremblay, M. (1999).  L’action structurante de l’utilisation d’un modèle pour la planification de programmes en promotion de la santé (Structuring action from the use of a model for planning programs in health promotion).  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 90, 23-26.

16>53. Extent of implementation in school health: teachers implemented only 34% of the teaching and learning activities in the curriculum as they were intended to be implemented (Basch, Sliepcevich, et al., 1985). See also  Hoelscher, Kelder, et al., 2001; MacDonald & Green, 2001; Renaud & Mannoni, 1997; Wickizer, Wagner, & Perrin, 1998; Wojtowicz, 1990. For an application of PRECEDE-PROCEED in assessing the parallel problems of implementation in a primary care setting, see P. H. Smith, Danis, & Helmick, 1998.

Hoelscher, D. M., Kelder, S. H., Murray, N., Cribb, P. W., Conroy, J., & Parcel, G. S. (2001). Dissemination and adoption of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): a case study in Texas. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 7, 90-100.

*MacDonald, M. A., & Green, L. W. (2001). Reconciling concept and context: The dilemma of implementation in school-based health promotion. Health Education & Behavior, 28, 749-68.

*Renaud, L. & Mannoni, C. (1997). Etude sur la participation des parents dans les activites scolaires ou parascolaires [Study of parental participation in curricular and extracurricular activities]. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 184-90.

*Smith, P.H., Danis, M., & Helmick, L. (1998). Changing the health care response to battered women: A health education approach. Family & Community Health, 20, 1-18.

*Wickizer, T. M., Wagner, E., & Perrin, E. B. (1998). Implementation of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation’s Community Health Promotion Grant Program: A process evaluation. Milbank Quarterly, 76, 121-153.

Wojtowicz, G. G. (1990). A secondary analysis of the School Health Education Evaluation data base. Journal of School Health, 60, 56-9.

17>Shaded box on "Anticipating and Overcoming Barriers: A Practical Example in Managed Care.

Thompson, R. S., Taplin, S. H., McAfee, T. A., Mandelson, M. T., & Smith, A. E. (1995). Primary and secondary prevention services in clinical practice: Twenty years' experience in development, implementation, and evaluation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1130-5.

>54. Breakdown between training and implementation. Ottoson, 1995; 1997; Ottoson & Patterson, 2000.

*Ottoson, J. M. (1995). Use of a conceptual framework to explore multiple influences on the application of learning following a continuing education program. Canadian Journal of Adult Education, 9(2), 1-18.

*Ottoson, J. M. (1997). After the applause: Exploring multiple influences on application following adult education programs. Adult Education Quarterly,  47, 92-107.

*Ottoson, J. M., & Patterson, I. (2000). Contextual influences on learning application in practice. An extended role for process evaluation. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 23, 194-211.

>55. Monitoring the implementation process to assure quality. Resnicow, Cohn, et al., 1992, experimentally varied the intensity of teacher interventions, and they supervised and monitored the teachers to assure adherence to the experimental protocol. Their result was an unequivocal difference in the measured behavioral and health outcomes for a program based originally on PRECEDE-PROCEED. See endnote 28 and 45 (Bush, Downey, et al., 1987; Bush, Zuckerman, et al., 1989).

*Resnicow, K., Cohn, L., Reinhardt, J., Cross, D., Futterman, R., Kirschner, E., Wynder, E. L., & Allegrante, J. P. (1992).  A three-year evaluation of the Know Your Body program in inner-city schoolchildren. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 463-80.

>56. Policy may need to be either invoked or changed to mobilize or reallocate resources in support of the program plan, or to enable environmental change in support of the program objectives. In a study of the enabling factor of access to a resource needed by women who were motivated to get Pap tests, for example, Bastani, Berman, et al., 2003, found that the addition of a mobile screening van produced a higher rate of Pap tests than a comparison program with communication alone.

Bastani, R., Berman, B. A., Belin, T. R., Crane, L. A., Marcus, A. C., Nasseri, K., Herman-Shipley, N., Bernstein, S., & Henneman, C. E.. (2002). Increasing cervical cancer screening among underserved women in a large urban county health system: Can it be done? What does it take? Medical Care, 40, 891-907.
 

19>57. Example of evidence that counters a vocal minority opinion that might galvanize community resistance to a program or policy change. Guttmacher, Lieberman, et al., 1997, p. 1433.

Guttmacher, S., Lieberman, L., Ward, D., Freudenberg, N., Radosh, A., & Des Jarlais, D. (1997). Condom availability in New York City public high schools: Relationships to condom use and sexual behavior.  American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1427-33.

20>58. Flexibility, first quality of a good policy. The classic work on policy flexibility to accommodate implementation issues is that of Rein & Rabinovitz, 1997. For more recent examples of the examination of health policies for their responsiveness and flexibility, see Meyerson, Chu, & Mills, 2003; Rizak, Cunliffe, et al., 2003.

Meyerson, B., Chu, B. C., Mills, M. V. (2003). State agency policy and program coordination in response to the co-occurrence of HIV, chemical dependency, and mental illness. Public Health Reports, 118, 408-14.

Rein M.  Rabinovitz, F. (1977). Implementation: A theoretical perspective. Cambridge, MA: Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT and Harvard University, Working Paper no. 43.

Rizak, S., Cunliffe, D., Sinclair, M., Vulcano, R., Howard, J., Hrudey, S., & Callan, P. (2003). Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach. Water Science & Technology, 47, 31-6.

21>59. Intraorganizational policy analysis. A now classic work on this is Bolman & Deal, 1991. For examples of intraorganizational adaptations to facilitate the implementation of health-related innovations and policies, including “reinvention” of the innovation or policy, see Berwick, 2003; Boykin, Schoenhofer, et al., 2003; Dearing, Larson, Randall, & Pope, 1998; Dusenbury, Brannigan, et al., 2003; Everett Jones, Brener, & McManus, 2003. Grol, 2002, specifically invoked the Precede-Proceed model in his analysis of individual, interpersonal, and organizational factors accounting for physician acceptance or rejection of new practices.

Berwick, D. M. (2003). Disseminating innovations in health care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 1969-75.

Boykin A, Schoenhofer SO, Smith N, St Jean J, Aleman D. (2003). Transforming practice using a caring-based nursing model. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 27, 223-30.

Dearing, J. W., Larson, R. S., Randall, L. M., Pope, R. S.  (1998). Local reinvention of the CDC HIV prevention community planning initiative Journal of Community Health 23, 113-126.

Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W. B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of  implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18, 237-56.

Everett Jones, S., Brener, N. D., & McManus, T. (2003). Prevalence of school policies, programs, and facilities that promote a healthy physical school environment. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1570-5.

*Grol, R. (2002). Changing physicians' competence and performance: finding the balance between the individual and the organization. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 22, 244-51.

22>60. Interorganizational policy analysis.  One of the classic works on this subject in the health field is Levine, White, & Scotch, 1963. For more recent examinations of interorganizational policies, governance, and exchange, see the growing literature on this aspect of coalitions, e.g., Braithwaite, Taylor, & Austin, 2000; Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002; Fawcett, Lewis, et al., 1997; Kwait, Valente, & Celentano, 2001; and see endnote 41 above.

Braithwaite, R. L., Taylor, S., & Austin, J. (2000). Building health coalitions in the Black community. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Butterfoss, F. R., & Kegler, M. C. (2002). Toward a comprehensive understanding of community coalitions: Moving from practice to theory. In DiClementi, R. J., Crosby, R. A., & Kegler, M. C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 157-93.

Fawcett, S. B., Lewis, R. K., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V. T., Richter, K. P., Williams, E. L., & Copple, B. (1997). Evaluating community coalitions for prevention of substance abuse: The case of project freedom. Health Education & Behavior, 24, 812-28

Kwait, J., Valente, T. W., & Celentano, D. D. (2001). Interorganizational relationships among HIV/AIDS service organizations in Baltimore: a network analysis. Journal of Urban Health, 78, 468-87.

Levine, S., White, P. & Scotch, N. (1963). Community interorganizational problems in providing medical care and social services. American Journal of Public Health, 53, 1183-95.

23>61. The recent community organization literature in health. Bracht, 1998; Breckon, Harvey, & Lancaster, 1998;  Levy, Baldyga, et al., 2003; Minkler, 1997; Minkler, Thompson, et al., 2002; Minkler & Wallerstein, 2002; 2003.

Bracht, N. F. (Ed.) (1998). Health promotion at the community level: New advances, 2nd ed. New York: Sage. http://www.sagepub.com/book.aspx?pid=4470.

Breckon, D. J.,  Harvey, J. R., &  Lancaster, R. B.(1994). Community health education: Settings, roles, and skills for the 21st Century, (4th ed.) Rockville, MD: Aspen.

Levy, S. R., Baldyga, W., Jurkowski, J. M. (2003). Developing community health promotion interventions: selecting partners and fostering collaboration. Health Promotion Practice, 4, 314-22.

Minkler, M. (ed.) (1997).  Community organizing and community building for health, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press.

Minkler, M., Thompson, M., Bell, J., and Rose, K., Redman, D. (2002). Using community involvement strategies in the fight against infant mortality: Lessons from a multisite study of  the national Healthy Start experience.  Health Promotion Practice 3, 176-87.

Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. B. (2002). Improving health through community organization and community building. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & F. M. Lewis (Eds.). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice, 3rd edition (pp. 279-311). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. (2003). Community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

24>62. Murry Ross's classical definition of community organizing. M. Ross & Lappin, 1967, p. 14. The first edition of this influential book on community organization was 1955.

Ross, M., & Lappin, B. W. (1967). Community organization: Theory, principles, and practice. New York: Harper & Row.

25>63. World Health Organization's emphasis on intersectoral collaboration beyond the health sector. World Health Organization, 1986.

World Health Organization (1986). Targets for Health for All. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

26>64. Australia's public-private sector collaboration on nutrition. Chapman, 1990.

Chapman, S. (1990). Intersectoral action to improve nutrition: The roles of the state and the private sector. A case study from Australia. Health Promotion International, 5, 35-44.

27>65. U.S. examples of public-private cooperation on nutrition. Samuels, 1990; Samuels, Green, & Tarlov, 1989.

Samuels, S. E. (1990). Project LEAN: A national campaign to reduce dietary fat consumption. American Journal of Health Promotion, 4, 435-40.

Samuels, S. E., Green, L. W., & Tarlov, A. R. (1989). Project LEAN. American Journal of Public Health 79: 350.

28>66. Conflict models of community organization. Alinsky, 1972; Chapman & Lupton, 1995; Pertchuck, 2001.

Alinsky, S. D. (1972). Rules for radicals: A pragmatic primer for realistic radicals. New York: Vintage Books.

Chapman, S., & Lupton,  D. (1995). The fight for public health: Principles and practice of media advocacy. Sydney, University Press; London: BMJ Publishing Group.

Pertchuck, M. (2001). Smoke in their eyes: Lessons in movement leadership from the tobacco wars. Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press.

29>67. Systems approach to community encourages interdependence view of partnerships. Best, Stokols, et al., 2003; Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002; Kreuter, & Lezin, 2002; Kreuter, Lezin, & Young, 2000.

Best, A., Stokols, D., Green, L. W., Leischow, S., Holmes, B., & Buchholz, K. (2003). An integrative framework for community partnering to translate theory into effective health promotion strategy. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18, 168-76.

Butterfoss, F. R., & Kegler, M. C. (2002). Toward a comprehensive understanding of community coalitions: Moving from practice to theory. In DiClementi, R. J., Crosby, R. A., & Kegler, M. C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 157-93.

Kreuter, Marshall W. & Lezin, N. S (2002). Social capital theory: implications for community-based health promotion. In DiClementi, R.J., Crosby, R. A., Kegler, M. C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health (pp. 228-254). San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Kreuter, M. W. and Lezin, N., & Young, L. (2000). Evaluating community-based collaborative mechanisms: Implications for practitioners, Health Promotion Practice, 1, 49-63.

30>68. Cooperation between public and private sector partners can help fill gaps in services and prevent the depletion of scarce resources. Levine, White, Scotch, 1963.

Levine, S., White, P. & Scotch, N. (1963). Community interorganizational problems in providing medical care and social services. American Journal of Public Health, 53, 1183-95.

31>69. Engaging politics because you care, and because you may have little choice if you care a lot. Freudenberg, 1984; Hinkle, Fox-Cardamone, et al., 1996; McKinlay, 1975; Paehlke, 1989; Patton, 1985; Spretnak, & Capra, 1984; Studlar, 2002; Wallack, Woodruff, Dorfman, & Diaz, 1999.

Freudenberg, N. (1984). Not in our backyards! Community action for health and the environment. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Hinkle, S., Fox-Cardamone, L., Haseleu, J. A., Brown, R., & Irwin, L. M. (1996). Grass roots political action as an intergroup phenomenon. Journal of Social Issues, 52, 39-51.

McKinlay, J. B. (1975). A case for refocusing upstream--The political economy of illness. In A. J. Enelow and J. B. Henderson, (Eds.). Applying Behavioral Science to Cardiovascular Risk, pp. 7-17. New York: American Heart Association.

Paehlke, R. C. (1989).  Environmentalism and the future of progressive politics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Patton, C. (1985).  Sex and germs: The politics of AIDS. Boston: South End Press.

Spretnak, C. & Capra, F. (1984). Green politics. New York: E. P. Dutton.

Studlar, D. T. (2002). Tobacco control: Comparative politics in the United States and Canada. New York: Broadview.

Wallack, L., Woodruff, K., Dorfman, L., & Diaz, I. (1999). News for a change: An advocate's guide to working with the media. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

32>70. Exchange theory as an approach to collaboration, change or compromise. Best, Stokols, et al., 2003; Yukl, 1994; Zaric, & Brandeau, 2001.

Best, A., Stokols, D., Green, L. W., Leischow, S., Holmes, B., & Buchholz, K. (2003). An integrative framework for community partnering to translate theory into effective health promotion strategy. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18, 168-76.

Yukl, G. (1994). Leadership in organizations, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Zaric, G. S., Brandeau, M. L. (2001). Optimal investment in a portfolio of HIV prevention programs.
Medical Decision Making, 21, 391-408.

33>71. The "Tradgedy of the Commons" parable for self-interest over population good. Hardin, 1968, suggested an evolutionary principle of selfish consumption of common resources at the peril of the common good. For a recent example, see Corral-Verdugo, Frias-Armenta, et al., 2002. For a counter-argument with evidence that people can overcome the tragedy of the commons, see Feeny, Berkes, Mccay, & Acheson, 1990; and the use of indirect reciprocity, 'give and you shall receive', in the exchange process, together with reputation or "image scoring" for giving reliably in return for support: Milinski, et al., 2002; Wedekind, & Milinski, 2000. For an application to ethical issues in health communications, see Guttman, & Ressler, 2001.

Corral-Verdugo, V., Frias-Armenta, M., Perez-Urias. F., Orduna-Cabrera, V., Espinoza-Gallego, N. (2002). Residential water consumption, motivation for conserving water and the continuing tragedy of the commons. Environmental Management, 30, 527-35.

Feeny, D., Berkes, F., Mccay, B. J., Acheson, J. M. (1990). The tragedy of the commons: twenty-two years later. Human Ecology, 18, 1-19.

Guttman, N., & Ressler, W. H. (2001). On being responsible: ethical issues in appeals to personal responsibility in health campaigns. Journal of Health Communications, 6, 117-36.

Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 143, 1243-6.

Holden, C. (2003). Ecology. 'Tragedy of the commons' author dies. Science, 302, 32.

Milinski, M., Semmann, D., & Krambeck, H. J. (2002). Reputation helps solve the 'tragedy of the commons'.
Nature, 415, 424-6.

Wedekind C, Milinski M. (2000). Cooperation through image scoring in humans. Science, 288, 850-2.


34>72. The "power-educative" approach appeals to enlightened self-interest of those whose power needs to be redirected for the public good. E.g., Cataldo & Coates, 1986, esp. pp. 399–419; Lovato, Green, & Stainbrook, 1993.

Cataldo, M. F., & Coates, T.J. (Eds.). (1986). Health and Industry: A Behavioral Medicine Perspective. New York: Wiley.

Lovato, C. Y., Green, L. W., & Stainbrook, G. (1993). The benefits perceived by industry in supporting health promotion programs in the worksite. In J. P. Opatz (Ed.). Economic impact of worksite health promotion (pp. 3-31). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Press.

35>73. Media advocacy and education-of-the-electorate approach.   E.g., Asbridge, 2004 attempts to partition the effects of media, advocacy, legislative debate, and science in the passage of local clean air laws in Canada between 1970 and 1995. Biglan, Mrazek, et al., 2003 foresee increasing use of media advocacy to promote the application of research in practice. Puska, 2002, speaking for the World Health Organization, sees a growing role for that agency in the interface with the food industry and advocacy with governments to improve the nutritional value of foods. For strategies, see American Public Health Association, 2000; Goldstein, 1992; Hoffman, 1989; Steckler, Dawson, et al., 1987; Wallack, 1997; Wallack, Dorfman, et al., 1993; Wallack, Woodruff, et al., 1999. See also Blum & Samuels, 1990, Farrant & Taft, 1988; and endnote 69 for applications to specific areas of public health.

Asbridge M. (2004). Public place restrictions on smoking in Canada: assessing the role of the state, media, science and public health advocacy. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 13-24.

American Public Health Association (2000). APHA advocate’s handbook: A guide for effective public health advocacy. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association.

Biglan, A., Mrazek, P. J., Carnine, D., & Flay, B. R. (2003). The integration of research and practice in the prevention of youth problem behaviors.  American Psychology, 58, 433-40.

Blum, R., & Samuels, S. E. (Eds.). (1990). Television and teens: Health implications. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 11, 1-92, whole issue no. 1.

Farrant, W., & Taft, A. (1988). Building healthy public policy in an unhealthy political climate: A case study from Paddington and North Kensington. Health Promotion International, 3, 287-92.

Goldstein, M. S. (1992). The health movement: Promoting fitness in America. New York: Twayne Publishers.

Hoffman, L. M. (1989). The politics of knowledge: Activist movements in medicine and planning. Albany: State University of New York Press. 

Puska, P. (2002). Nutrition and global prevention of non-communicable diseases.  Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11 (Suppl. 9), S755-8.

Steckler, A., Dawson, L. Goodman, R. M.,  & Epstein, N. (1987). Policy advocacy: Three emerging roles for health education. In W. B. Ward (Ed.). Advances in Health Education and Promotion vol. 2 (pp. 5-27). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Wallack, L. M. (1997). Media advocacy: Promoting health through mass communication. In K. Glanz, F. M. Lewis, and B. K. Rimer (Eds.). Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2nd ed., San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, chap. 16.

Wallack, L., Dorfman, L. Jernigan, D.& Themba, M. (1993).  Media advocacy and public health: Power for prevention. Newbury Park: Sage Publishing Co.

Wallack, L., Woodruff, K., Dorfman, L., & Diaz, I. (1999). News for a change: An advocate's guide to working with the media. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

37>74. Engaging media, organizations, and policy on behalf of minority populations. E.g., Braithwaite, Taylor, & Austin, 2000; Fernandez-Esquer, Espinoza, et al., 2003; S. B. Thomas, 2001; some specifically within applications of PRECEDE-PROCEED, e.g., Earp, Eng, et al., 2002; Fleisher, Kornfeld, et al., 1998; Huff, & Kline, 1999; Liburd, & Bowie, 1989.

Braithwaite, R. L., Taylor, S., & Austin, J. (2000). Building health coalitions in the Black community. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

*Earp, J. A., Eng, E., O'Malley, M. S., Altpeter, M., Rauscher, G., Mayne, L., Mathews, H. F., Lynch, K. S., & Qaqish, B. (2002). Increasing use of mammography among older, rural African American women: results from a community trial. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 646-54.

Fernandez-Esquer, M. E., Espinoza, P., Torres, I., Ramirez, A. G., & McAlister, A. L. (2003). A su salud: A quasi-experimental study among Mexican American women. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27, 536-45.

Fleisher, L., Kornfeld, J., Ter Maat, J., Davis, S. W., Laepke, K. & Bradley, A. (1998). Building effective partnerships: A national evaluation of the Cancer Information Service Outreach Program.  Journal of Health Communication, 3 (suppl.), 21-35.

*Huff, R. M., & Kline, M. V. (1999). The cultural assessment framework. In R. M. Huff & M. V. Kline (Eds.). Promoting health in multicultural populations: A handbook for practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

*Liburd, L. C. & Bowie, J. V. (1989). Intentional teenage pregnancy: A community diagnosis and action plan. Health Education, 20, 33-8.

Thomas, S. B. (2001). The color line: Race matters in the elimination of health disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1046-8.

38>75. Engaging media, organizations, and policy on behalf of aging populations. E.g., Minkler, 1985; 1997; and within applications of the Precede-Proceed Model, e.g., McGowan, & Green, 1995; Weinberger, Saunders, et al., 1992.

Minkler, M. (1985). "Building Supportive Ties and Sense of Community Among the Inner-City Elderly: The Tenderloin Senior Outreach Project," Health Education Quarterly 12: 303-14.

Minkler, M. (ed.) (1997). Community organizing and community building for health, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press

*McGowan, P., & Green, L. W. (1995).  Arthritis self-management in native populations of British Columbia: An application of health promotion and participatory research principles in chronic disease control. Canadian Journal of Aging, 14, 201-12.

*Weinberger, M., Saunders, A. F. Bearon, L. B., Gold, D. T., Trig Brown, J., Samsa, G. P., & Loehrer, P. J. (1992).  Physician-related barriers to breast cancer screening in older women.  The Journals of Gerontology, 47(special issue): 111-117.

39-41>76. Engaging media and organizations to educate the electorate on other issues. E.g., Freudenberg, 1984; Rundall, & Phillips, 1990.

Freudenberg, N. (1984). Not in our backyards! Community action for health and the environment. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Rundall T. G., & Phillips, K. A. (1990). Informing and educating the electorate about AIDS. Medical Care Review, 47, 3-13.

46>77. Empowerment education approach. E.g., Cargo, Grams, et al., 2003; Green, 1983; Laverack & Wallerstein, 2001; Minkler, 1985; Shor & Freire, 1987.

Cargo, M., Grams, G. D., Ottoson, J. M., Ward, P., & Green, L. W. (2003). Empowerment as fostering positive youth development and citizenship.  American Journal of Health Behavior, 27 (Suppl 1), S66-79.

Green, L. W. (1983). New policies in education for health, World Health (April-May), 13-7.

Laverack, G., & Wallerstein, N. (2001). Measuring community empowerment: a fresh look at organizational domains.  Health Promotion International, 16, 179-85.

Minkler, M. (1985). Building supportive ties and sense of community among the inner-city elderly: The Tenderloin Senior Outreach Project. Health Education Quarterly, 12, 303-14.

Shor, I., & Freire, P. (1987). A pedagogy for liberation. Boston: Bergin and Garvey Publishers.

48-49>78. Box: "An Urban Case Example" of failed planning for Tuberculosis Control in Washington, DC.

Dievler, A. (1997). Fighting tuberculosis in the 1990s: How effective is planning in policy making? Journal of Public Health Policy, 18, 167-87.

57-63>79. Sources of case studies, examples of programs, and case stories. Go to www.lgreen.net for links from specific endnotes aligned with this text to various resource centers, clearinghouses, and databases of bibliographies and case materials. For case stories, see Kreuter, Lezin, et al., 2003. Within the EMPOWER software, each screen has a drop-down menu called "Consult on Tap," under which one of the choices is "Case Example," in which a real or hypothetical case is described to illustrate the specific steps in the Precede-Proceed Model called for by that screen (Gold, Green, & Kreuter, 1998).

Gold, R., Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1997). EMPOWER: Enabling Methods of Planning and Organizing Within Everyone's Reach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing Co. [CD-ROM disk and manual]. 

Kreuter, Marshall W., Lezin, N., Kreuter, M. W., & Green, L. W. (2003). Community health promotion ideas that work: A field-book for practitioners. 2nd ed. (Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett).

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