If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

 

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Health Program Planning, 4th edition

Chapter 2

Social Diagnosis and Participatory Planning

Notation: The number before ">" is the endnote number in the 3rd edition; the number after > is the new endnote number that will appear in the 4th edition. The endnotes provide citations to literature and sources referenced in the text of Chapter 2. Below the endnotes (either just below, or at the end of the endnotes) are the actual bibliographic references for the corresponding citations. References carried over from the 3rd edition may not be listed here (see 3rd edition bibliography).

Table of Contents (click on section to go to new endnotes and references for that section)

DEFINITION OF COMMUNITY (endnote 1)

SOCIAL ASSESSMENT AND PARTICIPATION:  THE RATIONALE (3rd edition endnotes 2-8, new 2-13)

    Social and Health Conditions: A Reciprocal Relationship

    Health as An Instrumental Rather Than Terminal Value

QUALITY OF LIFE: AN EXPRESSION OF ULTIMATE VALUES (3rd edition endnotes 9-18, new 14-23)

    Eliciting Subjective Assessments of Community Quality of Life

    Can Quality of Life be Measured?

THE PRINCIPLE AND PROCESS OF PARTICIPATION (3rd edition endnotes 19-28, new 24-35)

    Forms of Participation (3rd edition endnotes 23-24; new endnotes 28-30)

    Participation in Setting Priorities (3rd edition endnote 25; new endnote 31)

    Public Perception and Professional Assessment: Finding Common Ground (3rd edition endnotes 26-28, new 32-35)

THE CAPACITY-BUILDING CASE FOR PARTICIPATION (3rd edition endnotes 29-37, new 36-45)

    Keeping Perspective on Participation and Partnership (3rd edition endnotes 35-37, new 43-45)

METHODS AND STRATEGIES FOR SOCIAL DIAGNOSIS AND SITUATION ANALYSIS (38-39>46-

    Assessing Urgency and Assets: Situation Analysis (3rd edition endnotes 40- , new

    Assessing Capacity: Community Competence/Readiness

    Asset Mapping

    The Social Reconnaissance Method

    Other Assessment Methods

        Nominal Group Technique

        Use of Surveys

   

Endnotes

DEFINITION OF COMMUNITY

1>1. We use the term "community" in most instances to refer to the larger geographically and sometimes geopolitically defined aggregate of people (neighborhood, town, city, county, district, or occasionally, a whole state, region, or country). This is consistent with the most common current usage (MacQueen et al., 2001, in which locus was the most frequently cited of 17 dimensions of community cited by 4% or more of respondents). We will use it in later chapters to refer to organizationally defined communities (e.g., school, work site, industry, church, hospital, or nursing home) through which communication and decisions flow. (See the glossary.) Community, however, appears as a secondary definition in most dictionaries as a reference to a group of people who share a common interest. This use may apply in patient education, self-help groups, and health programs for dispersed groups. Electronic bulletin boards and satellite television open new possibilities for the interactive engagement of dispersed populations in health planning to address their common concerns. Such electronic meetings have been held, for example, to involve chief executive officers of in discussions of the potential for work-site health promotion programs in their industries. It is used currently to engage the community of health personnel across the U.S.A. in planning for anti-terrorism preparedness in their local communities.

MacQueen, K.M., McLellan, E., Metzger, D.S., et al. (2001). What is community? An evidence-based definition for participatory research. American Journal of Public Health 91: 1929-1938.
 

SOCIAL ASSESSMENT AND PARTICIPATION:  THE RATIONALE

2>2. Social determinants of health. Bunker, 2001, p. 1266.
For recent reviews, analyses and commentaries on social determinants of health, see Beaglehole, 2002; Berkman & Kawachi, 2000; Green & Potvin, 2002; Hart, 2002; Marmot, 2000; Marmot & Wilkenson, 1999; McDowell, 2002.

Beaglehole, R. (2002). Overview and framework (for section on "Determinants of health and disease." In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole, & H. Tanaka (Eds.). Oxford Textbook of public health: Vol 1: The scope of public health, 4th edition. (pp. 83-87). New York: Oxford University Press.

Berkman, L.F. & Kawachi, I. (2000). Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bunker, J. P. (2001). The role of medical care in contributing to health improvements within societies, International Journal of Epidemiology 30:1260-1263.

Green, L. W., & Potvin, L. (2002). Education, health promotion, and social and lifestyle determinants of health and disease. In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole, & H. Tanaka (Eds.). Oxford Textbook of public health: Vol 1: The scope of public health, 4th edition (pp. 113-130). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hart, N. (2002). Social, economic, and cultural environment and human health. In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole, & H. Tanaka (Eds.). Oxford Textbook of public health: Vol 1: The scope of public health, 4th edition (pp. 89). New York: Oxford University Press.

Marmot M. & Wilkenson, R. G. (Eds.). (1999). Social determinants of health. New York: Oxford University Press.

McDowell, I. (2002). Social determinants. In L. Breslow, B.D. Goldstein, L.W. Green, C.W. Keck, J. Last, & M. McGinnis (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Public Health, Vol. 4 (pp. 1122-1123). New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

>3. Community coalitions. Berkowitz, 2001; Berlin, Barnett, Mischke, & Ocasio, 2000; Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002; Chavis, 2001; Foster-Frisman, et al., 2001; Green, 2000; Kreuter, Lezin & Young, 2000 (reviewed 68 published descriptions of coalitions and consortia); Lasker, Weiss & Miller, 2001; Roussos & Fawcett, 2000; Sanchez, 2000; Wolff, 2001. The chapter by Butterfoss and Kegler builds on much of this literature, drawing from it seven theoretical constructs related to community coalition formation, structure and processes, and another seven related to coalition interventions and outcomes. From studies of these they derive 23 propositions to formulate a theoretical model of community coalitions.

Beaglehole, R. (2002). Overview and framework (for section on “Determinants of health and disease”). In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole, & H. Tanaka (Eds.). Oxford Textbook of public health: Vol 1: The scope of public health, 4th edition. (pp. 83-87). New York: Oxford University Press.  

Berkowitz, B. (2001). Studying the outcomes of community-based coalitions, American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 213-227.

Berlin, X., Barnett, W., Mischke, G., & Ocasio, W. (2000). The evolution of collective strategies among organizations. Organization Studies, 21, 325-354.

Braithwaite, R. L., Taylor, S., & Austin, J. (2000). Building health coalitions in the black community. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Butterfoss, F.R., & Kegler, M.C. (2002). Toward a comprehensive understanding of community coalitions: Moving from practice to theory. Ch 7 in DiClementi, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass), pp. 157-193.

Chavis, D. M. (2001). The paradoxes and promise of community coalitions, American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 309-320.

Foster-Fishman, P., Berkowitz, S., Lounsbury, D., Jacobson, S., & Allen, N. (2001). Building collaborative capacity in community coalitions: A review and integrative framework. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 241-257.

Green, L. W. (2000). In praise of partnerships: Caveats on coalitions. Health Promotion Practice, 1, 64-65.

Kreuter, M. W. and N. Lezin, N., & Young, L. (2000). Evaluating community-based collaborative mechanisms: Implications for practitioners. Health Promotion Practice, 1, 49-63.

Lasker, R., Weiss, E., & Miller, R. (2001). Parnership synergy: A practical framework for studying and strengthening the collaborative advantage. Milbank Quarterly, 79: 179-205.

Roussos, S., & Fawcett, S. (2000). A review of collaborative partnerships as a strategy for improving community health. Annual Review of Public Health, 21, 369-402.

Sanchez, V. (2000). Reflections of community coalition staff: Research directions from practice. Health Promotion Practice, 1, 320-322.

Shoveller, J. A. & Langille, D.B. (1993). Cooperation and collaboration between a public health unit and midsized private industry in health promotion programming--The Polymer Heart Health Program Experience," Canadian Journal of Public Health 84: 170-173.

Wolff, T. (2001). Community coalition building-Contemporary practice and research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 165-172.
 

 >4.  Social capital. Hawe & Shiell, 2000; Kreuter & Lezin, 2002; Kreuter, Lezin, Young, Koplan, 2001; Last, 2000, 2002; Putnam, 2000.

Hawe, P., & Shiell, A. (2000). Social capital and health promotion: A review. Social Science & Medicine, 51, 871-85.

Kreuter, M. W. & Lezin, N. S (2002). Social capital theory: implications for community-based health promotion. In DiClementi, R.J., Crosby, R.A., Kegler, M.C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health.. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 228-254.

Kreuter, M.W., Lezin, N., Young, L., & Koplan, A.N. (2001). Social capital: evaluation implications for community health promotion. WHO Reg Publ Eur Ser. 2001;(92):439-62.

Last, J. (2000). Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Last, J. (2002). Health. In L. Breslow, B.D. Goldstein, L.W. Green, C.W. Keck, J.M. Last, & M. McGinnis (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Public Health, Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, Gale Group, pp. 519-526.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion Full-Text available on-line.

Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Raeburn & Rootman, 1998, chapter 4 on "Health and Well-Being in a Quality of Life Context," pp. 53-63.  [see bibliography of 3rd edition]

 >5.  Reciprocal relationship of social/quality of life issues and health.  E.g., Brown, Lipscomb, & Snyder, 2001; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000; Raeburn & Rootman, 1998, esp. chap. 4 on “Health and well-being in a quality of life context,” pp. 53-63; and International Society for Quality of Life Research: http://www.isoqol.org; and  http://www.cob.vt.edu/market/isqols/.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000).  Measuring healthy days:  Population assessment of health-related quality of life.  Atlanta, GA, Health Care and Aging Studies Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC. 

Figure 2-5.  Green, L.W. (1983).  "New policies in education for health,"  World Health (April-May):  13-7.

Green, L.W., and Ottoson, J.M. (1999).  Community and Population Health, 8th ed. (New York and Toronto: WCB/McGraw-Hill).

3>6. Health an instrumental value, not a terminal value. We avoid the misnomer “healthy” in describing actions, policies, or programs conducive to health (e.g., “healthy behavior” or “healthy public policy”) because these objects of the adjectives are means, not ends; they are not living organisms that can be healthy. At best they can enhance health, and thus may be healthful, health promoting, health protecting, or disease preventing. Similarly, health is an instrumental value for quality-of-life ends.

4>7. Health as a resource for living. First International Conference on Health Promotion, 1986, p. iii. See also Kreuter, Lezin, Kreuter, & Green, 2003, Preface, for the analogy of what a healthy squirrel looks like (from Kass, 1980), and how this applies to populations (also at www.lgreen.net/OverviewofIdeasThatWork.doc); Green & Ottoson, 1999, pp. 3-5.

First International Conference on Health Promotion (1986).  The Ottawa Charter Health Promotion. Health Promotion (now Health Promotion International), 1(4): iii-v.                           

Kass, L.R. (1980).  Medial care and the pursuit of health.  In C. Lindsay (Ed.).  New directions in public health Care, 3rd ed. (pp. 16-17).  San Francisco, Institute for Contemporary Studies.

Green, L.W., and Ottoson, J.M. (1999).  Community and Population Health, 8th ed. (New York and Toronto: WCB/McGraw-Hill).

World Health Organization    

For a review and listing of definitions of health from Plato through early 20th century definitions such as the frequently quoted definition of community health by C.E.A. Winslow, to the World Health Organization's holistic definition, to the Lalonde report on A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians to more recent definitions, compiled for the National Association of City and County Health Officials (NACCHO), go to: http://www.naccho.org/files/documents/definition_of_health3.pdf.

Raeburn, J.M. & Rootman, I. (1997).  People Centered Health Promotion.  Chichester, New York, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto:  John Wiley & Sons.

6>8. Definition of health as functional capacity and adaptability. Last, 2000; see also Last, 2002, p. 520.

Jette AM, Keysor JJ. (2002). Uses of evidence in disability outcomes and effectiveness research.. Milbank Q. 80: 325-345.

Last, J. (2000). Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Last, J. (2002). Health. In L. Breslow, B.D. Goldstein, L.W. Green, C.W. Keck, J.M. Last, & M. McGinnis (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Public Health, Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, Gale Group, pp. 519-526.

5>9. Sociological definition of health. Parsons, 1964, p. 433; for a discussion of “social health,” see McDowell, 2002.

McDowell, I. (2002).  Social health.  In L. Breslow, et al.  (Eds.).  Encyclopedia of Public Health, Vol. 4 (pp.1123-1124).  New York:  Macmillan Reference USA.

Parsons, T. (1964).  "The superego and the theory of social systems," in R.L. Coser, (ed.).  The family:  its structure and functions, New York:  St. Martin's Press, pp. 433-449.

>10. Employers’ criteria for outcomes beyond health. Pelletier, 2001, p.114.

Linking health goals to management bottom line in worksite health programs:

Pelletier, K.R. (2001). A review and analysis of the clinical- and cost-effectiveness studies of comprehensive health promotion and disease management programs at the worksite: 1998-2000 update. American Journal of Health Promotion 16: 107-116.

7>11. Tailoring communications to individual and population segments’ ultimate values.  E.g., Kreuter, Lezin, Kreuter, & Green, 2003, pp. 177-186; Nansel, Weaver, Donlin, Jacobsen, Kreuter, & Simons-Morton, 2002; Pappaioanou, Malison, et al., 2003; Wilshire, Kreuter, et al., 1997.

Campbell, M.K., Devellis, B.M., Strecher, V.J., et al. (1994).  "Improving dietary behavior:  the effectiveness of tailored messages in primary care settings,"  American Journal of Public Health 84: 783-787.

Kreuter, M. W.,  N. Lezin, M. W. Kreuter, and L. W. Green (2003). Community Health Promotion Ideas That Work: A Field-book for Practitioners. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Kreuter, M. W.,  E. Vehige  and A. G. McGuire (1996). “Using computer-tailored calendars to promote childhood immunization,” Public Health Reports March/April: 176-178.

Nansel TR, Weaver N, Donlin M, Jacobsen H, Kreuter MW, Simons-Morton B. (2002). Baby, Be Safe: the effect of tailored communications for pediatric injury prevention provided in a primary care setting. Patient Education & Counseling, 46, 175-90.

Pappaioanou, M., Malison, M., Wilkins, K., Otto, B., Goodman, R. A., Churchill, E., White, M., & Thacker, S. B. (2003). Strengthening capacity in developing countries for evidence-based public health: The data for decision-making project. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 1925-37.

Wilshire, B. L., M. W. Kreuter, A. Kunyosying, L. K. Brennan, D. P. Scharff, C. A. Caburnay, V. L. Mlady  (1997) “Development of the STARLITE personal interest scale: a preliminary validation study,” (Presented at 1997 American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN).

8>12. Ultimate values as things people most enjoy. “Things people value and enjoy” can be measured using tools such as the Valued Life Activities (VLA) index,  Jette, 1993; or the STARLITE scale, Wilshire et al., 1997.

Jette, A. M. (1993). Using health related quality of life measures in physical therapy outcomes research, Physical Therapy, 73, 528-537.

Wilshire, B. L., M. W. Kreuter, A. Kunyosying, L. K. Brennan, D. P. Scharff, C. A. Caburnay, V. L. Mlady  (1997) “Development of the STARLITE personal interest scale: a preliminary validation study,” (Presented at 1997 American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN).

 

QUALITY OF LIFE: A MANIFESTATION OF ULTIMATE VALUES

9>13. Cultural considerations in ultimate values. The phrase in the U.S. Constitution protecting “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” acknowledges that happiness and fulfillment are highly individualized concepts. The wisdom of most philosophical systems suggests that we can help people find the freedom and capacity to pursue those elusive states, but we cannot expect to achieve them for others. Furthermore, happiness and fulfillment are states of being, not permanent traits. As states, they are variable and, therefore, can serve as positive and appropriate goals for promotion. The Canadian variation on the theme of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” is “peace, harmony, and good government.” This phrase reflects a cultural difference in ultimate values that conditions how the people of neighboring countries might judge their quality of life and social conditions differently. For examples of the U.S.-Canadian differences in legislators’ perceptions of policy issues in tobacco control and other public health matters, see Cohen et al., 2001; 2002; Studlar 2002.

Values as they determine national preferences on health issues:

Cohen, J.E., de Guia, N.A., Ashley, M.J., Ferrence, R., Northrup, D.A., Studlar D.T. (2002). Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 1069-76.

Cohen JE, de Guia NA, Ashley MJ, Ferrence R, Studlar DT, Northrup DA. (2001). Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for public health policy interventions. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92, 188-9.                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Studlar, D.T. (2002). Tobacco Control: Comparative Politics in the United States and Canada. New York: Broadview.

Eliciting Subjective Assessments of Community and Personal Quality of Life

10>14. Participatory research to assess population’s ultimate values and quality of life. Doll, Berkelman, Rosenfield, & Baker, 2001; Green & Mercer, 2001; Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003; Olden, Guthrie, & Newton, 2001. Internet resources for participatory research approaches to community assessment and development are listed and linked at www.goshen.edu/soan/soan96p.htm and guidelines are online at http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca/guidelines.htm.

Green, L.W. & Mercer, S.L. (2001). Participatory research: Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities? American Journal of Public Health 91: 1926-1929. [Full text at AJPH]

Minkler, M. & Wallerstein, N. (Eds.). (2003). Community-Based Participatory Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Olden, K., Guthrie, J., Newton, S.A. (2001). A bold new direction for environmental health research. American Journal of Public Health 91: 1964-1967.

11>15. Kaiser Family Foundation’s Social Reconnaissance Method.  Butler et al., 1996; COPC as approach to making clinical services relevant to population's perspective. For a current community-oriented primary care (COPC) project in the Delta region, funded by another foundation, go to: http://www.dhep.astate.edu/ and for a history of the COPC approach from South Africa to the Mississippi Delta, see Geiger, 2002.

Butler, M.O, Abed, J., Goodman, K., Gottlieb, N., Hare, M., & Mullen, P. (1996). A case-study evaluation of the Henry J. Kaiser Family foundation's Community Health Promotion Grants Program in the southern states: Phase 2 final report. Arlington, VA, Menlo Park, CA, and Atlanta, GA: Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, and Centers for Disease Control.

12>16. Measuring personal health-related quality of life. Fryback, Lawrence, Martin, Klein, & Klein, 1997; Lorig, Ritter, Stewart, et al., 2001; Ware & Kosinski, 2001. Some quality-of-life measures taken specifically within social assessments and studies using the Precede-Proceed model are reported by Bartholomew et al., 1997; Cramer, 1994; McGowan & Green, 1995. The notion originally articulated by Fries & Crapo, 1981, of adding life to years rather than merely years to life, or “compression of morbidity,” is discussed in the context of using theory and models such as PRECEDE-PROCEED in patient education planning, by Prohaska & Lorig, 2001. The most widely and consistently applied health-related quality-of-life measure now incorporated in most states of the U.S. is the CDC-designed Health-Related Quality-of-Life measure. See endnote 20 below.

Bartholomew, L. K., Czyzewski, D. I., Parcel, G. S., Swank, P. R., Sockrider, M. M., Mariotto, M. J., Schidlow, D. V., Fink, R. J. & Seilheimer, D. K. (1997). Self-management of cystic fibrosis: Short-term outcomes of the cystic fibrosis family education program.  Health Education and Behavior, 24: 652-666.

Fryback, D. G., W. F. Lawrence, P. A. Martin, R. Klein, B. E. Klein (1997). “ Predicting quality of well-being scores from the SF-36: results from the Beaver Dam Health Outcomes Study,”  Medical Decision Making 17: 1-9.

Lorig KR, Ritter PL, Stewart AL, Sobel DS, Brown BW, Bandura A, Gonzalez VM, Laurent DD, Holman HR. (2001). Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: 2-Year Health Status and Health Care Utilization Outcomes. Medical Care, 39(11),1217-1223, 2001.

>17. Quality of life measures associated with pain management. Lorig, Laurent, Deyo, et al., 2002.

13>18. Quality of life measures associated with functional disability. Haley, Jette, Coster, et al., 2002; Jette & Keysor, 2002.

Haley SM, Jette AM, Coster WJ, Kooyoomjian JT, Levenson S, Heeren T, Ashba J. (2002). Late Life Function and Disability Instrument: II. Development and evaluation of the function component. Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Science & Medical Science. 57: M217-222.

Jette AM, Keysor JJ. (2002). Uses of evidence in disability outcomes and effectiveness research.. Milbank Quarterly. 80: 325-345.

14>19. Quality-of-life measures associated with leisure activities. Plante & Schwartz, 1990.

>20. Quality-of-life measures associated with mental health. Holley, 1998, for contrasting Canadian and U.S. perspectives. For environmental and health-related quality-of-life measures from a European perspective, see the European Commission research at http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/quality-of-life/ka4/index_en.html, accessed Dec 19, 2002. For a measure of “functional” physical and mental health at the population level, see Burdine, et al., 2000. For an example of the correlations of unemployment rates and other ecological measures with health, see Karpati, Galea, Awerbuch, & Levins, 2002. CDC's website contains details on the 15 health-related quality-of-life measures that have been used selectively in state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys since 1995 online (accessed October 18, 2003). For other applications of the CDC-BRFSS quality-of-life measures, see Ahluwalia, et al., 2003; Moriarty, Zack, & Kobau, 2003.

Ahluwalia, I. B., Holtzman, D., Mack, K. A., & Mokdad, A. (2003). Health-related quality of life among women of reproductive age: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 1998–2001. Journal of Womens Health, 12, 5-10.

Ford, E. S., Mannino, D. M., Homa, D. M., Gwynn, C., Redd, S. C., Moriarty, D. G., & Mokdad, A. H. (2003). Self-reported asthma and health-related quality of life: findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Chest, 123, 119-27.

Mili, F., Helmick, C. G., & Moriarty, D. G. (2003). Health related quality of life among adults reporting arthritis: analysis of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, US, 1996-99. Journal of Rheumatology, 30, 160-6.

Moriarty, D. G., Zack, M. M., & Kobau, R. (2003). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy Days Measures - Population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time. Health Quality of Life Outcomes, 2, 1(1):37. [Full text]

16>21. The Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index is a 68-item instrument designed to measure satisfaction with and importance of health juxtaposed to psychological, spiritual, and family-life factors, and has been effectively applied cross-culturally. See Ferrans, 1996.

17>22. Validations of the most widely used measure in medical care settings: Ware & Kosinski, 2001. Variations on the SF-36 instruments are being tested now in 45 countries for cross-cultural validity and adaptation.

Ware JE, Kosinski M. (2001). Interpreting SF-36 summary health measures: a response. Quality of Life Research, 10, 405-13; discussion 415-420.

18>23. Outcomes measured besides medical in SF-36.Kosinski, Kujawski, Martin, Wanke, Buatti, Ware, Perfetto, 2002;  Manocchia, Keller, & Ware. 2001.

Kosinski M, Kujawski SC, Martin R, Wanke LA, Buatti MC, Ware JE Jr, Perfetto EM. (2002). Health-related quality of life in early rheumatoid arthritis: impact of disease and treatment response. American Journal of Managed Care. 8: 231-240.

Manocchia M, Keller S, Ware JE. (2001). Sleep problems, health-related quality of life, work functioning and health care utilization among the chronically ill. Quality of Life Research 10: 331-345. 

 

THE PRINCIPLE AND PROCESS OF PARTICIPATION

>24. Literature on technical assistance. Church, Saunders, Wanke, Pong, Spooner, & Dorgan, 2002; Green, 1986f; Minkler, 1997; Wharf Higgins, 2002; and for classics on participatory approaches in health: Morgan &Horning, 1940; Nyswander, 1942; Steuart, 1965.

19>25. Participatory research in developing countries and underserved communities. Eades, Read, & the Bibbulung Gnarneep Team, 1999; Green, George, Daniel, et al., 2003; Green, 2003; Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003. For an example from India of a project applying some of these principles, see The Gyandoot Project at: http://www.unescap.org/rural/bestprac/gyandoot.htm (accessed Oct 18, 2003). For similar projects addressing other aspects of rural development in developing countries, http://www.unescap.org/rural/bestprac/index.htm (accessed Oct 18, 2003).

Minkler, M. & Wallerstein, N. (Eds.). (2003). Community-Based Participatory Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

21>26. Concientación refers in this context to consciousness raising for a process whereby persons with limited means become conscious of the political realities and root causes of their situation and take collective action to address them. Shor & Freire, 1987.

22>27. The history and international variations in taking these perceptions into account through participation in health program planning was traced for the World Health Assembly and developed into a formal theory of participation in Green, 1986f. It became operationalized subsequently in new forms of community coalitions, often required by funding agencies in the health fields to represent the diversity of perspectives and perceptions in the planning process. The coalition process, too, has been advanced to the status of a formal theory by Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002.

Forms of Participation

23>28. Freire, 1970, p. 181. For a discussion contrasting PRECEDE, adult education, and Freire's approaches, see Marsick, 1987, in which PRECEDE was “interpreted from a viewpoint of technical rationality even though it does not have to be so construed. Interpreted narrowly, PRECEDE would emphasize an accurate technical diagnosis of the problem [consulting] with clients and community leaders in problem setting, but the primary purpose would be to discuss the problem in order to develop the best professional solution” (p. 19). We would argue that the best technical or professional solution is one that addresses the felt needs of the community. For more recent applications of Freirian concepts in health, see Minkler, 2000, 2002; Wallerstein & Duran, 2003.

24>29.  Contrasting perspectives in community studies. Friere, 1970, p. 183. See also Baum, Bush, et al., 2000; Parker, Lichtenstein, et al., 2001; Wallerstein, Duran, et al., 2003, for examples of contrasting, contradicting, and paradoxical perspectives within community studies, depending on levels of participation in community, socioeconomic variables, and inherent cultural, economic, and infrastructure needs and capacities of a community. .

Baum FE, Bush RA, Modra CC, et al. (2000). Epidemiology of participation: An Australian community study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 54, 414–23.

Parker EA, Lichtenstein RL, Schulz AJ, et al. (2001). Disentangling measures of individual perceptions of community social dynamics: results of a community survey. Health Education & Behavior, 28, 462–86.

Wallerstein N, Duran BM, Aguilar J, Joe L, Loretto F, Toya A, Yepa-Waquie H, Padilla R, Shendo K. (2003). Jemez Pueblo: built and social-cultural environments and health within a rural American Indian community in the Southwest. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1517-8.

>30. For a compelling and poignant account of how the conflicting cultures and views of allied professionals and advocates for a common cause (the settlement with the tobacco industry) can undermine their planning and strategic positioning for policy change, read Pertchuck,  2001. See also, Schroeder, 2002. For a “Cultural Assessment Framework” based in part on the Precede-Proceed model, see Huff & Kline, 1999.

Pertchuck, M. (2001). Smoke in their eyes. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.

Schroeder, S. (2002). Conflicting dispatches from the tobacco wars. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 1106-9.

Participation in Setting Priorities

25>31. Caveat. We would temper this sentiment in areas of health protection such as water and food safety, as well as health services such as immunizations, where whole populations may be at extreme risk if the values and misunderstandings of a small but vocal group, or even a majority, were to override scientific evidence. This is not, however, to suggest that participatory approaches are more appropriate to health promotion and less important to health protection or health services. Indeed, two of the most significant contemporary initiatives in federal support for participatory research have come from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (O’Fallon & Dearry, 2002; Shepard, Northridge, Prakash & Stover, 2002; and the whole issue in which these articles appear; see also the projects supported by NIEHS, online at http://www.niehs.nih.gov/translat/cbpr/proj2001.htm, accessed Oct 18, 2003). The Indian Health Services and the Health Resources and Services Administration have applied participatory methods in Community-Oriented Primary Care (Nutting, 1990; Williams, 2002, APHA abstract online at http://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_49078.htm, accessed Oct 18, 2003). Brown & Fee, 2002, review the history of COPC and note that some recent initiatives seek “to jettison a prescriptive stepwise COPC model in favor of a more fluid and dynamic understanding that emphasizes community engagement and embraces sociopolitical objectives” (p.1712).

 

Public Perception and Professional Assessment: Finding Common Ground

>32. Importance of media in creating an informed electorate to support health policies. American Public Health Association, 2000; Biglan, Ary, Smolkowski, Duncan, & Black, 2000; Chapman & Lupton, 1995; Green, Murphy, & McKenna, 2002; McLoughlin & Fennell, 2000; Mindell, 2001; Stead, Hastings, & Eadie, 2002; Stillman, Cronin, Evans, & Ulasevich, 2001; Wallack, Woodruff, Dorfman, & Diaz, 1999. To locate the media organizations in your area of the U.S., go to: http://capwiz.com/astho/dbq/media/ (accessed Oct 19, 2003).

American Public Health Association (2000).  APHA  advocate's handbook:  A guide for effective public health advocacy.  Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association.

Biglan, A., Ary, D.V., Smolkowski, K., Duncan, T., & Black, C. (2000).  A randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use.  Tobacco Control, 9, 24-32.

Green, L.W., Murphy, R.L., McKenna, J.W. (2002).  New insights into how mass media works for and against tobacco.  Journal of Health Communications 7, 245-248.

McLoughlin, E. & Fennell, J. (2000).  The power of survivor advocacy:  making car trunks escapable.  Public Health Reports, 6, 167-170.

Mindell, J. (2001). Lessons from tobacco control for advocates of healthy transport. Journal of  Public Health Medicine., 23, 91–97.

Poland, B.D. (2000).  Social capital, social cohesion, community capacity, and community empowerment:  Variations on a theme?  In Poland, B.D., Green, L.W., & Rootman, I. (Eds.).  Settings in health promotion:  Linking theory and practice (pp. 301-307).  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.

Stead, M., Hastings, G., & Eadie, D. (2002). The challenge of evaluating complex interventions: A framework for evaluating media advocacy. Health Education Research, 17, 351-364.

Stillman, F. A., Cronin, K. A., Evans, W. G., Ulasevich, A. (2001). Can media advocacy influence newspaper coverage of tobacco: measuring the effectiveness of the American stop smoking intervention study's (ASSIST) media advocacy strategies. Tobacco Control, 10, 137–144.

Wallack, L., Woodruff, K., Dorfman, L., & Diaz, I. (1999).  News for a change:  An Advocate's Guide to Working with the Media.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publicatons.

26>33. Importance of participation at more central, as well as local, levels of decision making. Green & Frankish, 1996; Green & Shoveller, 2000; Shoveller & Green, 2002. For descriptions of exemplary state and local actions addressing disparities in health, see National Association of County and City Health Officials, 2000.

27>34. Tension between national, state, and local agencies, and between centralized offices and local employees.  Ottoson & Green, 1987; Singh, & Rajamani, 2003.

Ottoson J. M. and L. W. Green (1987).  Reconciling concept and context: Theory of implementation, In W. B. Ward and M. H. Becker (Eds). Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 2, pp. 353-382.Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Singh S, Rajamani S. (2003). Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries. Water Science and Technology, 47, 301-4.

28>35. Participation. Rose, 1992, pp. 123–124. For a case example of participation in health program planning, see Kreuter, Lezin, Kreuter, & Green, 2003, Chapter 3.

 

THE CAPACITY-BUILDING AND SUSTAINABILITY CASE FOR PARTICIPATION: A VISION

Examining the Steps of Assessment

>36. Indigenous capacity and assets of communities. McKnight & Kretzmann, 1997. The National Association of County and City Health Official’s (NACCHO) Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEXPH), 1991, updated 2002, guides local health departments through an organizational capacity assessment and a community health assessment process. APEXPH ’98 – software for the APEXPH process – is also available in CD-ROM or on a set of 6 disks. Go to: http://www.naccho.org/tools.cfm. See also the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) instruments and the Protocol for Assessment of Community Excellence in Environmental Health (PACE-EH) at the same website. Each of these CDC-sponsored community health assessment models builds on the previous one. MAPP and PACE-EH are elaborations or special applications of APEXPH, which was an extension of the Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH, http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/patch/), which was based largely on the PRECEDE model. During the same time, PRECEDE has evolved as PRECEDE-PROCEED to build on the experience of PATCH and the Kaiser Family Foundation experience of applying a "social reconnaissance" approach to community needs and asset assessment (Green & Kreuter, 1997), and on subsequent experience with all of the assessment and planning models and instruments. Many of the assessment procedures in PRECEDE-PROCEED are illustrated in an interactive tutorial software package and manual called Expert Methods of Planning and Organizing Within Everyone's Reach (EMPOWER, see Gold, Green, & Kreuter, 1997; see also Chaisson, 1996; Gold & Atkinson, 1999; Green, Tan, Gold, & Kreuter, 1996; Lovato, Potvin, et al., 2003). Two other CDC community grant programs that apply many of the same planning methods growing out of PRECEDE and PATCH are Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health ( http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/bb_reach/index.htm, accessed Oct 21, 2003 ) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's guidance to working with communities on environmental health issues such as toxic waste investigation programs (http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/phtn/envedu/crse-mat.asp, accessed Oct 21, 2003).

Gold, R. S., & Atkinson, N. L. (1999). Chapter 12 in 3rd edition of this book, pp. 470-501.

Lovato, C., Potvin, L., Lehoux, P., Proulx, M., Milligan, D., Chiasson, M., Tremblay, M., Gariepy, E., Dingwell, G., & Green, L.W.  (2003).  Software to assist with program planning:  Two community-based cases.  Promotion and Education (Jour of the Internatl Union of Health Promotion & Education, in press).

29>37. Gaps in community assets. Hawe, Noort,  King,  & Jordens, 1997; Kreuter & Lezin, 2002; Foster-Fishman, Berkowitz, Lounsbury, Jacobson, & Allen, 2001.

30>38. Community-centric vs. agency-centric planning. Hawe, 1996. For an example from mental health, see Blankertz & Hazem, 2002.

31>39. Community endorsement of agency agenda is not same as community generation of agenda. Hawe, 1996, p. 477.

32>40. “Competent community” was a term conceptualized generically by Iscoe, 1974 and Cottrell, 1976. Its applications in the health field have tended increasingly toward use of the term “community capacity” e.g., Chaskin, Brown, Venkatesh, & Vidal, 2001; Crisp, Swerissen, & Duckett, 2000; Kalnins, Hart, Ballantyne, Quartaro, Love, Sturis, & Pollack, 2002; Ricketts, 2001; Smith, Baugh Littlejohns, & Thompson, 2001; and more recently, “social capital” or “community capital,” e.g., Hancock, 2001; Kreuter & Lezin, 2002. For a commentary on the variations in the terms and concepts related to community capacity, see Poland, 2000.

33>41. Tools and methods for asset identification and development. Fawcett, Schultz, Carson, Renault, & Francisco, 2003; Minkler & Hancock, 2003; National Civic League, 1999, 2000; Puntenney, 2000; Sharpe, Greany, Lee, & Royce, 2000; Snow, 2001; Wang, 2003; Wang, Cash & Powers, 2000. See also endnote 36 on asset mapping, and Assets Based Community Development Institute of Northwestern University's Institute for Policy Research. ABCD's  website contains tools online at http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/abcd.html (accessed Oct 19, 2003). In an example of a more specific application of asset mapping, Dato, Potter, et al., 2002, describe the development of inventories and a "capacity map" for public health workforce development, identifying training resources that could be tapped by health agencies.

Dato, V. M., Potter, M. A., Fertman, C. I., & Pistella, C. L. (2002). A capacity mapping approach to public health training resources. Public Health Reports, 117, 20-7.

34>42. The notion of capacity building as being able to use the lessons of one program experience to solve other problems, rather than the once popular notion of institutionalizing the funded program as the measure of success (cf. Green, 1989), is consistent with Senge’s (1994) concept of the “learning organization.” The most thorough review of the recent history and conceptual development of community capacity building in health is the chapter by Norton, McLeroy, Burdine, Felix & Dorsey, 2002. See also the growing emphasis of schools of public health on this dimension of training and research: DeFrancesco, Bowie, Frattaroli, Bone, Walker, & Farfel, 2002.

>43. Empowerment” as gaining confidence and skills for greater independence. Fetterman, 2000; Minkler, Thompson, Bell, Rose, Redman, 2002; Thompson, Minkler, Allen, et al., 2000; Wandersman & Florin, 2000; Zimmerman, 2000. For a detailed list of Internet resources, software, handbooks and guides, and related associations on participatory and empowerment evaluation to strengthen capacity building and self-reliance, go to: http://www.stanford.edu/~davidf/empowermentevaluation.html.

>44. Collective efficacy. Bandura, 2002.

>45. Dissemination value of demonstrations, as a complement to “best practices” from research. Cameron, Jolin, Walker, McDermott, & Gough, 2001; Green, 2001; Kahan & Goodstadt, 2001.

Green, L.W. From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior 25:165-178, April-May 2001. Full text online at:  http://www.ajhb.org/2001/number3/25-3-2.htm.

Keeping Perspective on Participation and Partnership

35>46. Quotation, Shaw, 1930, pp. xiv-xv.

37>47. Public participation does not mean professional abdication. World Health Organization, 1983, p. 17. See also, Green & Mercer, 2001.

Green, L.W. & Mercer, S.L. (2001). Participatory research: Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities? American Journal of Public Health 91: 1926-1929. [Full text at AJPH]

>48. Recognizing limits of participation of employees. Brosseau, Parker, Lazovich, Milton, & Dugan, 2002, quotes from pp. 56 & 59, respectively.

>49. Recognizing limits of participation of employers. Lazovich, Parker, Brosseau, Milton, & Dugan, 2002.

Methods and STRATEGIES FOR SOCIAL DIAGNOSIS and Situation Analysis

 

38>50. Major print sources on health needs and asset assessments. Gilmore & Campbell, 2003; Halverson & Mays, 2001; Lee, 2001; Melnick, 2001; Petersen & Alexander, 2001; Teutsch & Churchill, 2000. This website will continue to add World Wide Web links to other sources.

Petersen, D. J. & Alexander, G. R. (2001). Needs assessment in public health: A practical guide for students and professionals. Middlesex, UK: Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers.

39>51. Need to supplement routinely collected data with tailored data. Hawe, 1996.

 

Assessing Urgency and Assets: Situation Analysis

43>52. Situation analysis. Gold, Green, & Kreuter (1997).

40>53. North Karelia Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Project. Puska, Variainen, Tuomilehto, Salomaa, & Nissinen, 1998; Vartiainen, Jousilahti, Alfthan, Sundvall, Pietinen, & Puska, 2000. See contrast for the neighboring area of Russia: Laatikainen, Delong, Pokusajeva, Uhanov, Vartiainen, & Puska, 2002.

41>54. Social diagnosis and situation analysis in North Karelia. P. Puska et al., 1985, p. 164.

42>55. Surveys of community decision-makers and health personnel. Ibid., p. 165.

>56. Evaluation of PATCH revealed that needs assessment phase could take up to 18 months. Goodman, Steckler, Hoover, & Schwartz, 1993.

>57. Defining and measuring community capacity. Goodman, Spears, McLeroy, Fawcett, Kegler, Parker, Smith, Sterling, & Wallerstein, 1998.

>58. Assessing community coalitions. Goodman, Wandersman, Chinman, Imm, & Morrisey, 1996.

>59. Caveats on participatory research dimensions of community planning. Goodman, 2001.

>60. CDC’s efforts to make surveillance data more usable by communities. Remington & Goodman, 1998; Teutsch & Churchill, 2000, see esp. chapters 3, 7, 11, & 12.

>61. Caveats on “best practices” research as a sole guide to interventions appropriate for communities other than those in which the research was conducted. Glasgow, Lichtenstein, & Marcus, 2003; Green, 2001.

Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why don't we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1261-7.

Green, L.W. From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior 25:165-178, April-May 2001. Full text online at:  http://www.ajhb.org/2001/number3/25-3-2.htm.

>62. Caution against home-grown solutions that ignore “best practices” from previous research. Green & Kreuter, 2002; Halfours, Cho, Livert, & Kadushin, 2002. For searchable access to the hundreds of guidelines and recommendations for best practices documented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, go to the CDC Recommends website: http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/CDCRecommends/AdvSearchV.asp (accessed Oct 19, 2003). This searchable website provides CDC Recommends: The Prevention Guidelines System, which contains up-to-date and archived guidelines and recommendations approved by the CDC for the prevention and control of disease, injuries, and disabilities.

44>63. Why are some people healthy and others not? R. G. Evans, Barer & Marmor, 1994.

45>64. Social capital as community capacity. Burdine JN, Felix MR, Wallerstein N, Abel AL, Wiltraut CJ, Musselman YJ, Stidley C., 1999;  Hawe & Shiell, 2000; Kreuter & Lezin, 2002; Putnam, 2000.

Burdine, J.N., Felix, M.R., Wallerstein, N., Abel, A.L., Wiltraut, C.J., Musselman, Y.J., Stidley, C. (1999). Measurement of social capital. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 896, 393-395.

47>65. Measures of the four constructs of social capital. Kreuter & Lezin, 2002; Muntaner, Lynch, & Smith, 2001.

48>66. A copy of the Civic Index can be obtained from the National Civic League, 1445 Market Street, Suite 300, Denver, CO 80202, or online at http://www.ncl.org/publications/descriptions/civic_index_measuring.html (accessed Oct 19, 2003).

49>67. For a recent example of a city’s application of the Civic Index, go to http://www.memphiscan.info/MemphisCan/CivicIndex/Index.cfm.

50>68. Asset Mapping. McKnight & Kretzman, 1997. For recent updates, go to http://www.madii.org/amhome/amhome.html. See also, Painter, 2002, chapter 2, for this and other community assessment tools, periodically updated. For an application example within the context of the community engagement process, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/phppo/pce/part1.htm.

>69. The "Community Toolkit" resource. Fawcett, Francisco, Schultz, Nagy, Berkowitz, & Wolff, 2000. Maintained by the Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, at http://ctb.lsi.ukans.edu/tools/tools.htm

53>70. Social reconnaissance method of community resource and needs assessment. Sanders, 1950. See also the adaptations for participatory planning development for CDC in the 1970s: Nix, 1977.

54>71. Later adaptations of social reconnaissance method. Nix, 1970; Nix & Seerley, 1971, 1973.

55>72. The Kaiser Foundation’s experience with the social reconnaissance method in the southern states was documented in  annual reports of the Foundation (1989, 1990), in the second and third editions of this book (1991, 1999), in an article in the Council on Foundations magazine: R. M. Williams, 1990, and in a full evaluation of the program by Butler et al., 1996. Burdine, Felix, et al. (1999; 2000) have continued to refine the methods of leadership identification and other aspects of social reconnaissance, and have combined it with quality-of-life measures for a fuller social assessment. Braithwaite, Taylor, & Austin (2000), and Chavis (2001) have continued to draw on the reconnaissance experience of the Kaiser Family Foundation’s Southern Strategy where they and their colleagues provided technical assistance (e.g., Mitchell, Florin, & Stevenson, 2002). It also provided some inspiration for the development and application of methods and guidelines for participatory research in Canada (Green, George, et al., 2002; McGowan & Green, 1995) and for the addition of the PROCEED components of the Precede-Proceed Model.

Burdine JN, Felix MR, Abel AL, Wiltraut CJ, Musselman YJ. (2000). The SF-12 as a population health measure: an exploratory examination of potential for application. Health Services Research 35, 885-904.

Burdine, J.N., Felix, M.R., Wallerstein, N., Abel, A.L., Wiltraut, C.J., Musselman, Y.J., Stidley, C. (1999). Measurement of social capital. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 896, 393-95.

Butler, M.O, Abed, J., Goodman, K., Gottlieb, N., Hare, M., & Mullen, P. (1996). A case-study evaluation of the Henry J. Kaiser Family foundation's Community Health Promotion Grants Program in the southern states: Phase 2 final report. Arlington, VA, Menlo Park, CA, and Atlanta, GA: Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, and Centers for Disease Control.

Mitchell RE, Florin P, & Stevenson JF. (2002). Supporting community-based prevention and health promotion initiatives: developing effective technical assistance systems. Health Education & Behavior, 29, 620-39.

56>73. Emphasis on social structural and relationship issues in Social Reconnaissance method. Nix, 1977, p. 141. The Vancouver Foundation (1999) also adopted a variation of the social reconnaissance methods for social assessment and situation analysis in their community grantmaking.

>74. Coalition formation and development. Berkowitz, 2001; Braithwaite, Taylor, & Austin, 2000; Butterfoss & Kegler, 2002; Chavis, 2001; Foster-Fishman, Berkowitz, Lounsbury, Jacobson, & Allen, 2001; Goodman & Wandersman, 1994; Goodman, Wandersman, Chinman, Imm, & Morrisey, 1996; Green, 2000; Green, Daniel, & Novick, 2001; Green & Kreuter, 2002; Kreuter, Lezin, & Young, 2000; Hallfors, Cho, Livert, & Kadushin, 2002; Sanchez, 2000; Wolff, 2001.

Hallfors, D., Cho, H., Livert, D., & Kadushin, C. (2002). How are community coalitions “Fighting Back” against substance abuse, and are they winning? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 237-45.

>75. Applications of leadership analysis within the context of Precede-Proceed assessments include Gold, Green, & Kreuter, 1997; Howat, Cross, et al., 2001; Michielutte & Beal, 1990; Taylor, Elliott, Robinson, & Taylor, 1998; and specifically within the school context: Cottrell, Capwell, Brannan, 1995; MacDonald & Green, 2001.

Green, L.W. From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior 25:165-178, April-May 2001. Full text online at:  http://www.ajhb.org/2001/number3/25-3-2.htm.

Howat, P., Cross, D., Hall, M., Iredell, H., Stevenson, M., Gibbs, S., Officer, J., & Dillon,  J. (2001). Community participation in road safety: barriers and enablers. Journal of Community Health, 26, 257-269.

Michielutte, R., & Beal, P. (1990). Identification of community leadership in the development of public health education programs. Journal of Community Health, 15, 59-68.

>76. After reviewing their experience with a decentralized planning model, CDC concluded that the high expectations for a decentralized approach to HIV prevention community planning could be best achieved when a distinction is drawn between information-seeking tasks and decision-making tasks. They recommend that information-seeking tasks be centrally coordinated (provision of standardized data collection instruments and protocols, for example) and that decision-making tasks be decentralized. See Dearing, Larson, Randall, & Pope, 1998. This became a major debating point in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's "Fighting Back" program of grants to local communities for substance abuse prevention, in which the technical assistance providers left the communities a much greater degree of autonomy in developing their own "home-grown" interventions without insisting on some attachment to "best practices" from previous research (Green & Kreuter, 2002; Halfors, Cho, et al., 2002).

Green, L.W., & Kreuter, M.W. (2002).  Fighting back, or fighting themselves?  Community coalitions against substance abuse and their use of best practices. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 303-306.   

Hallfors, D., Cho, H., Livert, D., & Kadushin, C. (2002). How are community coalitions “Fighting Back” against substance abuse, and are they winning? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 237-45.

>77. Criteria and procedures for setting priorities among multiple needs. E.g., Conway, Hu, & Harrington, 1997. The same methods may apply to setting priorities on “liking” and “preferred” interventions or ways of pursuing a lifestyle or environmental change in later stages of the Precede-Proceed model, as demonstrated by McKenzie, Alcaraz, & Sallis, 1994; and by Wang, Terry, & Flynn, et al., 1979, in one of the first full-scale applications and validations of the model. Wu, 2000, applied the model to the economic analysis of insurance claims, fraudulant claims, claims-loss ratios, that would assist insurers in setting priorities for settlement of medical claims. 

62>78. Nominal Group Technique.  de Villiers, et al., 2003; Delbecq, 1983; Dewar, et al., 2003; Pololi, et al., 2003; C. C. Wang, et al., 2003.

de Villiers M, Bresick G, Mash B. (2003). The value of small group learning: an evaluation of an innovative CPD programme for primary care medical practitioners. Medical Education, 37, 815-21.

Dewar A, White M, Posade ST, Dillon W. (2003). Using nominal group technique to assess chronic pain, patients' perceived challenges and needs in a community health region. Health Expectations, 6, 44-52.

Pololi LH, Dennis K, Winn GM, Mitchell J. (2003). A needs assessment of medical school faculty: caring for the caretakers. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 23, 21-9.

Wang CC, Wang Y, Zhang K, Fang J, Liu W, Luo S, Tang S, Wang S, Li VC. (2003). Reproductive health indicators for China's rural areas. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 217-25.

64>79. Descriptions of steps in applying the Nominal Group Technique. Gilmore & Campbell, 2004, pp.[get new p#] ; see also McDermott & Sarvela, 1999, pp. 234-5.

>80. Examples of Applications of Nominal Group process within PRECEDE and participatory research. Adeyanju, O. M.  (1987-88); Green, George, Daniel, Frankish, Herbert, Bowie, & O'Neill, 2003; McGowan & Green, 1995. 

65>81. The Delphi Method. Linstone & Turoff, 1975. See more recent adaptations for workplace settings (Leo, 1996) and discrete choice modeling in clinical service setting (Farrar, Ryan, Ross, & Ludbrook, 2000), and for multiple community studies (Zeitlin, et al., 2003).

Zeitlin J, Wildman K, Breart G, Alexander S, Barros H, Blondel B, Buitendijk S, Gissler M, Macfarlane A., & PERISTAT Scientific Advisory Committee. (2003). PERISTAT: indicators for monitoring and evaluating perinatal health in Europe. European Journal of Public Health, 13(3 Suppl), 29-37.

67>82. Steps in applying the Delphi Method. Gilmore & Campbell, 2003; http://www.carolla.com/wp-delph.htm (accessed 12.26/02), for 10 specific steps in the process. Hunnicutt, Perry-Hunnicutt, Newman, Davis, & Crawford, 1993, provide a Precede-Proceed model application of the Delphi Method in planning a campus alcohol abuse prevention program. For an argument against its use on grounds that it may be used to squeeze out citizen or lay participation in favor of experts, go to: http://www.icehouse.net/lmstuter/acf001.htm, accessed 12/26/02.

>83. Focus groups.  See the boxed issue earlier in this chapter for a needs assessment example of focus group application, as well as anticipating intervention possibilities: Brosseau, Parker, Lazovich, Milton, & Dugan, 2002; Lazovich, Parker, Brosseau, Milton, & Dugan, 2002. For a comparative description of this and the other methods as applied in assessing the perceived efficacy of intervention methods, see Ayala & Elder, 2001. Our interest in this chapter, however, is primarily in the application of these methods in the earliest phase of assessing needs associated with more basic social and quality-of-life concerns. These findings from Phase 1 of PRECEDE-PROCEED will likely resurface as predisposing factors in Phase 3.

79>84. Focus group applications with PRECEDE in cystic fibrosis. Bartholomew, Seilheimer, Parcel, Spinelli, & Pumariega, 1989; Bartholomew, Czyzewski, Swank, McCormick, & Parcel, 2000.

Bartholomew, L. K., Czyzewski, D. I., Parcel, G. S., Swank, P. R., Sockrider, M. M., Mariotto, M. J., Schidlow, D. V., Fink, R. J. & Seilheimer, D. K. (1997). Self-management of cystic fibrosis: Short-term outcomes of the cystic fibrosis family education program.  Health Education and Behavior, 24: 652-666.

69>85. Focus group applications with PRECEDE in breast cancer and African-American wormen.  Danigelis, Nicholas, Roberson, Worden, Flynn, Dorwaldt, Ashley, Skelly, & Mickey, 1995; Eng, 1993; Paskett, Tatum, et al., 1999; Taylor, Taplin, et al., 1994.

Eng, E. (1993).  The Save our Sisters Project: A social network strategy for reaching rural black women. Cancer Suppl. 72, 1071-7.

Taylor, V. M., SH Taplin, N Urban, J Mahloch, & KA Majer (1994).  Medical community involvement in a breast cancer screening promotional project.  Public Health Reports, 109, 491-9.

>86. Focus group applications with PRECEDE in nutrition, adolescent health, and other issues. Balch, Loughrey, et al., 1997; Cargo, Grams, et al., 2003; Doyle, & Feldman, 1997; Mirand, Beehler, et al., 2003; Morris, Linnan, & Meador, 2003; Oliver-Vazquez, Sanchez-Ayendez, et al., 2002; Reed, 1996; Reed, Meeks, Nguyen, Cross, & Garrison, 1998; Taylor, Coovadia, et al., 1999.

Balch GI, Loughrey, KA, Weinberg L, Lurie D, Eisner E. (1997). Probing Consumer Benefits and Barriers for the National 5 A Day Campaign: Focus Group Findings. Journal of Nutrition Education, 29 (4): 178-183.

Mirand, A.L., Beehler, G.P., Kuo, C.L., and Mahoney, M.C.  (2003).  Explaining the de-prioritization of primary prevention:  Physicians' perceptions of their role in the delivery of primary care.  BioMed Central Public Health, 3(1), 15.

Morris, I., Linnan, L., & Meador, M. (in press).  Applying the PRECEDE model to plan a menopause counseling program in a managed care setting. Evidence-based Preventive Medicine.

Oliver-Vazquez, M.; Sanchez-Ayendez, M.; Suarez-Perez, E.; Velez-Almodovar, H.; Arroyo-Calderon, Y. (2002). Breast Cancer Health Promotion Model for Older Puerto Rican Women: Results of a Pilot Programme.  Health Promotion International. 17, 3-11.

Reed, D. B.  (1996).  Focus groups identify desirable features of nutrition programs for low-income mothers of preschool children.  Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 501-3.

Reed, D. B., Meeks, P. M., Nguyen, L., Cross, E. W., Garrison, M. E. B. (1998). Assessment of nutrition education needs related to increasing dietary calcium intake in low income Vietnamese mothers using focus group discussions.  Journal of Nutrition Education 30 (3): 155-163.

Taylor, M., Coovadia, H. M., Kvalsvig, J. D., Jinabhai, C. C., Reddy, P. (1999).  Helminth control as an entry point for health-promoting schools in KwaZulu-NatalSouth African Medical Journal, 89, 273-9.

72>87. Cultural context. Airhihenbuwa, 1995; Airhihenbuwa, Kamanyika, & Lowe, 1995; Airhihenbuwa, Kumanyika, Agurs, Lowe, Saunders, & Morssink, 1996. Airhihenbuwa builds on the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors in PRECEDE-PROCEED "in accounting for perceptions, resources/enablers, and significant others in health behavior outcome which for me occurs within a broader social context with cultural interpretations and meanings” (Personal communication, Jan. 4, 2002).

73>88. Steps in focus group application. Krueger, & Casey, 2000. See also Gilmore & Campbell, 2004. Mwanga, Mugashe, & Aagaard-Hansen, 1998, outline a procedure for video-recorded focus group discussion from a case study on schistosomiases in Magu, Tanzania.

75>89. Central intercept or location interviews. Lefebvre, Doner, Johnston, Loughrey, Balch, & Sutton, 1995.

76>90. Surveys. Fink, 2002; Fowler, 2001. Especially relevant are the growing numbers of participatory survey research projects, creating collaborative roles for representatives of community-based organizations and service providers, as demonstrated, e.g., by Schultz et al., 1998.

Use of surveys in social diagnoses in applications of the Precede-Proceed Model:

77>91. Quality-of-life surveys related to chronic diseases. Zuckerman, Guerra, et al., 1996.

78>92.  Health-related quality-of-life surveys in occupational settings. Bailey, Rukholm, et al., 1994; Bertera, 1990a,b; 1993.

Bailey, Patricia Hill, EE Rukholm, R Vanderlee, J Hyland (1994).  A Heart Health Survey at the worksite: The first step to effective programmingAAOHN Journal 42, 9-14.

79>93. Quality-of-life surveys related to cystic fibrosis.  Bartholomew, Seilheimer, Parcel, Spinelli, & Pumariega, 1989; Bartholomew, Czyzewski, Swank, McCormick, & Parcel, 2000.

Bartholomew, L. K., Czyzewski, D. I., Parcel, G. S., Swank, P. R., Sockrider, M. M., Mariotto, M. J., Schidlow, D. V., Fink, R. J. & Seilheimer, D. K. (1997). Self-management of cystic fibrosis: Short-term outcomes of the cystic fibrosis family education program.  Health Education and Behavior, 24: 652-666.

80>94. Surveys of staff nurses. Berland, Whyte, & Maxwell, 1995; Cheng, DeWitt, Savageau, & O’connor, 1999.

82>95. Surveys on nutrition-related issues.  Campbell, Demark-Wahnefried, Symons, Kalsbeek, Dodds, Cowan, Jackson, Motsinger, Hoben,  Lashley, Demissie, & McClelland, 1999; Doyle & Feldman, 1997.

>96. Federal health surveys incorporating quality-of-life measures. Green, Wilson, & Bauer, 1992; Rootman, 1998. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a common survey conducted now by all 50 states, with coordination from CDC, has increasingly incorporated health-related quality-of-life and social health indicators in the telephone surveys (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000; and http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/brfss/ or http://www.cdc.gov/hrqol, accessed 12/31/02). See also community-level indicators, Karanek, Sockwell, Jia, CDC, 2000). These measures have been used also at the community level, e.g., in Canada,  by Ounpuu, Kreuger, Vermeulen, & Chambers, 2000, and at the county level, e.g., http://www.oc.ca.gov/hca/public/healthbeat/2001/2001_07.htm (accessed Oct 25, 2003).

  >97. Public service data.  E.g., National Civic League, 1999, 2000; Washington Post/Kaiser Family Foundation/Harvard University Survey Project, 1996.

>98. Participation in interpretation of data.  Flynn, 1995; Green & Mercer, 2001; Minkler & Hancock, 2003; Wang, 2003.

Green, L.W. & Mercer, S.L. (2001). Participatory research: Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities? American Journal of Public Health 91: 1926-1929. [Full text at AJPH]

>99. Data triangulation. E.g., Thorpe, & Loo, 2003; Wachtler, Troein, 2003.  For PRECEDE examples, see Goodson, Gottlieb, & Radcliffe, 1999; Keintz, Rimer, et al., 1988; Morris, Linnan, & Meador, 2003; Wang, Terry, et al., 1979.

Goodson, P., Gottlieb, N. H., Radcliffe, M. (1999). Put Prevention into Practice: Evaluation of program initiation in nine Texas clinical sites. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 17, 73-8.

Keintz, M. K., Rimer, B. K., Fleisher, L., Fox, L., & Engstrom, P. F. (1988). Use of multiple data sources in planning a smoking cessation program for a defined population. In P. F. Engstrom, P. N. Anderson, & L. E. Mortenson (eds.), Advances in Cancer Control: Cancer Control Research and the Emergence of the Oncology Product Line (pp. 31-42). New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.

Morris, I., Linnan, L., & Meador, M. (in press).  Applying the PRECEDE model to plan a menopause counseling program in a managed care setting. Evidence-based Preventive Medicine. (this is a new journal and the manuscript will be in the first issue -- due out October or November, 2003).

Thorpe, K., & Loo, R. (2003). Balancing professional and personal satisfaction of nurse managers: current and future perspectives in a changing health care system. Journal of Nursing Management, 11, 321-30.

Wachtler, C. & Troein, M. (2003). A hidden curriculum: mapping cultural competency in a medical programme. Medical Education, 37, 861-8.
 

>100. Linking local assessment to theory and evidence from research literature. Daniel & Green, 1995.

Daniel, M., & Green, L.W. (1995).  Application of the Precede-Proceed model in prevention and control of diabetes:  A case illustration from an Aboriginal community.  Diabetes Spectrum, 8, 80-123.

>101. Incomplete linking of community assessment with program planning decisions. Daniel, Green, Marion, Gamble, Herbert, Hertzman, & Sheps, 1999.

>102. Lessons for use of theory and "best practices" literature vis a vis participation in planning.  Daniel, 1997. See abstract at http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca. These recommendations are discussed also in Daniel & Green, 1999.

>103. Local skepticism about appropriateness of “best practices” from research for their community. Green, 2001.

Green, L.W. From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior 25:165-178, April-May 2001. Full text online at:  http://www.ajhb.org/2001/number3/25-3-2.htm.

>104. Growing science of aligning theory and research on “best practices” to population and community characteristics. E.g., Bartholomew, Parcel, Kok, & Gottlieb, 2001; Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 1999; Fiore, Bailey, Cohen, et al. 2000; Friede, O’Carroll, Nicola, Oberle, & Teutsch, 1997 (updated regularly on CDC Recommends website: http://www.cdc.gov); Gilbert & Sawyer, 1995; Gregory, S., 2002; Harris, Zaza, & Teutsch, 2003; International Union for Health Promotion and Education, 1999; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000a; Wandersman, Imm, Chinman, & Kaftarian, 2000; World Health Organization, 2001; 2002, Chap. 5 (see also www.who.int/evidence for a regular update of CHOICE, Choosing Interventions that are Cost Effrective); Zasa, Sleet, Thompson, Sosin, Bolen, & Task Force on Community Preventive Services, 2001. For an alternative approach to the synthesis of quantitative evidence in arriving at “what works” for neighborhoods and communities, see Schorr, 1997.

90>105. Exercises. We suggest that these exercises be carried out on a real population accessible to the student or practitioner, in consultation with members of that population and service providers serving that population. If this is impracticable, the exercises can be applied to a more distant population using published census data, vital statistics, and data from surveys and other sources on the World Wide Web.

>106. For a three-step approach to building a Precede-Proceed logic model, see Renger & Titcomb, 2002.

===============================================================================

Additional new references and figures associated with endnotes above

Fig. 2-2.  The public's lens focuses on the locally relevant, subjective aspects of health, textured by life experiences; the scientific lens views health in universalistic, highly generalizable, objective terms, and therefore is less locally relevant and subjectively meaningful to the people whose health is in question.  Professionals can help bridge these two views, making meaning of science to the patient or local population, and making scientific sense of their subjective view.  [Green & Kreuter, 3rd edition, p. 57, based on work with the Yukon Bureau of Statistics, copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1999].



Fig. 2-3.  Finding the common ground among the public's perception of needs, the health sector's or health scientists' assessments., and the political assessment of feasibility, resources, and policies means bringing these three circles into closer alignment to enlarge the area (A) for action.

 

Needs Assessment:

Cohen, J.E., de Guia, N.A., Ashley, M.J., Ferrence, R., Northrup, D.A., Studlar D.T. (2002). Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Social Science & Medicine 55: 1069-1076.

Cohen JE, de Guia NA, Ashley MJ, Ferrence R, Studlar DT, Northrup DA. (2001). Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for public health policy interventions. Canadian Journal of Public Health 92: 188-189.

Goeppinger, J., & Lorig, K. (2001). What do we know about what works: Patient education theories and models.  In K. Lorig Patient Education: A Practical Aproach. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Lorig KR, Laurent DD, Deyo RA, Marnell ME, Minor MA, Ritter PL. Can a back pain e-mail discussion group improve health status and lower health care costs? A randomized study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162: 792-796, 2002.

13. > 80.  McGowan, P. & Green, L.W. (1995).  "Arthritis self-management in native populations of British Columbia:  An application of health promotion and participatory research principles in chronic disease control," Canadian Journal of Aging 14, 201-12.

13. > 20.  Pahkala, K., Kivela, S.L., & Laippala, P. (1991). Relationships between social and health factors and major depression in old age in a multivariate analysis,” Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 45: 299-307.

Studlar, D. T. (2002). Tobacco Control: Comparative Politics in the United States and Canada. New York: Broadview.

2-14 Cramer, J. A. Quality of life and compliance.  In M.R. Trimble and W.E. Dodson (Eds.), Epilepsy and Quality of Life. New York: Raven Press, Chap. 4, pp. 49-63.

Lorig, K. R., Laurent, D.D., Deyo, R.A., Marnell, M.E., Minor, M.A., Ritter, P.L. (2002). Can a back pain e-mail discussion group improve health status and lower health care costs? A randomized study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162: 792-796.

2-15.  Geiger, H. J. (2002).  "Community-Oriented Primary Care:  A path to community development.  American Journal of Public Health 92, 1713-1716. 

Lorig, K. R., Ritter, P. L., Stewart, A.L., Sobel, D.S., Brown, B.W., Bandura, A., Gonzalez, V.M., Laurent, D.D., Holman, H.R. (2001). Chronic disease self-management program: 2-year health status and health care utilization outcomes. Medical Care, 39:1217-1223.  View Abstract.

2-16.  Fries, J. F., & Crapo, L. M. (1981).  Vitality and aging.  San Francisco, W.H. Freeman.

Prohaska, T. R., & Lorig, K. (2001).  What do we know about what works?  The role of theory in patient education.  In K. Lorig, Patient Education:  A Practical Approach.  3rd ed. (pp. 21-55).  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.

Ware, J. E. & Dosinski, M. (2001).  Interpreting SF-36 summary health measures:  a response.  Quality of Life Research 10(5): 405-13; discussion 415-20.

2-17.  Macrina, D. M. and T. W. O'Rourke (1986-87). Citizen participation in health planning in the U. S. and the U. K.: Implications for Health education strategies. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 7: 225-39.

THE PRINCIPLE AND PROCESS OF PARTICIPATION

2-18 Haley SM, Jette AM, Coster WJ, Kooyoomjian JT, Levenson S, Heeren T, Ashba J. (2002). Late Life Function and Disability Instrument: II. Development and evaluation of the function component. Journal of Gerontology A Biological Science & Medical Science 57: M217-22.

Jette, A.M. (1993).  "Using health related quality of life measures in physical therapy outcomes research," Physical Therapy 73: 528-537.

Jette AM, Keysor JJ. (2002).  Uses of evidence in disability outcomes and effectiveness research.  Milbank Quarterly, 80: 325-345.

2-19.  Plante, T.G. & Schwartz, G.E. (1990).  "Defensive and repressive coping styles:  Self-presentation, leisure activities, and assessment,"  Journal of Research in Personality 24: 173-190.

2-20.  Burdine JN, Felix MR, Abel AL, Wiltraut CJ, Musselman YJ. (2000).  The SF-12 as a population health measure:  an exploratory examination of potential for application.  Health Services Research 35, 885-904.

Holley, H. (Ed.) (1998).  Quality of life measurement in mental health.  Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health special Suppl.  No. 3, Ottawa, Health Canada.

Karpati, A., Galea, S., Awerbuch, T., & Levins, R. (2002).  Variability and vulnerability at the ecological level:  Implications for understanding the social determinants of health.  American Journal of Public Health 92, 1768-1772.

The Gyandoot Project (India) http://www.unescap.org/rural/bestprac/gyandoot.htm.   The Gyandoot project installed a computer network in the district, connecting 31 village centers. It made use of information and communication technology to provide online services, including land revenue-related transactions, redressing public grievances, village auction, a matrimonial site, government services and entitlements, expert consultation, a free e-mail facility on social issues, employment news and a village newspaper. The benefits of the project reach over half a million people.

Ware JE, Kosinski M. (2001). Interpreting SF-36 summary health measures: a response. Qual Life Res 2001;10(5):405-13; discussion 415-20.

A VISION TO CONSIDER

2-23.  Doyle, E., C. A. Smith, and M. C. Hosokawa (1989). "A Process Evaluation of a Community-based Health Promotion Program for a Minority Target Population," Health Education 20(5): 61-4.

Kosinski M, Kujawski SC, Martin R, Wanke LA, Buatti MC, Ware JE Jr, Perfetto EM. (2002). Health-related quality of life in early rheumatoid arthritis: impact of disease and treatment response. Am J Manag Care. 2002 Mar;8(3):231-40.

Manocchia M, Keller S, Ware JE. (2001). Sleep problems, health-related quality of life, work functioning and health care utilization among the chronically ill. Quality of Life Research 10: 331-45.

2-24.  Church, J., Saunders, D., Wanke, M., Pong, R., Spooner, C., & Dorgan, M.  (2002).  Citizen participation in health decision-making:  Past experience and future prospects.  Journal of Public Health Policy 23, 12-32.  http://www.hc-sc.ca/hppb/healthcare/Building.htm.

Green, L.W. (1978a).  "Determining the Impact and Effectiveness of Health Education as it Relates to Federal Policy,: Health Education Monographs 6: 28-66.

Green, L.W., and Ottoson, J.M. (1999).  Community and Population Health, 8th ed. (New York and Toronto: WCB/McGraw-Hill).

Green, L.W. (1978b).  "The Oversimplification of Policy Issues in Prevention,"  American Journal of Public Health 68:  953-4.

Green, L.W. (1986f).  "The theory of participation:  A qualitative analysis of its expression in national and international health policies," Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 1, Pt. A, W.B. Ward, Ed. (Greenwich, CT:  JAI Press Inc.), pp. 211-236.

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Steuart, G.W. (1965). Health, behavior and planned change: An approach to the professional preparation of the health education specialist, Health Education Monographs 1(No. 20): 3-26.

Wharf Higgins, J. (2002).  Participation in community health planning.  In L. Breslow, et al.  Encyclopedia of Public Health, vol 5.  (pp.890-891).  New York:  Macmillan Reference USA.

 2-25.  Eades, S.J., Read, A.W., & the Bibbulung Gnarneep Team (1999).  The Bibbulung Gnarneep Project:  practical implementation of guidelines on ethics in indigenous health research.  Medical Journal of Australia 170, 433-436.

Eng, E. (1993). The Save our Sisters Project: A social network strategy for reaching rural black women. Cancer, 72(3, Suppl.), 1071-1077.  

Green, L.W., George, A., Daniel, M., Frankish, C.J., Herbert, C.P., Bowie, W. & O'Neill, M. (2003).  Guidelines for participatory research, reproduced from Study of participatory research in health promotion in Canada.  Ottawa, Royal Society of Canada, 1996.  In M. Minkler, & N. Wallerstein (Eds.).  Community-based participatory research for health (pp. 135-154).  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.

Green, L.W. and Brooks-Bertram, P. (1978).  "Peer Review and Quality Control in Health Education,"  Health Values 2: 191-7.

Green, L. W. (2003). Tracing Federal support for participatory research in public health. In Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. (Eds.). Community-based participatory research. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2003.

Kreuter, M. W. and Lezin, N., & Young, L. (2000). Evaluating community-based collaborative mechanisms: Implications for practitioners, Health Promotion Practice, 1, 49-63.

Minkler, M. & Wallerstein, N. (2003). Community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

 2-26Green, L.W. & Shoveller, J.A. (2000). Local versus central influences in planning for community health. In R.F. Woollard, & A.S. Ostry (Eds.). Fatal Consumption: Rethinking Sustainable Development. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, Chap. 6, pp. 166-196.

Green, L.W. and Frankish, C.J. (1996).  "Implementing Nutritional Science for Population Health:  Decentralized and Centralized Planning for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention," Beyond Nutritional Recommendations:  Implementing Science for Healthier Population, (Ithaca, N.Y.:  Cornell University).

2-26. > 38. & 51.  Hawe, P. (1996).  Needs assessment must become more needs focused, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 20: 473-478.

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 2-27> 40. From "competent community" to "participatory research"

Cottrell, L. S. (1976). The Competent Community. In B. H. Kaplan, R. N. Wilson, & A. H. Leighton (Eds.). Further Exploration in Social Psychiatry (pp. 195-209). New York: Basic Books.

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Goeppinger, J. and A. J. Baglioni (1985). "Community Competence: A Positive Approach to Needs Assessment," American Journal of Community Psychology 13: 507-523.

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2-28>41.  Freire, P. (1970).  Pedagogy of the oppressed, New York:  The Seabury Press.

Marsick, V.J. (1987).  "Designing health education programs," in P.M. Lazes, L.H. Kaplan, and K.A. Gordon (Eds.).  Handbook of health education, 2nd ed.  Rockville, MD:  Aspen, chap. 1, pp. 3-30.

Minkler, M. (2000) Using participatory action research to build healthy communities.  Public Health Reports, 11, 191-197.

28. >  43.  Minkler, M., Thompson, M., Bell, J., and Rose, K., Redman, D. (2002). Using community involvement strategies in the fight against infant mortality: Lessons from a multisite study of  the national Healthy Start experience.  Health Promotion Practice 3: 176-187.

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Steckler, A. and R. M. Goodman (1989). "How to Institutionalize Health Promotion Programs," American Journal of Health Promotion 3: 34-44.

 Steckler, A., K. Orville, E. Eng, L. Dawson (1989).  Patching it Together: A Formative Evaluation of CDC's Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH) Program (Chapel Hill, NC: Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina).

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2-29 Freire, P. (1970).  Pedagogy of the oppressed, New York:  The Seabury Press.

2-29. > 42.  Green, L. W. (1989).  "Comment: Is institutionalization the proper goal of grantmaking?" American Journal of Health Promotion 3: 44.

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2-32.  American Public Health Association (2000).  APHA  advocate's handbook:  A guide for effective public health advocacy.  Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association.

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Issue for Debate

Centralization Vs. Decentralization

Should local communities be given complete autonomy, discretion, control, and final decision-making authority to decide on the focus of a program to be funded from external resources, or should the funding from higher levels of government be totally open-ended, unrestrained as to topic or focus for its expenditure?  This can be debated from the perspective of centralization Vs decentralization of resources and control, or from the perspective of local capacity and skills Vs centralized technical assistance capabilities. See, e.g.,

Dearing, Larsen et al., 1998.

Green & Shoveller, 2000.

Green, L.W., & Kreuter, M.W. (2002).  Fighting back, or fighting themselves?  Community coalitions against substance abuse and their use of best practices.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine 23, 303-306. 

Mitchell RE, Florin P, & Stevenson JF. (2002). Supporting community-based prevention and health promotion initiatives: developing effective technical assistance systems. Health Education & Behavior, 29, 620-39.



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