Home New 4th edition Endnotes:
Preface Chap 2
Chap 3 Chap 4 Chap 5
Chap 6 Chap 7
Chap 8 Chap 9
New Features, Flow, and Updated References Chapter 1 of new
4th Edition, 2005
New Title: Health Program Planning: An Educational and
New Publisher: McGraw-Hill
Table of Contents: Chapter 1 new references, links and endnotes
The Precede-Proceed Model
of intervention and program
History of PRECEDE-PROCEED
Chapter 2 new references, links and endnotes: Phase
I--Social Diagnosis and Participatory Planning
Chapter 3 new links and endnotes: Phase
II--Epidemiological Diagnosis: Health, Behavioral, & Environmental Assessment
Chapter 4 new references, links and endnotes: Phase
III--Ecological and Educational Diagnosis
Chapter 5 new links and
endnotes: Phase IV--Administrative, Organizational, and Policy Diagnosis and
Chapter 6 new references, links and
endnotes: Applications in Community Settings
Chapter 7 new references, links and
endnotes: Applications in Occupational Settings
Chapter 8 new references, links and
endnotes: Applications in School Settings
Chapter 9 new references, links and
endnotes: Applications in Health Care Settings
Chapter 1 Endnotes (The numbers shown below are the endnote numbers in the 3rd and (>) 4th edition
or just the 4th edition; these
notes indicate new references and comments replacing or updating those in the
3rd edition, or new topics in the 4th edition)
1>1. Program refers in this edition to the
full range of components required to bring about the intended changes in health
and social outcomes. In previous editions, program referred to the health
promotion components of broader community, school, worksite, or clinical
programs. Much of the historical
discussion of health education and health promotion that was in Chapter 1 of
the 3rd edition has been removed from the 4th edition. A publication on which
much of that historical review was based was
still in press at the time the 3rd edition went to the publisher. The article, since published, is:
Green, L.W.* (1999). Health education's contributions to public health in
the twentieth century: A glimpse through health promotion's rear-view mirror.
Annual Review of Public Health, 20: 67-88.
*Highlighted author names are hyperlinked to the
abstract of the article for reader convenience.
A further extension of these ten lessons from
the 20th century to directions we need to go in the 21st century are outlined in
Green & Frankish, 2001:
Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J. (2001). Health
promotion, health education, and disease prevention. In C.E. Koop,
& M.R. Schwarz (Eds), Critical issues in global health. (pp. 321-330).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
A chronicle of the evolution of the
Precede-Proceed Model and its applications in health education, health
promotion, and increasingly in broader community health organization and public
health administration is available in endnote
1-14 and in:
Green, L.W., Kreuter, M. W. (1992).
CDC's Planned Approach to Community Health as an application of PRECEDE and an
inspiration for PROCEED. Journal of Health Education 23: 140-147.
Ottoson, J. M., & Green, L. W.
(2001). Public health education and health promotion. In L. F. Novick, & G. P.
Mays (Eds.). Public health administration: Principles for population-based
management. (Pp. 300-323). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.
In the 4th edition, we will not repeat the
historical review, but we extend the ecological settings approach to health
program planning with a further emphasis on the settings approach. New refs:
Green, L.W. (1998). Prevention and health education in clinical, school, and
community settings. In R.B. Wallace (Ed.), Maxcy-Rosenau-Last preventive
medicine and public health (14th ed., pp. 889-904). Stamford, CT:
Appleton & Lange.
Poland, B.D., Green, L.W., & Rootman, I. (Eds.). (2000). Settings in health
promotion: Linking theory and practice
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
2. The importance of settings in an
community approach to health programs is consistent with the finding that
"locus" is the meaning most frequently cited of 17 dimensions of community in a recent
study (MacQueen, McLellan, et al., 2001).
See also, Green, 1998; Green, Poland, & Rootman, 2000, esp. pp. 18-20.
MacQueen, K.M., McLellan, E., Metzger, D.S., et al.
(2001). What is community?
An evidence-based definition for participatory research. American Journal of
Public Health 91: 1929-1938.
Ecological Approach and Social Determinants
Determinants of Health
Berkman, L.F. & Kawachi, I. (2000). Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford
Green, L. W. & Potvin, L. (2002). Education, health promotion, and social and
lifestyle determinants of health and disease. In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R.
Beaglehole, & H. Tanaka (Eds.). Oxford textbook of public health: Vol 1:
The scope of public health, 4th edition (pp. 113-130). New
York: Oxford University Press.
Last, J. & McGinnis, J.M. (2003). The determinants of health. In
Scutchfield FD, & Keck CW (Eds.). Principles of public health practice, 2nd
ed. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning,
Marmot, M (2000). Social determinants of health: From observation to policy.
Medical Journal of
Marmot M. & Wilkenson, R.G. (Eds.). (1999). Social determinants of health.
New York: Oxford University Press.
role played by
and its subsystems (such as family, organizations, community, culture,
and physical environment): Best,
Stokols, et al., 2004; Goodman,
Wandersman, Chinman, Imm, & Morrisey, 1996;
Institute of Medicine, 2003;
Karpati, Galea, Awerbuch, & Levins, 2002;
McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988;
Powell, Mercy, Crosby, Dahlberg, & Simon, 1999;
Rainey & Carson, 2001; Richard, Gauvin, Potvin,
Denis, Kishchuk, 2002; Simons-Morton, B., Brink, Simons-Morton, et al., 1989.
Best, A., Stokols, D., Green, L. W., et al.
American Journal of Health Promotion, 18, in press.
Institute of Medicine (2003). The Future of Public Health in the 21st
Century. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press.
Karpati, A., Galea, S., Awerbuch, T., & Levins, R. (2002). Variability and
vulnerability at the ecological level: Implications for understanding the
social determinants of health. American Journal of Public Health 92,
Powell, K. E., Mercy, J. A., Crosby, A. E., Dahlberg, L. L. and Simon, T. R.
(1999) Public health models of violence and violence prevention.
Encyclopaedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict. Vol 3. Academic Press,
Rainey CJ, Carson KL (2001). Nutrition interventions for low-income, elderly
women. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25, 245-51.
Richard L, Gauvin L, Potvin L, Denis JL, Kishchuk N (2002).
tobacco control programs more ecological: organizational and professional
American Journal of Health Promotion,
4,5. Ecological approach not new to public health and related
Ackerknecht, E. (1953). Rudolph Virchow:
Doctor, statesman, anthropologist. Madison, Wis: University of
Wisconsin Press; 1953.
Green, L. W., Poland, B. K., & Rootman, I. (2000). The settings approach to
health promotion. In B. D. Poland, L. W. Green, & I. Rootman (Eds.).
Settings for health promotion: Linking theory and practice (pp. 1-43, esp.
12-16). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. or:
Green, L. W., L. Richard, and L. Potvin (1996). Ecological foundations of
health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10,
determinants of health in nursing history.
Bullough & Rosen,
1992; DeFries, 1940; Green & Ottoson, 1999, chap. 2; Green, Poland & Rootman,
2000, esp. pp. 12-16; Rogers, 1960; Rosen, 1993, p. 252; Sydenstricker, 1933;
7. Quotation from René Dubos concerning limits of human mastery over nature and environment:
Dubos R (1958, 1987). Mirage of health: Utopias,
progress, and biological health. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Inc.
8. Positions and IOM report that make ecological
approaches foundational to public health:
Gorbach, & Ayala, 2003; Green & Raeburn, 1990; Green, Richard, & Potvin,
Institute of Medicine, 2002;
Elder JP, Talavera GA, Gorbach PM, & Ayala GX (2003).
Theories and structures of public health behavior. In Scutchfield FD, & Keck
CW (Eds.). Principles of Public Health Practice, 2nd ed.
Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning, pp.253-272.
9. How a
drawing that connects the relationships among causal factors would
yield a kind of ecological map or “web” (Krieger,
1994; Stokols, 2000), or a "systems model" (Checkland, 1999; Flood, 2001;
Midgley, 2000). Such complexities can be at least partially reflected in a
"logic model" that attempts to show the causal chain of relationships in a
linear fashion, usually limiting the feedback loops that would be found in an
ecological or systems model (e.g., Renger & Titcomb, 2002). Such models are
distinguished in planning as "effects models" showing how the interventions are
expected to influence the outcomes. These may be distinct from, or combined with
(as in the case of the Precede-Proceed Model) "stage models" showing how the
planning and program would be carried out (e.g., Andersson, Bjaras, & Ostenson,
2002). See also the latest description
of the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (Levesque, Guilbault,
Delormier, & Potvin, 2005).
Andersson, C. M., Bjaras, G. E. M., & Ostenson, C.-G. (2002). A stage model
for assessing a community-based diabetes prevention program in Sweden.
Health Promotion International, 17, 317-27.
Checkland, P. (1999). Systems thinking, systems practice: A 30-year
retrospect. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Flood, R.L. (2001). The relationship of “systems thinking” to action research.
In P. Reason, & H. Bradbury (Eds.). Handbook of Action Research:
Participative Inquiry and Practice (pp.
L., Guilbault, G., Delormier, T., & Potvin, L. (2005).
Unpacking the black box: A deconstruction of the programming approach and
physical activity interventions implemented in the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes
Prevention Project. Health Promotion Practice 6: 64-71.
Midgley, G. (2000).
Systemic intervention: Philosophy, methodology, and practice. New York:
Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Renger, R. &
Titcomb, A. (2002). A three-step approach to teaching logic models.
American Journal of Evaluation 23: 493-503.
Stokols, D. (2000). Social ecology and behavioral medicine: implications for
training, practice, and policy. Behavioral Medicine, 26, 121-130.
Karelia long-term results illustrate ecological effects and interactions
Puska, P. (2000a). Do
we learn our lessons from the population-based interventions? (Editorial).
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54, 562-3.
Puska, P. & Uutela, A. (2000). Community intervention in
cardiovascular health promotion: North Karelia, 1972-1999. In: N. Schneiderman,
Speers, J. M. Silva, H. Tomes, & J. H. Gentry (Eds.), Integrating behavioral and
social sciences with public health. (pp. 73-96). Baltimore: United Book Press,
American Psychological Association.
Vartiainen, E., Paavola, M., McAlister, A., & Puska, P. (1998). Fifteen-year
follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia Youth Project.
American Journal of Public Health, 88, 8105.
Necessity of combining ecological and educational approaches.
12. Example of drawing on "best practices" from
previous research and statewide experiences
Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention,
Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control
Programs - August 1999. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion,
Office on Smoking
and Health, August 1999.
13. Limitations of, and possibilities for "best practices" when applied
in different populations
Green, L.W. (2001).
From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (Research
Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior 25:165-178. Full
text online at
Heller, R. G. & Page, J. (2002).
population perspective to evidence based medicine: "evidence for population
health." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56,
14. History of the Precede-Proceed model summarized in this endnote:
The model originated
as a cost-benefit evaluation framework (Green, 1974) from converging streams
of research and experience in public health (Rogers, 1960), medical care
(Andersen, 1968), family planning (Green, 1970a), psychological (Green, 1970b)
and social factors in health behavior (Green, 1970b), diffusion and adoption
theory (Green, 1970a, 1975), other models of change (Green, 1976), and the
demands of that period on health programs to demonstrate their effectiveness
through evaluation in cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit metrics. The model
was applied systematically in a series of clinical and field trials that
confirmed its utility and predictive validity as a planning tool as well as an
organizing framework for the variety of social, behavioral, epidemiological
and administrative sciences bearing on the planning and evaluation of programs
(e.g., Green, Levine & Deeds, 1975; Levine et al, 1979; Morisky et al, 1980,
1981, 1982, 1983). The first edition of this book appeared in 1980 with the
coinage of the acronym, PRECEDE (Green, Kreuter, Deeds, & Partridge, 1980).
The further history of the model can be traced in the successive editions
(Green & Kreuter, 1991; 1999a,b) and in the evolution of the PROCEED
components of the model (Green & Kreuter, 1992).
For most of the
references cited in this endnote, go to Bibliography
of published applications of PRECEDE.
15. Whether to refer to the phases
as "diagnoses" or as "assessments"?
In the first and second
editions of this text we used diagnosis to describe each stage of the Precede
planning process (e.g., social diagnosis and epidemiological diagnosis). In
the third edition, we replaced diagnosis with assessment, (and we equivocated
over whether to maintain that change in this edition) mainly in response to
the many users who felt uncomfortable with the term diagnosis. Though we still
consider diagnosis to be an appropriate denotation for the processes described
in each phase, its connotation tends to associate the model, uncomfortably for
some, with clinical procedures. More importantly however, "diagnosis" also
tends to imply that all the assessments must start with or find a problem.
Positive approaches to health and assets-based approaches to community
assessment call for at least part of the planning process to be concentrated
on aspirations and strengths, not just on needs, weaknesses, deficits,
problems, and barriers. We will employ the
terms interchangeably, using "diagnosis" when a problem focus is intended,
"assessment" when a more assets-based or combined assets-and-problems
assessment is intended.
16. Integrating evaluation
into the early phases, rather than holding as a later chapter
editions, a separate chapter was devoted to evaluation. In this edition, we
integrate the evaluation considerations into each chapter, reminding the
planner that evaluation should be part of the planning process, not left to
evaluators after the planning is completed. This also reduces the number of
chapters and the number of phases. Whereas previous editions have represented
the model with nine phases, the last three of which were evaluation, formative
evaluation is now incorporated into the PRECEDE phases; process, impact, and
outcome evaluation are incorporated into the implementation phase of PROCEED.
17. Rationale for all capital letters vs.
"Precede-Proceed" as the acronym
We use all capital
letters when the terms PRECEDE and PROCEED stand alone as acronyms. Elsewhere,
to relieve their obtrusiveness in the text, we drop to lower-case letters when
the terms are used as adjectives with other nouns, such as Precede-Proceed
Model, and the Precede phases.
Epidemiological, Behavioral and Environmental Assessments and 3rd edition Chapters 3 & 4 into one
In previous editions
of this text, and previous representations of the Precede-Proceed model, Phase
2 consisted only of the epidemiological assessment of the health problems of a
population, and their relationship to the social problems. We have now
combined this epidemiological task with the etiological assessment of the
determinants of health. Chapter 3 now encompasses what was previously also in
a chapter 4 under behavioral and environmental assessments. For further
discussion of this amalgamation, see the Preface to this edition.
19. Behavior, environment and genetics combine to
put people at greater or less health risk (e.g., Aday, 2001; Berkman &
Kawachi, 2002; CDC, 1999a; Fiscella et al., 2000; French, Story & Jeffrey, 2001;
IOM, 2002; Kawachi et al., 2002; Korenbrot et al., 2000; McGinnis, Russo, &
Knickman, 2002; Panter-Brick & Worthman,
1999; Rodgers, 2002; Soobader & LeClere, 1999; Thomas, 2001; Williams & Collins,
Aday, L. A. (2001). At risk in
America: The health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the
United States, 2nd ed.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Berkman, L. & Kawachi, I. (Eds.).
(2002). Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Burhansstipanov, L., Bemis, L., Dignan, M., & Dukepoo, F. (2001). Development
of a genetics education workshop curriculum for Native American college and
university students. Genetics, 158, 941-8.
Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. (1999a). Neighborhood safety and the prevalence of physical
inactivity--selected states, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,
Fiscella, K., Franks, P., Gold, M.
R., & Clancy, C. M. (2000). Inequality in quality: Addressing socioeconomic,
racial, and ethnic disparities in health care. Journal of the American
Medical Association, 283, 2579-84.
French, S. A., Story, M., &
Jeffrey, R. W. (2001). Environmental influences on eating and physical
activity. Annual Review of Public Health, 22, 309-35.
Institute of Medicine. (2002).
Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care.
Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S. V.,
Almeida-Fillio, N. (2002). A glossary for health inequalities. Journal of
Epidemiology and Community Health, 56, 647-52.
Korenbrot, C. C., Moss, N. E.
(2000). Preconception, prenatal, perinatal and postnatal influences on health.
In Promoting health: Intervention strategies from Social and Behavioral
Research (pp. 125-69). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
McGinnis, J. M., Russo, P. G., &
Knickman, J. R. (2002). ... Health Affairs, 21,
Panter-Brick, C. & Worthman, C. M.
(Eds.). (1999). Hormones, health, and behavior: A socio-ecological and
lifespan perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rodgers, G. B. (2002). Income and
inequality as determinants of mortality: an international cross-section
analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 533-38.
Soobader, M. J., & LeClere, F. B.
(1999). Aggregation and the measurement of income inequality: Effects on
morbidity. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 733-44.
Thomas, S. B. (2001). The color
line: Race matters in the elimination of health disparities. American
Journal of Public Health, 91, 1046-8.
Williams, D. R. & Collins, D.
(2001). Racial residential segregation: A fundamental cause of racial
disparities in health. Public Health Reports, 116, 404-16.
20. Precede Model’s
original formulation as an evaluation model.
154>21. Theory, model, or
Early in the
evolution of PRECEDE, we referred to it exclusively as a framework. This was a
caution against claiming too much for it as a model or a theory. A theory is
“a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions
that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among
variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena,” from Kerlinger, 1986, p. 9. The primary purpose of PRECEDE was not to explain and
predict phenomena, but to organize existing, multiple, theories and constructs
(variables) into a cohesive, comprehensive, and systematic view of relations
among those variables important to the planning and evaluation of health
programs. Given the extensive application and validation of the framework in
practice and in research during the 1970s and 1980s, we have felt confident in
calling it a model for the past two decades. It might qualify as a
"theoretical model," or at least a "causal model," in some of its applications
(Sussman & Sussman, 2001). For further discussion of models, theories, and
emerging theories see Crosby, Kegler, & DiClemente, 2002; Glanz, Rimer, &
Lewis, 2001; Green, 1986f; Green & Lewis, 1986; Kegler, Crosby, & DiClemente,
2002; Lorig & Laurin, 1985; P. D. Mullen, Hersey, & Iverson, 1987; Sussman,
Crosby, R., A., Kegler, M. C.,
DiClemente, R. J. (2002). Understanding and applying theory in health
promotion practice and research.
DiClementi, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in
health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public
health. (Pp. 1-15). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Lewis, F. M. (Eds.) (2002).
Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3rd
edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kegler, M. C.,
Crosby, R. A., & DiClemente, R. J. (2002). Reflections on emerging theories in
health promotion practice. In R. J. DiClemente, R. A. Crosby, & M. C. Kegler
(Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research
(pp. 386-395). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sussman, S., & Sussman, A. N. (2001). Praxis in health behavior program
development. In S. Sussman (Ed.). Handbook of program development for
health behavior research and practice. (Pp. 79-97).
Sage Publications, Inc.
trials that helped validate and shape the representation of the model
included applications by Cantor et al., 1985; Green, 1974; Green, Fisher, Amin,
& Shafiullah, 1975; Green, Levine, et al., 1979; Green, Wang, & Ephross, 1974;
Hatcher, Green, Levine, & Flagle, 1986; D. M. Levine et al., 1979; Mamon, Green,
Gibson, & Mackenzie, 1979; Morisky et al., 1980, 1983, 1985; Morisky, Levine,
Green, & Smith, 1982; Rimer, Keintz, & Fleisher, 1986; Sayegh & Green, 1976;
Wang et al., 1979. Some of the more recent trials and other tests and
applications of the model will be cited or described in later chapters of this
edition. For the bibliography of some 950 published applications and adaptations
of the model for various purposes, go to
156>23. Applications of the Model in local and state health
agencies (Brink, Simons-Morton, Parcel, &
Tiernan, 1988; Eriksen & Gielen, 1983; Gielen & Radius, 1984; Health Education Center, 1977; Hutsell et
al., 1986; National Association of County and City Health Officials, 2000;
Newman, Martin, & Weppner, 1982; PATCH, 1985; Taylor et al., 1998a,b; US
Department of Health and Human Services, 1996b. The U.S. federal adaptations
evolved from PRECEDE to PATCH to
APEX-PH to the latest adaptation, MAPP, currently under development and
testing by National Association of County and
City Health Officials, 2000, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. For a brief description of the latest iteration, the
Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships, go to the
and MAPP website).
Eriksen, M. P., and Gielen, A. C. (1983). The application of health education
principles to automobile child restraint programs. Health Education
Quarterly, 10, 30-55.
Hutsell, C.A., Meltzer, C.R., Lindsay, G. B., & McClain,
R. (1986). Creating an effective infrastructure within a state health
department for community health promotion: The Indiana PATCH experience. Journal of Health Education, 23, 164-66.
National Association of County and City Health Officials
departments take action: A compendium of state and local models addressing
racial and ethnic disparities in health.
Washington, DC, National Association of County and City Health Officials.
Taylor, SM, S
Elliott, & B Riley. (1998a). Heart health promotion: Predisposition,
capacity and implementation in Ontario public health units, 1994-96.
Canadian Journal of Public Health, 89 (6): 410-414.
S., Robinson, K. & Taylor. S. (1998b). Community-based heart health promotion:
Perceptions of facilitators and barriers. Canadian Journal of Public
Health, 89 (6): 406-409.
Applications of the Model in maternal and child health
Green, Wang, et al., 1978. The initial Precede
study on asthma education (Green, 1974) was first replicated with children in
a trial by Cohen, Harris & Green (1979) that produced results with
approximately the same 1-to-7 cost-benefit ratio in reduced emergency visits.
More recent adaptations of the Model in relation to maternal and child health
have included studies and projects on chronic diseases (e.g., Bartholomew et
al., 2000; Chiang et al., 2003; Downey et al., 1987; 1988; 1989; Fisher et
al., 1995); prenatal care (e.g., Covington, et al., 1998; Donovan, 1991;
Fraser et al., 1997; Olsen, 1994; Sword, 1999; Windsor et al., 1985; 1993;
2000); injury prevention (e.g., Farley, 1997; Eriksen & Gielen, 1983); dental
health (e.g., Frazier & Horowitz, 1990); breast feeding studies (Burglehaus,
et al., 1997; Williams, P. et al., 1999), child immunization (e.g., Deeds &
Freed et al., 1993), family planning (Sayegh &
Green, 1976; Sayegh & Mosely, 1976; J. L. Wu, et al., 2002), and a variety of school
health and other applications for youth (see Chapter 7) including a model for
physical activity promotion (Welk, 1999).
It is notable
that Windsor et al obtained a similar 1-to-7 cost-benefit ratio for smoking
cessation interventions for women in public prenatal clinics that had been
found in the early asthma education interventions with both adults and
children (Windsor et al., 1993, cf. Cohen, Harris & Green, 1979).
Bartholomew, L. K., Czyzewski, D. I. Swank, P. R., McCormick, L., & Parcel, G.
S. (2000). Maximizing the impact of the cystic fibrosis family education
program: Factors related to program diffusion. Family & Community Health
Burglehaus, M. J., Smith, L. A., Sheps, S. B., & Green, L. W. (1997).
Physicians and breastfeeding: Beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy and
counselling practices. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88: 383-387.
Huang, J., & Lu, C. (2003).
Educational diagnosis of self-management behaviors of parents with asthmatic
children by triagulation based on PRECEDE-PROCEED model in Taiwan. Patient
Education and Counseling, 49: 19-25.
Harris, C., & Green, L. W. (1979). Cost-benefit analysis of asthma
self-management educational programs in children. Journal of Allergy and
Clinical Immunology 64: 155-6. (1979).
L., Peoples-Sheps, M. D. , Buescher, P. A., Bennett, T. A. & Paul, M.V. (1998). An
evaluation of an adolescent prenatal education program. American Journal of
Health Behavior, 22 (5): 323-333.
G., and Gunatilake, S. (1989). Behavioural change strategies to enhance
child survival. Hygie (now Promotion & Education)
L. (1991). Factors predisposing, enabling and reinforcing routine screening
of patients for preventing fetal alcohol syndrome: A survey of New Jersey
physicians. Journal of Drug Education 21(1): 35-42.
Downey, A. M., Butcher, A. H., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., Miner, M. H.&
Berenson, G. S. (1987). Development and implementation of a school health
promotion program for reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in children
and prevention of adult coronary heart disease: 'Heart Smart'. In B. Hetzel
and G. S. Berenson, (eds.), Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood:
Epidemiology and Prevention. Amsterdam, NY & Oxford: Elsevier Science
Publishers B.V.), pp. 103-121.
Downey, A. M., Cresanta, J. L., & Berenson, G. S. (1989). Cardiovascular
Health Promotion in 'Heart Smart' and the Changing Role of Physicians.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 5(5):279-95.
(1997). Evaluation of a four-year bicycle helmet promotion campaign in
Quebec aimed at children ages 8 to 12: Impact on attitudes, norms and
behaviours. Canadian Journal of Public Health 88: 62-66.
Fisher, E.B., Strunk, R.C., Sussman, L.K., et al.(1995). Acceptability and
feasibility of a community approach to asthma management: The Neighborhood
Asthma Coalition (NAC), Journal of Asthma 33: 367-83.
Maunsell, E., Hodnett, E., & Moutquin, J-M. (1997). Childbirth Alternatives
Study Group. Randomized controlled trial of a prenatal vaginal birth after
cesarean section education and support program. American Journal of
Obstetrics & Gynecology 176: 419-425.
Horowitz, A. M. (1990). Oral health education and promotion in maternal and
child health--A position paper. Journal of Public Health Dentistry
L., Bordley, W. C. & Defriese, G. H. (1993). Childhood immunization
programs: An analysis of policy issues. The Milbank Quarterly, 71(1):
Olson, C. M. (1994). Promoting positive nutritional practices during
pregnancy and lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sword, W. (1999). A socio-ecological approach to understanding barriers to
prenatal care for women of low income. Journal of Advanced Nursing
29 (5): 1170-1177.
& Mosley, W. H. (1976). The effectiveness of family planning education on
acceptance of contraception by postpartum mothers. Johns Hopkins Medical
Journal 139: Dec. suppl. 31-7.
Welk, G.J. (1999). The Youth Physical Activity
Promotion Model: A conceptual bridge between theory and Practice. Quest
L., Innis, S. M., Vogel, A. M. P., & Stephen, L. J. (1999). Factors
influencing infant feeding practices of mothers in Vancouver. Canadian
Journal of Public Health 90(2): 114-119.
Windsor, R. A., Cutter,
Morris, J., Reese,
Adams, B., & Bartlett,
Effectiveness of self-help smoking cessation interventions for pregnant
women in public health maternity clinics: A randomized trial. American
Journal of Public Health 75:1389-1392.
Windsor, R., Lowe,
J., Perkins, L., et al (1993).
Health Education Methods for Pregnant Smokers: Behavioral Impact and
Cost-Benefit. American Journal of Public Health, 83(2): 201-6.
Windsor, R., Woodby,
L., Miller, T. et al (2000).
Effectiveness of AHCPR Clinical Practice Guideline and Patient Education
Methods for Pregnant Smokers in Medicaid Maternity Care.
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 182(1 Pt 1):
Wu, J. L.,
Wang, L. H., Rauyajin, O., et al. (2002). Contraceptive use behavior among
nevewr married young women who are seeking pregnancy termination in Beijing.
Chinese Medical Journal-Peking 115: 851-855.
158>25. Applications of the Model in developing or
reviewing national policies in health promotion and disease prevention.
Danforth & Swaboda, 1978; Green, 1978a;
1980; 1983; 1986c; Green, Wilson, & Bauer, 1983; Kreuter, 1992; Mercer et
al., 2003; U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 1981; 1988,
esp. section D.
Danforth, N., &
Swaboda, B. (1978). Agency for International Development Health
Education Study. Washington, D.C.: Westinghouse Health Systems, March
Green, L. W. (1978a). Determining the impact and effectiveness of health
education as it relates to federal policy. Health Education Monographs
Green, L. W. (1980).
"Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report and the prospects," in W. J.
McNerney (Ed.) Working for a Healthier America. Cambridge, MA:
Ballinger, pp. 95-110.
Green, L. W. (1983). New policies in education for health, World Health
Green, L.W. (1986c). The theory of participation: A qualitative analysis of
its expression in national and international health policies, in Advances
in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 1, Pt. A, W. B. Ward, ed.
(Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.), pp. 211-236.
Green, L. W.,
Wilson, R. W. & Bauer, K. G. (1983). Data required to measure progress on
the Objectives for the Nation in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
American Journal of Public Health, 73, 18-24.
M.W. (1992). PATCH: Its origin, basic concepts, and links to
contemporary public health policy. Journal of Health Education
Mercer, S. L., Green, L. W., Rosenthal, A. C., Husten, C. G., Khan, L. K.,
Dietz, W. H. (2003).
Possible lessons from the tobacco experience for obesity control.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77 (4): 1073S-1082S Suppl. S
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1981). Promoting Health in
Special Populations (Washington, D.C.: Office of Disease Prevention and
Health Promotion); reprinted (1987) Journal of Public Health Policy
159>26. Applications of the model in injury prevention
and control, including suicide prevention, occupational injuries,
recreational injuries, automobile injuries, and other child injuries:
National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control, 1989; Gielen &
McDonald, 2002. For specific applications in child injury prevention and
control, see Becker, H. et al., 1998; Eriksen & Gielen, 1983; Farthing,
1994; Gielen, 1992;
Gielen & Radius, 1984; Hendrickson, & Becker, 1998; Howat, et al., 1997;
Jones & Macrina, 1993; for a study of recreational injury applying the
Model, Cadman, 1996; for studies and interventions in occupational settings,
see Calabro et al., 1998; Dedobbeleer & German, 1987; DeJoy,
1986a,b,c; 1990; 1996; DeJoy et al., 1995; Reichelt, 1995; and for
applications in automobile injury prevention, Simons-Morton, Brink,
Simons-Morton, et al., 1989; Sleet, 1987. For a review applying the Model on
suicide prevention among indigenous youth , see V. Clark, Frankish, & Green,
Hendrickson, S. L., & Shaver, L. (1998). Nonurban parental beliefs about
childhood injury and bicycle safety. American Journal of Health
Behavior 22: 218-27.
R. (1996). Ski injury prevention - An epidemiological investigation of
the social, behavioural, and environmental determinants of
injury. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia,
Calabro, K., Weltge,
A., Parnell, S., Kouzekanani, K. & Ramirez, E. (1998). Intervention for
medical students: Effective infection control. American Journal of
Infection Control, 26: 431-436.
V., Frankish, C. J., & Green, L. W. (1995). Understanding suicide among
indigenous adolescents: A review using the Precede model. Injury
Prevention 3: 126-134, 1997
Dedobbeleer N., & German, P. (1987). Safety practices in construction
industry. Journal of Occupational Medicine 29:863-868.
M. (1986a). Behavioral-diagnostic model for self-protective behavior in
the workplace. Professional Safety 31:26-30.
(1986b). Behavioral-diagnostic analysis of compliance with hearing
protectors. Proceedings of the 30th Meeting of the Human Factors
Society, Vol. II (pp. 1433-1437). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors
M. (1986c). A behavioral-diagnostic model for fostering self-protective
behavior in the workplace. In Karwowski (ed.), Trends in Ergonomics
and Human Factors III, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
M. (1990) Toward a comprehensive human factors model of workplace accident
causation. Professional Safety 35:11-16.
M. (1996). Theoretical models of health behavior and workplace
self-protective behavior. Journal of Safety Research, 27
D. M., Murphy, L. R., & Gershon, R. M. (1995). The influence of employee,
job/task, and organizational factors on adherence to universal precautions
among nurses. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 16:
Farthing, Marilyn. (1994). Health education needs
of a Hutterite Colony. The Canadian Nurse/L'Infirmiere Canadienne
C. (1992). Health education and injury control: Integrating approaches.
Health Education Quarterly 19: 203-18.
A.C., & McDonald, E. M. (2002). Using PRECEDE/PROCEED to apply health
behavior theories in health promotion program planning. In K. Glanz, , B.
K. Rimer, & F. M. Lewis (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education:
Theory, Research and Practice (3rd edition). San Francisco:
Gielen, A. C. and
Radius, S. (1984). Project KISS (Kids in Safety Belts): Educational
approaches and evaluation measures. Health Education 15
Hendrickson, S. G., & Becker, H. (1998). Impact of a theory-based
intervention to increase bicycle helmet use in low income children.
Injury Prevention, 4: 126-131
Jones, S., Hall, M., Cross, D., & Stevenson, M. (1997). The
PRECEDE-PROCEED model: Application to planning a child pedestrian injury
prevention program. Injury Prevention 3(4): 282-7.
Jones, C. S., & Macrina, D. (1993). Using the PRECEDE Model to design and
implement a bicycle helmet campaign. Wellness Perspectives: Research,
Theory and Practice 9:68-95.
for Injury Prevention and Control (1989). Injury Prevention: Meeting
the Challenge. New York: Oxford University Press. Printed as a
supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5(3).
P. A. (1995). Musculoskeletal injury: ergonomics and physical fitness in
firefighters. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 10:
Simons-Morton, B. G., Brink, S. G.,. Simons-Morton, D. G et al. (1989). An
ecological approach to the prevention of injuries due to drinking and
driving. Health Education Quarterly 16: 397-411.
Sleet, D. A. (1987). Health education approaches to motor vehicle injury
prevention. Public Health Reports 102: 606-8.
160>27. Applications of the Model in chronic lung diseases.
Deeds, S. G., Apson, J. R., &
Bertera, R. (1979). Steps to lung health education programming.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Health Services Research and Development Center and
School of Public Health, Division of Health Education, for American Lung
Green, L.W. (1987b). Program
planning and evaluation guide for Lung Associations. New York: American Lung
Iverson, D. C., & Scheer, J. K.
(1982). School-based cancer education programs: An opportunity to affect the
national cancer problem. Health Values: Achieving High Level Wellness, 6(3):
Wang, V. L., P. Terry, B. S.
Flynn, et al. (1979). Multiple indicators of continuing medical education
priorities for chronic lung diseases in Appalachia. Journal of Medical
Education 54: 803-811.
161>28. Applications of the Model in planning and evaluation
of the American Cancer Society’s and National Cancer Institute’s “Changing the
Course” nutrition education curriculum and broader youth education
(Contento et al., 1992; Corcoran & Portnoy, 1989; Light & Contento, 1989).
Contento, I. R., Kell, D. G.,
Keiley, M. K., & Corcoran, R. D. (1992). A formative evaluation of the American
Cancer Society Changing the Course nutrition education curriculum.
Journal of School Health 62: 411-416.
Corcoran, R. D., & Portnoy, B.
(1989). Risk reduction through comprehensive cancer education: The American
Cancer Society Plan for Youth Education. Journal of School Health 59:
Light, L. & I. Contento, R.(1989). Changing the Course: A school nutrition and cancer education program by
the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute," Journal of
School Health 59: 205-9.
162>29. Applications in development of curriculum for nurses’
education and standards, and assessment of primary care practices for purposes
of planning continuing education and training for nurses and allied health
personnel (Bennett, 1977; Berland et al., 1995; Canadian Council of
Cardiovascular Nurses, 1993; Cretain, 1989; DeJoy, Murphy et al., 1995; Macrina
et al., 1996; Mahloch et al., 1993; Mann, Viscount, et al., 1996; Miilunpalo et
al., 1995; Morrison, 1996; Shamian & Edgar, 1987; Shine et al., 1983; Simpson &
Pruitt, 1989; Smith, Danis & Helmick, 1998; Whyte & Berland, 1993).
Bennett, B. I. (1977). A model for
teaching health education skills to primary care practitioners. International
Journal of Health Education 20: 232-9.
Berland, A., Whyte, N. B., &
Maxwell, L. (1995). Hospital nurses and health promotion. Canadian Journal of
Nursing Research 27: 13-31.
Canadian Council of Cardiovascular
Nurses (1993). Standards for cardiovascular health education. Ottawa:
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.
Cretain, G. K. (1989).
Motivational factors in breast self-examination: implications for nurses.
Cancer Nursing 12: 250-256.
DeJoy, D. M., Murphy, L. R., &
Gershon, R. M. (1995). The influence of employee, job/task, and organizational
factors on adherence to universal precautions among nurses. International
Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 16: 43-55.
Macrina, D., Macrina, N., Horvath,
C., Gallaspy, J., & Fine, P. R. (1996). An educational intervention to increase
use of the Glasgow Coma Scale by emergency department personnel.
International Journal of Trauma Nursing 2: 7-12.
Mahloch, J., Taylor, V., Taplin,
S., & Urban, N. (1993). A breast cancer screening educational intervention
targeting medical office staff. Health Education Research 8: 567-579.
Mann, K. V., Viscount, P. W.,
Cogdon, A., Davidson, K., Languille, D. B., & Maccara, M. E. (1996).
Multidisciplinary learning in continuing professional education: the heart
health Nova Scotia experience. Journal of Continuing Education in the
Health Professions 16: 50-60.
Miilunpalo, S., Jukka, L., & Ilkka,
V. (1995). Strengths and weaknesses in health counseling in Finnish primary
health care. Patient Education and Counseling 25: 317-328.
Morrison, C. (1996). Using PRECEDE
to predict breast self-examination in older, lower-income women. American
Journal of Health Behavior 20(2): 3-14.
Shamian, J., & Edgar, L. (1987).
Nurses as agents for change in teaching breast self-examination. Public
Health Nursing 4: 29-34.
Shine, M. S., Silva, M. C., &
Weed, F. S. (1983). Integrating health education into baccalaureate nursing
education. Journal of Nursing Education 22: 22-7.
Simpson, G. W., & Pruitt, B. E.
(1989). The development of health promotion teams as related to wellness
programs in Texas schools. Health Education 20: 26-8.
Smith, P. H., Danis, M., & Helmick,
L. C. (1998) Changing the health care response to battered women: A health
education approach. Family & Community Health 20: 1-18.
Whyte, N., & Berland, A. (1993).
The role of hospital nurses in health promotion: A collaborative survey of
British Columbia hospital nurses. Vancouver: Registered Nurses Assn. of
British Columbia and Vancouver General Hosp., Pub.28. [See summary: Health
promotion in acute care settings: Redefining a nursing tradition. Nursing BC
March-April, 1994, pp. 21-22.]
163>30. Applications of the
with pharmacists and pharmacy interventions (Fedder,
1982; Fedder & Beardsley, 1979; Hill, 1990; Mann, Viscount et al., 1996;
Opdycke et al., 1992; Paluck, 1998; Paluck, Green et al., 2002; Paluck,
Haverkamp et al., 2004; Wallenius, 1995).
Fedder, D. O. (1982). Managing medication and
compliance: Physician-pharmacist-patient interactions. Journal American
Geriatric Society 11 (Suppl.): 113-7.
Fedder, D. and Beardsley, R. (1979). Preparing pharmacy patient educators.
American Journal of Pharmacy Education 43: 127-9.
(1990). Patient education--What to teach patients with rheumatic disease.
Journal of the Royal Society of Health 110: 204-207.
Mann, K. V., Viscount, P. W., Cogdon, A., Davidson, K., Languille, D. B., &
Maccara, M. E. (1996). Multidisciplinary learning in continuing professional
education: the heart health Nova Scotia experience. Journal of
Continuing Education in the Health Professions 16: 50-60.
Opdycke, R. A.
C., Ascione, F. J., Shimp, L. A., & Rosen, R. I. (1992). A systematic
approach to educating elderly patients about their medications. Patient
Education and Counseling 19: 43-60.
Paluck, E. C. M. (1998). Pharmacist-client communication: A study of
quality and client satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Paluck, E. C., Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., Fielding, D.W., &
Haverkamp, B. (2003). Assessment of communication barriers in community
pharmacies. Evaluation and the Health Professions. In press for Dec 2003
Paluck, E.C., Haverkamp, B., Frankish,
C.J., Fielding, D.W., Green, L.W. (2004). Pharmacist-client communication: An
investigation into the relationship between client and expert ratings.
Wallenius, S. H. (1995).
Self-initiated modification of hypertension treatment in response to perceived
problems. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 29: 1213-1217.
166>31. Applications of the Model in training and support
for behavioral medicine (Altman
& Green, 1988; Glanz &
Oldenburg, 1997; D. M. Levine & Green, 1981), school health (Fisher,
Green, McCrae, & Cochran, 1976; Higgins & MacDonald, 1992; MacDonald &
Green, 2001; Simpson & Pruitt, 1989), dieticians (McKell,
1994; 1996), other
allied health (Bennett, 1977; Goldenhar
et al., 2001; Mann et al., 1996), and public health personnel
(Green, 1981; Ottoson, 1995; 1997; 1998;
Ransdell et al., 2000; US Department of Health and Human Services, 1996)
and volunteers (Adeyanju,
1987-88; Bird et al., 1996; DePue et al., 1987; Ward, Levine et al., 1982).
Adeyanju, O. M. (1987-88). A community-based health education analysis of
an infectious disease control program in Nigeria. International Quarterly
of Community Health Education, 8, 263-279.
Altman, D. G., & Green, L. W. (1988). Area review: Education and training in
behavioral medicine. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 10: 4-7.
Bennett, B. I. (1977). A model for teaching health
education skills to primary care practitioners. International Journal of
Health Education 20: 232-9.
Bird, J. A.,
Otero-Sabogal, R., Ha, N.-T., & McPhee, S. J. (1996). Tailoring lay health
worker interventions for diverse cultures: lessons learned from Vietnamese
and Latina communities. Health Education and Behavior, 23 (Suppl.),
D., Wells, B. L., Lasater, T. M., & Carleton, R. A. (1987). Training
volunteers to conduct heart health programs in churches. American Journal
of Preventive Medicine 3: 51-57.
Fisher, A., Green, L. W., McCrae, A., & Cochran, C. (1976). Training
teachers in population education institutes in Baltimore. Journal of
School Health 46: 357-60.
Glanz, K., &
Oldenburg, B. (1997). Relevance of health behavior research to health
promotion and health education. Chapter 8 in D. S. Gochman (Ed.),
Handbook of Health Behavior Research IV: Relevance for professionals and
issues for the future (pp. 143-161). New York: Plenum Press,
Goldenhar, L. M., LaMontagne, A. D., Katz, T., Heaney, C., & Landsbergis,
The intervention research process in occupational safety and health: An
overview from the national occupational research agenda intervention
effectiveness research team. Journal of Occupational and
Environmental Medicine, 43: 616-622.
Green, L. W.
(1981). The objectives for the nation in disease prevention and health
promotion: A challenge to health education training. Keynote address for
National conference for institutions preparing health educators:
Proceedings (pp. 61‑73). Washington, DC: US Office of Health
Information and Health Promotion, DHHS Publication No. 81‑50171.
W. & MacDonald, M. (1992). The School-Based Prevention Model: A training
handbook. Victoria, BC: Alcohol and Drug Programs, British Columbia
Ministry of Health.
MacDonald, M. A., & Green, L. W. (2001).
Reconciling concept and context: The dilemma of implementation in
school-based health promotion. Health Education & Behavior 28:
Mann, K. V., Viscount, P. W., Cogdon, A., Davidson, K., Languille, D. B., &
Maccara, M. E. (1996). Multidisciplinary learning in continuing
professional education: the heart health Nova Scotia experience. Journal
of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 16: 50-60.
J. (1994). A profile of the New Brunswick Association of
Dietitions: Results of the Educational Needs Assessment Survey, 1993.
Fredericton, NB: New Brunswick Health and Community Services and Health
J. (1996). Establishing partnerships to enhance the preventive practices of
dietitians. Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association 57: 12-17.
M. (1998). The role of contextual variables in the application of community
training in substance abuse prevention. XVI World Conference on Health
Promotion and Health Education. San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 21-26, 1998.
Abstracts Book (pp. 26-27). San Juan: Graduate School of Public Health,
Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico.
Ransdell, L. B. (2001).
Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to increase productivity in health education
faculty. International Electronic Journal of Health Education
Simpson, G. W., & Pruitt, B. E. (1989). The development
of health promotion teams as related to wellness programs in Texas schools.
Health Education 20: 26-8.
Department of Health and Human Services. Planned Approach to Community
Health: Guide for the local coordinator.
GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and
Health Promotion, 1996. Last updated 2003, see
Ward, W. B.,
Levine, D. M., Morisky, D., Bone, L. R., Ward, E., Soff, G., & McKinney, R.
(1982). Controlling high blood pressure in inner city Baltimore through
community health education. In R. W. Carlaw (Ed.). Perspectives on
Community Health Education: A Series of Case Studies. Vol 1: United States
(pp. 73-79). Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing Co.
165>32. Applications of the Model with the study
of physicians' behavior (Battista et al., 1986; Burglehaus, et al.,
1997; Cheng, et al., 1999; Costanza, 1992;
Desnick et al., 1999; Donovan,
Green, 1999b; Heywood et al., 1996;
Hiddink, et al., 1995; 1997a-d;
1999; Laitakari et al., 1997; Langille et al., 1997; Mann & Putnam,
1989; 1990; Mirand et al., 2002; Walsh & McPhee, 1992),
education, dissemination and translation (Bertram & Brooks-Bertram,
1977; Davis, Thomson et al.,
1995; Lomas, 1993; Mann, 1994; Mann, Lindsay et al., 1996; Mann, Putnam et
al., 1990; Wang et al., 1979), and
physician action in preventive health care practices (Bartlett, 1982;
Clearie et al., 1982; Cooke, 1995;
Downey, Cresanta, & Berenson,
1989; Green, 1987a; 1999b; Green, Cargo & Ottoson, 1994; Green, Eriksen, &
Schor, 1988; Haber, 1994; Herbert, 1999; Levine et al., 1979; 1987; Li et
al., 1984; Maiburg et al., 1999; Makrides et al., 1997).
Studies of physicians' practices using parts of the Precede Model
Battista, R. N., Williams, J. L., & MacFarlane, L. A. (1986). Determinants
of primary medical practice in adult cancer prevention. Medical Care
Burglehaus, M. J., Smith, L. A., Sheps, S. B., & Green, L. W. (1997).
Physicians and breastfeeding: Beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy and
counselling practices. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88: 383-387.
Cheng, T. L., DeWitt, T. G., Savageau, J. A., & O’Connor, K. G. (1999).
Determinants of counseling in primary care pediatric practice. Archives
of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 153: 629-635.
E. (1992). Physician compliance with mammography guidelines: Barriers and
enhancers. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 5(2):
Taplin, S., Taylor, V., Coole, D., & Urban, N. (1999). Clinical breast
examination in primary care: Perceptions and predictors among three
specialties. Journal of Women’s Health 8: 389-397.
Donovan, C. L. (1991). Factors predisposing, enabling and reinforcing
routine screening of patients for preventing fetal alcohol syndrome: A
survey of New Jersey physicians. Journal of Drug Education 21: 35-42.
Green, L. W.
(1999b). What can we generalize from research on patient education and
clinical health promotion to physician counseling on diet? European
Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (Suppl. 2): S9-S18.
Firman, D., Sanson-Fisher, R., & Mudge, P. (1996). Correlates of physician
counseling associated with obesity and smoking. Preventive Medicine
J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., van’t Hof,
M. A. (1995). Nutrition guidance by primary-care physicians: perceived
barriers and low involvement. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., & Fieren, C. J. (1997a).
Consumers' expectations about nutrition guidance: the importance of primary
care physicians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(suppl):1974S-1995S.
J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., & van’t Hof,
M. A. (1997b). Driving forces for and barriers to nutrition guidance
practices of Dutch primary care physicians. Journal of Nutrition
Education, 29 (1), 36-41.
J. , Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., & van't
Hof, M. A. (1997c). Information sources and strategies of nutrition guidance
used by primary care physicians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,
J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. E. J., Fieren, C. J. & van’t Hof,
M. A. (1997d). Nutrition guidance by primary-care physicians: LISREL
analysis improves understanding. Preventive Medicine, 26: 29-36.
J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., van’t Hof, M. A., & Fieren,
C. J. (1999). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of nutrition
guidance by primary care physicians. European Journal of Clinical
Nutrition 53 (Suppl. 2): S35-S43.
J, Miilunpalo, S., & Vuori, I. (1997). The process and methods of health
counseling by primary health care personnel in Finland: a national survey.
Patient Education and Counseling 30: 61-70.
Langille, D. B., Mann, K. V., Gailiunas, P. N. (1997). Primary care
physicians’ perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and STD prevention practices
in a Nova Scotia county. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 13:
& Putnam, R.W. (1989). Physicians' perceptions of their role in
cardiovascular risk reduction. Preventive Medicine 18: 45-58.
Mann, K. V.,
& Putnam, R. W. (1990). Barriers to prevention: physician perceptions of
ideal versus actual practices in reducing cardiovascular risk. Canadian
Family Physician 36: 665-670.
Mirand, A. L.,
Beehler, G. P., Kuo, C. L., and Mahoney, M. C. (2002).
Physician perceptions of primary prevention: qualitative base for the
conceptual shaping of a practice intervention tool. BioMed Central
Public Health, 2(1): 16.
Walsh, J. M. E. & McPhee, S. J. (1992). A systems model of clinical
preventive care: An analysis of factors influencing patient and physician.
Health Education Quarterly 19:157-175.
education, dissemination and translation, using the Precede Model
Bertram, D. A., & Brooks-Bertram, P. A. (1977). The evaluation of continuing
medical education: A literature review. Health Education Monographs
A., Thomson, M. A., Oxman, A. D., & Haynes, R. B.. (1995). Changing
physician performance: A systematic review of the effect of continuing
medical education strategies. Journal of the American Medical Association
(1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: Who should do what? In
K. S. Warren & F. Mosteller (Eds.). Doing more good than harm: The
evaluation of health care interventions (pp. 226-237). New York:
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 703. Also in: Lomas, J.
(1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: who should do what?
Annals New York
Academy of Sciences
(1994). Educating medical students: lessons from research in continuing
education. Academic Medicine 69: 41-47.
Mann, K. V., Lindsay, E. A., Putnam, R. W., & Davis, D. A. (1996).
Increasing physician involvement in cholesterol-lowering practices.
Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 16: 225-240.
Mann, K. V.,
Putman, R. W., Lindsay, E. A. & Davis, D. A. (1990). Cholesterol: Decreasing
the Risk. An educational program for physicians. Journal of Continuing
Education in the Health Professions, 10: 211-222.
Wang, V. L., Terry, P.,
& Flynn, B. S., et al. (1979). Multiple indicators of continuing medical
education priorities for chronic lung diseases in Appalachia, Journal of
Medical Education 54, 803-811.
Guidelines for physician action in preventive health care practices
based on PRECEDE
Bartlett, E. E. (1982).
Behavioral diagnosis: A practical approach to patient education,
Patient Counselling and Health Education 4: 29-35, 1982.
Clearie, A. F., Blair, S. N., & Ward, W. B. (1982). The role of the
physician in health promotion: Findings from a community telephone survey.
The Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association 78: 503-505.
Cooke, B. E.
M. (1995). Health promotion, health protection, and preventive services.
Primary Care 22: 555-564.
M., Cresanta, J. L., & Berenson, G. S. (1989). Cardiovascular health
promotion in 'Heart Smart' and the changing role of physicians. American
Journal of Preventive Medicine 5: 279-95.
Green, L. W. (1987a). How physicians can improve patients' participation and
maintenance in self-care. Western Journal of Medicine 147: 346-9.
Green, L. W.,
Eriksen, M. P., & Schor, E. L.(1988). Preventive practices by
physicians: Behavioral determinants and potential interventions. American
Journal of Preventive Medicine 4 (suppl. 4, 1988): 101-7, reprinted in
R. N. Battista and R. S. Lawrence, (Eds.), Implementing Preventive
Services. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988; pp. 101-7.
Green, L.W., Cargo, M., and Ottoson, J. M. (1994). The role of physicians in
supporting lifestyle changes. Medicine, exercise, nutrition and health
3: 119-130. Also in Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting of
the Society of Prospective Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, April 15-17,
1993. Indianapolis, IN: Society of Prospective Medicine, Publishers, 1993,
D. (1994). Medical screenings and health assessments. In D. Haber (Ed.),
Health Promotion and Aging (pp.41-76). New York, NY: Springer
Herbert, C. P. (1999). Editorial. Should physicians assess lifestyle risk
factors routinely? Canadian Medical Association Journal 160:
M., Fedder, D. O., Green, L. W., McClellan, W., Roccella, E. J., Saunders,
E., Simonds, S. K., Weiss, S., and Winston, M. (National High Blood Pressure
Education Program Working Group on Health Education in High Blood Pressure
Control). (1987). The physician's guide: Improving adherence among
hypertensive patients. Bethesda: National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Institute, National Institutes of Health.
Levine, D. M., Green, L. W., Russell, R. P., Morisky, D., Chwalow, A. J.,
and Benson, P. (1979). Compliance in hypertension management: what the
physician can do. Practical Cardiology 5:151-160.
Li, V. C.,
Coates, T. J., Spielberg, L. A., et al. (1984). Smoking cessation with young
women in public family planning clinics: The impact of physician messages
and waiting room media. Preventive Medicine 13: 477-89.
Maiburg, H. J. S., Hiddink, G. J., van’t Hof, M. A., Rethans, J. J., & van
Ree, J. W. (1999). The NECTAR-Study: development of nutrition modules for
general practice vocational training; determinants of nutrition guidance
practices of GP-trainees. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (Suppl.
L., Veinot, P. L., Richard, J., Allen, M. J. (1997). Primary care physicians
and coronary heart disease prevention: a practice model. Patient
Education & Counseling 32: 207-217.
33. A note
about this website.
The website at
http://www.lgreen.net organizes these
endnotes in such a way that the reader can use the web pages side-by-side
with the book to look up references via links rather than having to page
back-and-forth between text, endnotes, and references. Many of the
references will also be hyperlinked in this website to their abstract or
online full-text articles or other documents. Many other hyperlinks are
found in the website that are not listed in this book to minimize the
problem of changing URLs and the need for the reader to type in complicated
34. Quantified health objectives. The most widely
known and influential of such objectives have been the
exercises undertaken in several countries (e.g., the U.S., Australia, the U.K.;
see McGinnis, 1990; Nutbeam, Wise et al., 1993; Nutbeam & Wise, 1996; Green,
1980; 1991) to specify national health priorities in
the form of goals and targets. The U.S. version of these (U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, 1981a; 1991; 2000) has been the most dynamic and
durable, having been first formulated in 1979-81 as part of the "Healthy People"
initiative, following on the broad goals set in the first Surgeon General's
Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (McGinnis,
1982; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1979). Buchanan (2000,
pp. 37-42) discusses the logic of the U.S. objectives, as "originally
articulated" in a variation of the Precede-Proceed model (Green, 1980; Green,
Wilson, & Bauer, 1983). In a later chapter, however, Buchanan takes sharp issue
with this approach to health, recommending instead a participatory and
values-based approach, but failing to acknowledge that the two are not mutually
exclusive (Buchanan, 2000, esp. pp. 133-138). The Precede-Proceed model, as our
next chapter will emphasize, begins with, and retains throughout (as did the
Healthy People process in each decade; e.g., U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, 1981b), a participatory approach, while also striving for an objective
specification of goals and targets. Another critique of the goals and targets
approach as represented by the Healthy People series in the U.S. is the
proliferation of objectives (226 in the 1980-1990 round, now several hundred
more in the 2000-2010 round). Sultz & Young (2004, p. 55) take particular issue
with the continued growth in the number of objectives even as we failed to meet
85 percent of the Healthy People 2000 targets.
Buchanan, D. R. (2000). An ethic for health promotion:
Rethinking the sources of human well-being. New York: Oxford University
Green, L. W. (1980).
Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report and the prospects. In W. J. McNerney (Ed.) Working for a Healthier America
Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Green, L. W. (1991). Preface. In Healthy people 2000: National health
promotion and disease prevention objectives (pp. vii-xi). Sudbury,
MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Inc.
Green, L. W., Wilson, R. W. & Bauer, K. G. (1983). Data required to measure
progress on the Objectives for the Nation in Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion. American Journal of Public Health, 73: 18-24.
McGinnis, J. M. (1982). Targeting progress in health. Public Health Reports
McGinnis, J. M. (1990). Setting objectives for public health in the 1990s:
Experience and prospects. Annual Review of Public Health 11: 231-49.
Nutbeam, D. & Wise, M. (1996). Planning for Health for
All: International experience in setting health goals and targets. Health
Promotion International 11: 219-226.
Nutbeam, D., Wise, M., Bauman, A., Harris, E. &. Leeder, S. (1993). Goals
and Targets for
Australia's Health in
the Year 2000 and Beyond.
International Specialized Books Services; also published by
Australian Government Publishing Service.
Sultz, H. A. & Young, K. M. (2004). Health care USA:
Understanding Its organization and delivery, 4th edition.
Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. See Chap. 2 online at:
U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1979). Healthy People:
Surgeon General's report on health promotion and disease prevention.
Washington, DC: Public Health Service, DHEW-PHS-79-55071.
of Health and Human Services (1981a). Promoting health, preventing disease:
objectives for the nation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, PHS.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1981b).
Promoting Health in
Washington, D.C.: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); reprinted
(1987) Journal of Public Health Policy 8: 369-423.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1991). Healthy People 2000 . Washington,
DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Public Health Service; also
published as Healthy People 2000: National health promotion and disease
prevention objectives, full report, with commentary. Boston: Jones and
Bartlett Publishers, 1992.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Healthy People 2010.
Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Public
Importance of participation of ultimate recipients or beneficiaries of programs
in planning those programs, or adapting them to their localities and culture
(Chavis & Wandersman, 1990; Church et al., 2002; Green, 1986c; Green &
Shoveller, 2000; Kreuter, 1984;
Macrina & O'Rourke, 1986-87;
Wandersman & Florin, 2000;
Wharf Higgins, 2002;
Wharf Higgins et al., 1999). Some good examples of the
application of the principle of participation employing the Precede-Proceed
model include Cain et al., 2001; Castilla y Leon, 1993; Dewar et al., 2003;
Fisher et al., 1995; Herbert & White, 1996; Howat et al., 2001; Renaud & Mannoni,
1997. For contrary views and caveats on participation, see Cooke &
Kothari, 2001; Crenson & Ginsberg, 2002; Green, 2000).
Cain, R. E., Schyulze, R. W., & Preston, D. B. (2001). Developing a
partnership for HIV primary prevention for men at high risk for HIV infection
in rural communities. Promotion and Education: International Journal
of Health Promotion and Education 8: 75-78.
Castilla y Leon, Junta de (1993). Plan Sectorial de Educacion Para La Salud.
Madrid: Graficas Don Bosco, Arganda del Rey.
Chavis, D. M. & Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of community in the urban
environment: A catalyst for participation and community development.
American Journal of Community Psychology 18: 55-81.
Church, J., Saunders, D., Wanke, M., Pong, R., Spooner,
C., & Dorgan, M. (2002). Citizen participation in health decision-making: Past
experience and future prospects. Journal of Public Health Policy 23,
Cooke, B., & Kothari, U. (Eds.). (2001).
Participation: The new tyranny? London, New York: Zed Books.
Crenson, M. A., & Ginsberg, B. (2002). Downsizing
democracy: How America sidelined its citizens and privatized it public.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dewar, A., White, M., Toros, P. S., & Dillon, W. (2003). Using nominal group technique to assess chronic
pain patients' perceived challenges and needs to enhance better targeted services in a community health region.
Health Expectations 6: 44-52.
Fisher, E. B., Strunk, R. C., Sussman, L. K.,
Arfken, C., Sykes, R. K., Munor, J.
M., Haywood, S., Harrison, D., & Bascom, S.
and feasibility of a community approach to asthma management: The Neighborhood
Asthma Coalition (NAC). Journal of Asthma 33: 367-83.
Green, L.W. (1986c). The theory of participation: A qualitative analysis of its
expression in national and international health policies. In W. B. Ward, ed.Advances
in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 1, Pt. A, pp. 211-36. Greenwich,
CT: JAI Press Inc.
Green, L. W. (2000). In praise of partnerships: Caveats on coalitions. Health
Promotion Practice, 1, 64-5.
Green, L.W., & Shoveller, J. A. (2000).
Local versus central influences in planning for community health. In R. F.
Woollard, & A. S. Ostry (Eds.). Fatal consumption: Rethinking sustainable
development pp. 166-196. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia
Herbert, R., &
White, R. (1996). Healthy hearts at work: Prince Edward Island Heart Health
Program CSC Worksite Pilot Project. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular
Nursing 7(2): 12-18.
Howat, P., Cross, D., Hall, M., Iredell, H., Stevenson, M., Gibbs, S.,
Officer, J., Dillon, J., et al. (2001). Community participation in road
safety: barriers and enablers. Journal of Community Health. 26:
Kreuter, M. W. (1984). Health promotion: The public health role in the community
of free exchange. Health Promotion Monographs, no. 4. New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University.
Macrina, D. M., & O'Rourke, T. W. (1986-87). Citizen participation in
health planning in the U. S. and the U. K.: Implications for health education
strategies. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 7:
Renaud, L., & Mannoni, C. (1997). Etude sur la participation des parents dans les activites
scolaires ou parascolaires [Study of parental participation in curricular and
extracurricular activities]. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88:
Schwab, M., & Syme, S. L. (1997). On paradigms, community participation, and the
future of public health. American Journal of Public Health 87: 2049-50.
Wandersman, A., & Florin, P. (2000). Citizen participation and community
organizations. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.). Handbook of community
psychology (pp. 247-272). New York: Academic/Plenum.
Wharf Higgins, J. (2002). Participation in community health planning. In L.
Breslow, et al. Encyclopedia of Public Health, vol. 5. (pp. 890-891).
New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
J., Vertinsky, P., Cutt, J., & Green, L. W. (1999). Using social marketing as
a theoretical framework to understand citizen participation in health
promotion. Social Marketing Quarterly, 5, 42-55.
Federalism, state or provincial
rights, and local authority in regulating health:
Ottoson, 1999, pp. 589-593.
85>37. Community as most appropriate center of
gravity for planning health programs, but not to exclusion of state and
national levels of support needed to communities, or of institutional and family
levels of support to individuals:
Bracht, 1998; Green,
1990; Green & Raeburn, 1990; Halverson et al., 1996; Mays, Miller, & Halverson,
2000; Patton & Cissell, 1989; Rivo et al., 1991; Roussos & Fawcett, 2000;
Sanchez, 2000; Wickizer, Wagner, & Perrin, 1998..
Bracht, N. F., ed. (1998). Health promotion at the community level: New
advances, 2nd ed. New York: Sage.
Green, L. W. (1990). The revival of community and the obligation of academic
health centers to the public. In R. J. Bulger, S. J. Reiser, & R. E. Bulger
(Eds.). Institutional values and human environments for teaching, inquiry and
healing (pp. 148-164). Des Moines: University of Iowa Press.
Green, L. W., and Raeburn, J.(1990).
Contemporary developments in health promotion: Definitions and challenges. In
N. Bracht (Ed.). Health promotion at the community level (pp.
29-44).Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Halverson, P. K., Miller, C. A., Kaluzny, A. D., Fried,
B. J., Richards, T. B., & Schenck, S. E. (1996). Performing public health
functions: The perceived contributions of public health and other community
organizations. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration 6,
Mays, G. P., Miller, C. A., & Halverson, P. K. (2000).
Local public health practice: Trends and models. Washington, DC: American
Public Health Association.
Nelson, C. F., Kreuter, M. W.,& Watkins, N. B. (1986). A partnership between
the community, state, and federal government: Rhetoric or reality. Hygie
(Paris) 5(3), 27-31.
Patton R. D., & Cissell, W. B. (Eds.). (1989). Community organization:
Traditional principles and modern application. Johnson City, TN: Latchpins
Rivo, M. L.,
Gray, K., Whitaker, M., Coward, R., Liburd, L. C., Timoll, M., Curry, C., &
Tuckson, R. V. (1991). Implementing PATCH in public housing communities: The
District of Columbia experience. Journal of Health Education 23,148-152.
Roussos, S., & Fawcett, S. (2000). A review of collaborative partnerships as a
strategy for improving community health. Annual Review of Public Health 21,
Sanchez, V. (2000). Reflections of community coalition staff: Research
directions from practice. Health Promotion Practice, 1, 320-322.
of community. Institute of
Medicine (1997). Improving health in the community: A role for performance
monitoring. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Ways of knowing
and interpretations of reality.
K. (1998). Marriage of sense and soul: Integrating science and religion.
New York: Random House.
40. Participatory research.
Boston et al., 1997; George et al., 1998-99; Goodman, 2001; Green & Mercer,
2001; 2004; McGowan & Green, 1995; Minkler, 2000; Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003;
O'Fallon & Dearry, 2002.
Boston, P., MacNamara , S. J. E., Karne, K., Bobbish-Rondeau, E., et al. (1997).
Using participatory action research to understand the meanings Aboriginal
Canadians attribute to the rising incidence of diabetes. Chronic Diseases in
Canada, , 5-12.
George, M. A., Daniel, M., Green, L. W. (1998-99). Appraising and funding
participatory research in health promotion. International Quarterly of
Community Health Education 18, 181-197.
Goodman, R. M. (2001). Community-based participatory research:
Questions and challenges to an essential approach. Journal of Public Health
Management and Practice 7(5), v-vi.
Green, L. W., & Mercer, S. L. (2001).
Community-based participatory research: Can public health researchers and
agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities?
American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1926-1929.
Green, L. W., Mercer, S. M. (2004).
Participatory research. In N. Anderson (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Health and
Behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (in press).
McGowan, P. &Green, L. W. (1995). Arthritis self-management in native
populations of British Columbia: An application of health promotion and
participatory research principles in chronic disease control. Canadian
Journal of Aging, 14, 201-12.
Minkler, M. (2000) Using participatory action research to build healthy
communities. Public Health Reports, 11, 191-197.
Minkler, M. & Wallerstein,
N. (2003). Community-based participatory research for health. San
O’Fallon, L. R. & Dearry, A. (2002). Community-based participatory research as a
tool to advance environmental health sciences. Environmental Health
Perspectives 110 (Suppl. 2), 161-171.
The principle of participation in peoples' learning and commitment. Bjaras
et al., 1991; Green, 1986c; Schiller et al., 1987; Wandersman & Florin, 2000.
Bjaras, G., Haglund, B., & Rifkin, S. (1991). A new approach to community
participation assessment," Health Promotion International, 6, 199-206.
Green, L.W. (1986c). The theory of participation: A qualitative analysis of
its expression in national and international health policies. In W. B. Ward,
(Ed.). Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 1, Pt. A, pp.
211-236. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc. Reprinted in Patton R. D. and Cissell,
W. B. (Eds). (1989). Community Organization: Traditional Principles and
Modern Application. Johnson City, TN: Latchpins Press.
Schiller, P., Steckler, A., Dawson, L. & Patton, F. (1987). Participatory
planning in community health education: A guide based on the McDowell County,
West Virginia experience. Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing.
Wandersman, A. & Florin, P. (2000). Citizen participation and community
organizations. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.). Handbook of community
psychology (pp. 247-272). New York: Academic/Plenum.
Epidemiological transition, applicable in developing countries? Carolina &
Gustavo, 2003; Hackam & Anand, 2003.
Carolina, M. S.
& Gustavo, L. F. (2003). Epidemiological transition: model or illusion? A look
at the problem of health in Mexico. Social Science and Medicine, 57,
Hackam, D. G. & Anand, S. S. (2003). Commentary: cardiovascular implications
of the epidemiological transition for the developing world: Thailand as a case
in point. International Journal of Epidemiology
From acute to
chronic, the epidemiological transition.
Sepúlveda, J. (1998). Origin, direction and
destination of the health transition in Mexico and Latin America. International
Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,
evidence from previous research together with assessment of local circumstances:
Green, L.W. (2001). From research to “best practices” in other settings and
populations (Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health
Behavior 25, 165-178. Full text online at
to Home Page
Go to Endnotes:
Preface Chap 2
Chap 3 Chap 4 Chap 5
Chap 6 Chap 7
Chap 8 Chap 9