If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*

 

 

Home New 4th edition Endnotes: Preface Chap 2  Chap 3 Chap 4 Chap 5 Chap 6  Chap 7  Chap 8  Chap 9                   

New Features, Flow, and Updated References Chapter 1 of new 4th Edition, 2005

New Title: Health Program Planning: An Educational and Ecological Approach

New Publisher: McGraw-Hill

Table of Contents:  Chapter 1 new references, links and endnotes  The Precede-Proceed Model

    Definitions of intervention and program    

    History of PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

   Chapter 2 new references, links and endnotes: Phase I--Social Diagnosis and Participatory Planning 

   Chapter 3 new links and endnotes: Phase II--Epidemiological Diagnosis: Health, Behavioral, & Environmental Assessment

   Chapter 4 new references, links and endnotes: Phase III--Ecological and Educational Diagnosis

    Chapter 5 new links and endnotes: Phase IV--Administrative, Organizational, and Policy Diagnosis and Evaluation

    Chapter 6 new references, links and endnotes: Applications in Community Settings

    Chapter 7 new references, links and endnotes: Applications in Occupational Settings

    Chapter 8 new references, links and endnotes: Applications in School Settings

    Chapter 9 new references, links and endnotes: Applications in Health Care Settings

                               

Chapter 1 Endnotes (The numbers shown below are the endnote numbers in the 3rd and (>) 4th edition or just the 4th edition; these notes indicate new references and comments replacing or updating those in the 3rd edition, or new topics in the 4th edition)

1>1. Program refers in this edition to the full range of components required to bring about the intended changes in health and social outcomes. In previous editions, program referred to the health promotion components of broader community, school, worksite, or clinical programs. Much of the historical discussion of health education and health promotion that was in Chapter 1 of the 3rd edition has been removed from the 4th edition. A publication on which much of that historical review was based was still in press at the time the 3rd edition went to the publisher. The article, since published, is:

Green, L.W.* (1999). Health education's contributions to public health in the twentieth century: A glimpse through health promotion's rear-view mirror. Annual Review of Public Health, 20: 67-88.

*Highlighted author names are hyperlinked to the abstract of the article for reader convenience.

A further extension of these ten lessons from the 20th century to directions we need to go in the 21st century are outlined in Green & Frankish, 2001:

Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J. (2001). Health promotion, health education, and disease prevention. In C.E. Koop, C.E. Pearson, & M.R. Schwarz (Eds), Critical issues in global health. (pp. 321-330). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

A chronicle of the evolution of the Precede-Proceed Model and its applications in health education, health promotion, and increasingly in broader community health organization and public health administration is available in endnote 1-14 and in:

Green, L.W., Kreuter, M. W. (1992). CDC's Planned Approach to Community Health as an application of PRECEDE and an inspiration for PROCEED. Journal of Health Education 23: 140-147.

Ottoson, J. M., & Green, L. W. (2001). Public health education and health promotion. In L. F. Novick, & G. P. Mays (Eds.). Public health administration: Principles for population-based management. (Pp. 300-323). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.

In the 4th edition, we will not repeat the historical review, but we extend the ecological settings approach to health program planning with a further emphasis on the settings approach. New refs:

Green, L.W. (1998). Prevention and health education in clinical, school, and community settings. In R.B. Wallace (Ed.), Maxcy-Rosenau-Last preventive medicine and public health (14th ed., pp. 889-904). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Poland, B.D., Green, L.W., &  Rootman, I. (Eds.). (2000). Settings in health promotion: Linking theory and practice Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 Settings for Health Promotion

2. The importance of settings in an ecological community approach to health programs is consistent with the finding that "locus" is the meaning most frequently cited of 17 dimensions of community in a recent study (MacQueen, McLellan, et al., 2001). See also, Green, 1998; Green, Poland, & Rootman, 2000, esp. pp. 18-20.

MacQueen, K.M., McLellan, E., Metzger, D.S., et al. (2001). What is community? An evidence-based definition for participatory research. American Journal of Public Health 91: 1929-1938.

 

Ecological Approach and Social Determinants of Health

2 Social Determinants of Health  

Berkman, L.F. & Kawachi, I. (2000). Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Green, L. W. &  Potvin, L. (2002). Education, health promotion, and social and lifestyle determinants of health and disease. In R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole, & H. Tanaka (Eds.). Oxford textbook of public health: Vol 1: The scope of public health, 4th edition (pp. 113-130). New York: Oxford University Press.

Last, J. & McGinnis, J.M. (2003). The determinants of health. In Scutchfield FD, & Keck CW (Eds.). Principles of public health practice, 2nd ed. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning,

Marmot, M (2000). Social determinants of health: From observation to policy. Medical Journal of Australia,172: 541-544.

 Marmot M. & Wilkenson, R.G. (Eds.). (1999). Social determinants of health. New York: Oxford University Press.

3 Powerful role played by the ecosystem and its subsystems (such as family, organizations, community, culture, and physical environment): Best, Stokols, et al., 2004; Goodman, Wandersman, Chinman, Imm, & Morrisey, 1996; Institute of Medicine, 2003; Karpati, Galea, Awerbuch, & Levins, 2002; Kickbusch, 1989; McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988; Powell, Mercy, Crosby, Dahlberg, & Simon, 1999; Rainey & Carson, 2001; Richard, Gauvin, Potvin, Denis, Kishchuk, 2002; Simons-Morton, B., Brink, Simons-Morton, et al., 1989.

Best, A., Stokols, D., Green, L. W., et al. (2004). American Journal of Health Promotion, 18, in press.

Institute of Medicine (2003). The Future of Public Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press.

Karpati, A., Galea, S., Awerbuch, T., & Levins, R. (2002). Variability and vulnerability at the ecological level: Implications for understanding the social determinants of health. American Journal of Public Health 92, 1768-1772.

Powell, K. E., Mercy, J. A., Crosby, A. E., Dahlberg, L. L. and Simon, T. R. (1999) Public health models of violence and violence prevention. Encyclopaedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict. Vol 3. Academic Press, Washington, DC.

Rainey CJ, Carson KL (2001). Nutrition interventions for low-income, elderly women. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25, 245-51.

Richard L, Gauvin L, Potvin L, Denis JL, Kishchuk N (2002). Making youth tobacco control programs more ecological: organizational and professional profiles. American Journal of Health Promotion, 16, 267-79.

4,5.  Ecological approach not new to public health and related disciplines: 

Ackerknecht, E. (1953). Rudolph Virchow: Doctor, statesman, anthropologist. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press; 1953.

Green, L. W., Poland, B. K., & Rootman, I. (2000). The settings approach to health promotion. In B. D. Poland, L. W. Green, & I. Rootman (Eds.). Settings for health promotion: Linking theory and practice (pp. 1-43, esp. 12-16). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.  or:

Green, L. W., L. Richard, and L. Potvin (1996). Ecological foundations of health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 270-81.

6. Social determinants of health in nursing history. Bullough & Rosen, 1992; DeFries, 1940; Green & Ottoson, 1999, chap. 2;  Green, Poland & Rootman, 2000, esp. pp. 12-16; Rogers, 1960; Rosen, 1993, p. 252; Sydenstricker, 1933; Winslow, 1920.

7. Quotation from René Dubos concerning limits of human mastery over nature and environment:

Dubos R (1958, 1987). Mirage of health: Utopias, progress, and biological health. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Inc.

8. Positions and IOM report that make ecological approaches foundational to public health: Elder, Talavera, Gorbach, & Ayala, 2003; Green & Raeburn, 1990; Green, Richard, & Potvin, 1996; Institute of Medicine, 2002;  2003.

Elder JP, Talavera GA, Gorbach PM, & Ayala GX (2003). Theories and structures of public health behavior. In Scutchfield FD, & Keck CW (Eds.). Principles of Public Health Practice, 2nd ed. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning, pp.253-272.

9. How a drawing that connects the relationships among causal factors would yield a kind of ecological map or “web” (Krieger, 1994; Stokols, 2000), or a "systems model" (Checkland, 1999; Flood, 2001; Midgley, 2000). Such complexities can be at least partially reflected in a "logic model" that attempts to show the causal chain of relationships in a linear fashion, usually limiting the feedback loops that would be found in an ecological or systems model (e.g., Renger & Titcomb, 2002). Such models are distinguished in planning as "effects models" showing how the interventions are expected to influence the outcomes. These may be distinct from, or combined with (as in the case of the Precede-Proceed Model) "stage models" showing how the planning and program would be carried out (e.g., Andersson, Bjaras, & Ostenson, 2002). See also the latest description of the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (Levesque, Guilbault, Delormier, & Potvin, 2005). 

Andersson, C. M., Bjaras, G. E. M., & Ostenson, C.-G. (2002). A stage model for assessing a community-based diabetes prevention program in Sweden. Health Promotion International, 17, 317-27.

Checkland, P. (1999). Systems thinking, systems practice: A 30-year retrospect. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Flood, R.L. (2001). The relationship of “systems thinking” to action research. In P. Reason, & H. Bradbury (Eds.). Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice (pp. 133-44). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Lesvesque, L., Guilbault, G., Delormier, T., & Potvin, L. (2005). Unpacking the black box: A deconstruction of the programming approach and physical activity interventions implemented in the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project. Health Promotion Practice 6: 64-71. 

Midgley, G. (2000). Systemic intervention: Philosophy, methodology, and practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Renger, R. & Titcomb, A. (2002). A three-step approach to teaching logic models. American Journal of Evaluation 23: 493-503.

Stokols, D.  (2000). Social ecology and behavioral medicine: implications for training, practice, and policy. Behavioral Medicine, 26, 121-130.

10. North Karelia long-term results illustrate ecological effects and interactions

Puska, P. (2000a). Do we learn our lessons from the population-based interventions? (Editorial). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54, 562-3.

Puska, P. & Uutela, A. (2000). Community intervention in cardiovascular health promotion: North Karelia, 1972-1999. In: N. Schneiderman, M. A. Speers, J. M. Silva, H. Tomes, & J. H. Gentry (Eds.), Integrating behavioral and social sciences with public health. (pp. 73-96). Baltimore: United Book Press, American Psychological Association.

Vartiainen, E., Paavola, M., McAlister, A., & Puska, P. (1998). Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia Youth Project. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 8105.

11. Necessity of combining ecological and educational approaches. Milio, 1983.

12. Example of drawing on "best practices" from previous research and statewide experiences

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - August 1999. Atlanta, GA:  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, August 1999.

13. Limitations of, and possibilities for "best practices" when applied in different populations

Green, L.W. (2001). From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior 25:165-178. Full text online at http://www.ajhb.org/2001/number3/25-3-2.htm.

Heller, R. G. & Page, J. (2002). A population perspective to evidence based medicine: "evidence for population health." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56, 45-47.
 

14. History of the Precede-Proceed model summarized in this endnote:

The model originated as a cost-benefit evaluation framework (Green, 1974) from converging streams of research and experience in public health (Rogers, 1960), medical care (Andersen, 1968), family planning (Green, 1970a), psychological (Green, 1970b) and social factors in health behavior (Green, 1970b), diffusion and adoption theory (Green, 1970a, 1975), other models of change (Green, 1976), and the demands of that period on health programs to demonstrate their effectiveness through evaluation in cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit metrics. The model was applied systematically in a series of clinical and field trials that confirmed its utility and predictive validity as a planning tool as well as an organizing framework for the variety of social, behavioral, epidemiological and administrative sciences bearing on the planning and evaluation of programs (e.g., Green, Levine & Deeds, 1975;  Levine et al, 1979; Morisky et al, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983). The first edition of this book appeared in 1980 with the coinage of the acronym, PRECEDE (Green, Kreuter, Deeds, & Partridge, 1980). The further history of the model can be traced in the successive editions (Green & Kreuter, 1991; 1999a,b) and in the evolution of the PROCEED components of the model (Green & Kreuter, 1992). 

For most of the references cited in this endnote, go to Bibliography of published applications of PRECEDE.  

15. Whether to refer to the phases as "diagnoses" or as "assessments"?

In the first and second editions of this text we used diagnosis to describe each stage of the Precede planning process (e.g., social diagnosis and epidemiological diagnosis). In the third edition, we replaced diagnosis with assessment, (and we equivocated over whether to maintain that change in this edition) mainly in response to the many users who felt uncomfortable with the term diagnosis. Though we still consider diagnosis to be an appropriate denotation for the processes described in each phase, its connotation tends to associate the model, uncomfortably for some, with clinical procedures. More importantly however, "diagnosis" also tends to imply that all the assessments must start with or find a problem. Positive approaches to health and assets-based approaches to community assessment call for at least part of the planning process to be concentrated on aspirations and strengths, not just on needs, weaknesses, deficits, problems, and barriers. We will employ the terms interchangeably, using "diagnosis" when a problem focus is intended, "assessment" when a more assets-based or combined assets-and-problems assessment is intended.

16. Integrating evaluation into the early phases, rather than holding as a later chapter

In previous editions, a separate chapter was devoted to evaluation. In this edition, we integrate the evaluation considerations into each chapter, reminding the planner that evaluation should be part of the planning process, not left to evaluators after the planning is completed. This also reduces the number of chapters and the number of phases. Whereas previous editions have represented the model with nine phases, the last three of which were evaluation, formative evaluation is now incorporated into the PRECEDE phases; process, impact, and outcome evaluation are incorporated into the implementation phase of PROCEED.

17. Rationale for all capital letters vs. "Precede-Proceed" as the acronym

We use all capital letters when the terms PRECEDE and PROCEED stand alone as acronyms. Elsewhere, to relieve their obtrusiveness in the text, we drop to lower-case letters when the terms are used as adjectives with other nouns, such as Precede-Proceed Model, and the Precede phases.

18. Combining of Epidemiological, Behavioral and Environmental Assessments and 3rd edition Chapters 3 & 4 into one Epidemiological Diagnosis

In previous editions of this text, and previous representations of the Precede-Proceed model, Phase 2 consisted only of the epidemiological assessment of the health problems of a population, and their relationship to the social problems. We have now combined this epidemiological task with the etiological assessment of the determinants of health. Chapter 3 now encompasses what was previously also in a chapter 4 under behavioral and environmental assessments. For further discussion of this amalgamation, see the Preface to this edition.

19. Behavior, environment and genetics combine to put people at greater or less health risk (e.g., Aday, 2001; Berkman & Kawachi, 2002; CDC, 1999a; Fiscella et al., 2000; French, Story & Jeffrey, 2001; IOM, 2002; Kawachi et al., 2002; Korenbrot et al., 2000; McGinnis, Russo, & Knickman, 2002; Panter-Brick & Worthman, 1999; Rodgers, 2002; Soobader & LeClere, 1999; Thomas, 2001; Williams & Collins, 2001).

Aday, L. A. (2001). At risk in America: The health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the United States, 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Berkman, L. & Kawachi, I. (Eds.). (2002). Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Burhansstipanov, L., Bemis, L., Dignan, M., & Dukepoo, F. (2001). Development of a genetics education workshop curriculum for Native American college and university students. Genetics, 158, 941-8.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1999a). Neighborhood safety and the prevalence of physical inactivity--selected states, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48, 143-6.

Fiscella, K., Franks, P., Gold, M. R., & Clancy, C. M. (2000). Inequality in quality: Addressing socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities in health care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 2579-84.

French, S. A., Story, M., & Jeffrey, R. W. (2001). Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annual Review of Public Health, 22, 309-35.

Institute of Medicine. (2002). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S. V., Almeida-Fillio, N. (2002). A glossary for health inequalities. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56, 647-52.

Korenbrot, C. C., Moss, N. E. (2000). Preconception, prenatal, perinatal and postnatal influences on health. In Promoting health: Intervention strategies from Social and Behavioral Research (pp. 125-69). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

McGinnis, J. M., Russo, P. G., & Knickman, J. R. (2002). ... Health Affairs, 21, 

Panter-Brick, C. & Worthman, C. M. (Eds.). (1999). Hormones, health, and behavior: A socio-ecological and lifespan perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rodgers, G. B. (2002). Income and inequality as determinants of mortality: an international cross-section analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 533-38.

Soobader, M. J., & LeClere, F. B. (1999). Aggregation and the measurement of income inequality: Effects on morbidity. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 733-44.

Thomas, S. B. (2001). The color line: Race matters in the elimination of health disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1046-8.

Williams, D. R. & Collins, D. (2001). Racial residential segregation: A fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Reports, 116, 404-16.

20. Precede Model’s original formulation as an evaluation model. Green, 1974.

154>21. Theory, model, or framework?  

Early in the evolution of PRECEDE, we referred to it exclusively as a framework. This was a caution against claiming too much for it as a model or a theory. A theory is “a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena,” from Kerlinger, 1986, p. 9. The primary purpose of PRECEDE was not to explain and predict phenomena, but to organize existing, multiple, theories and constructs (variables) into a cohesive, comprehensive, and systematic view of relations among those variables important to the planning and evaluation of health programs. Given the extensive application and validation of the framework in practice and in research during the 1970s and 1980s, we have felt confident in calling it a model for the past two decades. It might qualify as a "theoretical model," or at least a "causal model," in some of its applications (Sussman & Sussman, 2001). For further discussion of models, theories, and emerging theories see Crosby, Kegler, & DiClemente, 2002; Glanz, Rimer, & Lewis, 2001; Green, 1986f; Green & Lewis, 1986; Kegler, Crosby, & DiClemente, 2002;  Lorig & Laurin, 1985; P. D. Mullen, Hersey, & Iverson, 1987; Sussman, 2001.

Crosby, R., A., Kegler, M. C., DiClemente, R. J. (2002). Understanding and applying theory in health promotion practice and research. In DiClementi, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health. (Pp. 1-15). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Lewis, F. M. (Eds.) (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3rd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kegler, M. C., Crosby, R. A., & DiClemente, R. J. (2002). Reflections on emerging theories in health promotion practice. In R. J. DiClemente, R. A. Crosby, & M. C. Kegler (Eds.). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research (pp. 386-395). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sussman, S., & Sussman, A. N. (2001). Praxis in health behavior program development. In S. Sussman (Ed.). Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice. (Pp. 79-97). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

155>22. Early trials that helped validate and shape the representation of the model included applications by Cantor et al., 1985; Green, 1974; Green, Fisher, Amin, & Shafiullah, 1975; Green, Levine, et al., 1979; Green, Wang, & Ephross, 1974; Hatcher, Green, Levine, & Flagle, 1986; D. M. Levine et al., 1979; Mamon, Green, Gibson, & Mackenzie, 1979; Morisky et al., 1980, 1983, 1985; Morisky, Levine, Green, & Smith, 1982; Rimer, Keintz, & Fleisher, 1986; Sayegh & Green, 1976; Wang et al., 1979. Some of the more recent trials and other tests and applications of the model will be cited or described in later chapters of this edition. For the bibliography of some 950 published applications and adaptations of the model for various purposes, go to www.lgreen.net/bibliographies.

156>23. Applications of the Model in local and state health agencies (Brink, Simons-Morton, Parcel, & Tiernan, 1988; Eriksen & Gielen, 1983; Gielen & Radius, 1984; Health Education Center, 1977; Hutsell et al., 1986; National Association of County and City Health Officials, 2000; Newman, Martin, & Weppner, 1982; PATCH, 1985; Taylor et al., 1998a,b; US Department of Health and Human Services, 1996b. The U.S. federal adaptations evolved from PRECEDE to PATCH to APEX-PH to the latest adaptation, MAPP, currently under development and testing by National Association of County and City Health Officials, 2000, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For a brief description of the latest iteration, the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships, go to the CDC and MAPP website).

Eriksen, M. P., and Gielen, A. C. (1983). The application of health education principles to automobile child restraint programs. Health Education Quarterly, 10, 30-55.

Hutsell, C.A., Meltzer, C.R., Lindsay, G. B., & McClain, R. (1986). Creating an effective infrastructure within a state health department for community health promotion: The Indiana PATCH experience. Journal of Health Education, 23, 164-66.

National Association of County and City Health Officials (2000). Health departments take action: A compendium of state and local models addressing racial and ethnic disparities in health. Washington, DC, National Association of County and City Health Officials.

Taylor, SM, S Elliott, & B Riley.  (1998a).  Heart health promotion: Predisposition, capacity and implementation in Ontario public health units, 1994-96. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 89 (6): 410-414.

Taylor, SM,  Elliott, S., Robinson, K. &  Taylor. S.  (1998b).  Community-based heart health promotion: Perceptions of facilitators and barriers. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 89 (6): 406-409.

157>24. Applications of the Model in maternal and child health   Green, Wang, et al., 1978. The initial Precede study on asthma education (Green, 1974) was first replicated with children in a trial by Cohen, Harris & Green (1979) that produced results with approximately the same 1-to-7 cost-benefit ratio in reduced emergency visits. More recent adaptations of the Model in relation to maternal and child health have included studies and projects on chronic diseases (e.g., Bartholomew et al., 2000; Chiang et al., 2003; Downey et al., 1987; 1988; 1989; Fisher et al., 1995); prenatal care (e.g., Covington, et al., 1998; Donovan, 1991; Fraser et al., 1997; Olsen, 1994; Sword, 1999; Windsor et al., 1985; 1993; 2000); injury prevention (e.g., Farley, 1997; Eriksen & Gielen, 1983); dental health (e.g., Frazier & Horowitz, 1990); breast feeding studies (Burglehaus, et al., 1997; Williams, P. et al., 1999), child immunization (e.g., Deeds & Gunatilake, 1989; Freed et al., 1993), family planning (Sayegh & Green, 1976; Sayegh & Mosely, 1976; J. L. Wu, et al., 2002), and a variety of school health and other applications for youth (see Chapter 7) including a model for physical activity promotion (Welk, 1999). It is notable that Windsor et al obtained a similar 1-to-7 cost-benefit ratio for smoking cessation interventions for women in public prenatal clinics that had been found in the early asthma education interventions with both adults and children (Windsor et al., 1993, cf. Cohen, Harris & Green, 1979).

Bartholomew, L. K., Czyzewski, D. I. Swank, P. R., McCormick, L., & Parcel, G. S. (2000). Maximizing the impact of the cystic fibrosis family education program: Factors related to program diffusion. Family & Community Health 22: 27-47.

Burglehaus, M. J., Smith, L. A., Sheps, S. B., & Green, L. W. (1997). Physicians and breastfeeding: Beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy and counselling practices.  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88: 383-387.

Chiang, L., Huang, J., & Lu, C. (2003). Educational diagnosis of self-management behaviors of parents with asthmatic children by triagulation based on PRECEDE-PROCEED model in Taiwan. Patient Education and Counseling, 49: 19-25.

Cohen, H., Harris, C., & Green, L. W. (1979). Cost-benefit analysis of asthma self-management educational programs in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 64: 155-6. (1979).

Covington, D. L., Peoples-Sheps, M. D. , Buescher, P. A., Bennett, T. A. & Paul, M.V. (1998). An evaluation of an adolescent prenatal education program. American Journal of Health Behavior, 22 (5): 323-333.

Deeds, S. G., and Gunatilake, S. (1989). Behavioural change strategies to enhance child survival. Hygie (now Promotion & Education) 8:19-22.

Donovan, C. L. (1991). Factors predisposing, enabling and reinforcing routine screening of patients for preventing fetal alcohol syndrome: A survey of New Jersey physicians. Journal of Drug Education 21(1): 35-42.

Downey, A. M., Butcher, A. H., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., Miner, M. H.& Berenson, G. S. (1987). Development and implementation of a school health promotion program for reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in children and prevention of adult coronary heart disease: 'Heart Smart'.  In B. Hetzel and G. S. Berenson, (eds.), Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: Epidemiology and Prevention. Amsterdam, NY & Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.), pp. 103-121.

Downey, A. M., Cresanta, J. L., & Berenson, G. S. (1989). Cardiovascular Health Promotion in 'Heart Smart' and the Changing Role of Physicians.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine 5(5):279-95.

Farley, C. (1997). Evaluation of a four-year bicycle helmet promotion campaign in Quebec aimed at children ages 8 to 12: Impact on attitudes, norms and behaviours. Canadian Journal of Public Health 88: 62-66.

Fisher, E.B., Strunk, R.C., Sussman, L.K., et al.(1995). Acceptability and feasibility of a community approach to asthma management: The Neighborhood Asthma Coalition (NAC), Journal of Asthma 33: 367-83.

Fraser, W., Maunsell, E., Hodnett, E., & Moutquin, J-M. (1997). Childbirth Alternatives Post-Cesarean Study Group.  Randomized controlled trial of a prenatal vaginal birth after cesarean section education and support program.  American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology  176: 419-425.

Frazier, P.J., Horowitz, A. M. (1990). Oral health education and promotion in maternal and child health--A position paper. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 50(NSI):390-395.

Freed, G. L., Bordley, W. C. & Defriese, G. H. (1993). Childhood immunization programs: An analysis of policy issues. The Milbank Quarterly, 71(1): 65-96, 1993.

Olson, C. M. (1994). Promoting positive nutritional practices during pregnancy and lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59(suppl.):525S-531S.

Sword, W. (1999). A socio-ecological approach to understanding barriers to prenatal care for women of low income.  Journal of Advanced Nursing 29 (5): 1170-1177.

Sayegh, J., & Mosley, W. H. (1976). The effectiveness of family planning education on acceptance of contraception by postpartum mothers. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 139: Dec. suppl. 31-7.

Welk, G.J. (1999). The Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: A conceptual bridge between theory and Practice. Quest 51: 5-23.

Williams, P. L., Innis, S. M., Vogel, A. M. P., & Stephen, L. J. (1999).  Factors influencing infant feeding practices of mothers in Vancouver.  Canadian Journal of Public Health 90(2): 114-119. 

Windsor, R. A., Cutter, G., Morris, J., Reese, Y., Adams, B., &  Bartlett, E.(1985).  Effectiveness of self-help smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women in public health maternity clinics: A randomized trial. American Journal of Public Health 75:1389-1392.

Windsor, R., Lowe, J., Perkins, L., et al  (1993). Health Education Methods for Pregnant Smokers: Behavioral Impact and Cost-Benefit. American Journal of Public Health, 83(2): 201-6.

Windsor, R., Woodby, L., Miller, T. et al (2000). Effectiveness of AHCPR Clinical Practice Guideline and Patient Education Methods for Pregnant Smokers in Medicaid Maternity Care. American Journal of  Obstetrics & Gynecology 182(1 Pt 1): 68-75.

Wu, J. L., Wang, L. H., Rauyajin, O., et al. (2002). Contraceptive use behavior among nevewr married young women who are seeking pregnancy termination in Beijing. Chinese Medical Journal-Peking 115: 851-855.

158>25. Applications of the Model in developing or reviewing national policies in health promotion and disease prevention. Danforth & Swaboda, 1978; Green, 1978a; 1980; 1983; 1986c; Green,  Wilson, & Bauer, 1983; Kreuter, 1992; Mercer et al., 2003; U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 1981; 1988, esp. section D.

Danforth, N., & Swaboda, B. (1978). Agency for International Development Health Education Study. Washington, D.C.: Westinghouse Health Systems, March 17.

Green, L. W. (1978a). Determining the impact and effectiveness of health education as it relates to federal policy. Health Education Monographs 6: 28-66.

Green, L. W. (1980). "Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report and the prospects," in W. J. McNerney (Ed.) Working for a Healthier America. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, pp. 95-110.

Green, L. W. (1983). New policies in education for health, World Health (April-May): 13-7.

Green, L.W. (1986c).  The theory of participation: A qualitative analysis of its expression in national and international health policies, in Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 1, Pt. A,  W. B. Ward, ed. (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.), pp. 211-236.

Green, L. W., Wilson, R. W. & Bauer, K. G. (1983). Data required to measure progress on the Objectives for the Nation in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 18-24.

Kreuter, M.W. (1992).  PATCH:  Its origin, basic concepts, and links to contemporary public health policy.  Journal of Health Education 23(3):  135-139.

Mercer, S. L., Green, L. W., Rosenthal, A. C., Husten, C. G., Khan, L. K., Dietz, W. H. (2003). Possible lessons from the tobacco experience for obesity control. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77 (4): 1073S-1082S Suppl. S Apr.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1981).  Promoting Health in Special Populations (Washington, D.C.: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); reprinted (1987) Journal of Public Health Policy 8: 369-423.

159>26. Applications of the model in injury prevention and control, including suicide prevention, occupational injuries, recreational injuries, automobile injuries, and other child injuries: National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control, 1989; Gielen & McDonald, 2002. For specific applications in child injury prevention and control, see Becker, H. et al., 1998; Eriksen & Gielen, 1983; Farthing, 1994; Gielen, 1992;  Gielen & Radius, 1984; Hendrickson, & Becker, 1998; Howat, et al., 1997; Jones & Macrina, 1993; for a study of recreational injury applying the Model, Cadman, 1996; for studies and interventions in occupational settings, see Calabro et al., 1998;  Dedobbeleer & German, 1987; DeJoy, 1986a,b,c; 1990; 1996; DeJoy et al., 1995; Reichelt, 1995; and for applications in automobile injury prevention, Simons-Morton, Brink, Simons-Morton, et al., 1989; Sleet, 1987. For a review applying the Model on suicide prevention among indigenous youth , see V. Clark, Frankish, & Green, 1995.

Becker, H., Hendrickson, S. L., & Shaver, L. (1998). Nonurban parental beliefs about childhood injury and bicycle safety. American Journal of Health Behavior 22: 218-27.

Cadman, R.  (1996). Ski injury prevention - An epidemiological investigation of the social, behavioural, and environmental determinants of injury. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Calabro, K., Weltge, A., Parnell, S., Kouzekanani, K. & Ramirez, E. (1998). Intervention for medical students: Effective infection control.  American Journal of Infection Control, 26: 431-436.

Clarke, V., Frankish, C. J., & Green, L. W. (1995). Understanding suicide among indigenous adolescents: A review using the Precede model.  Injury Prevention 3: 126-134, 1997

Dedobbeleer N., & German, P. (1987). Safety practices in construction industry. Journal of Occupational Medicine 29:863-868.

DeJoy, D. M. (1986a).  Behavioral-diagnostic model for self-protective behavior in the workplace. Professional Safety 31:26-30.

 DeJoy, D. (1986b).  Behavioral-diagnostic analysis of compliance with hearing protectors. Proceedings of the 30th Meeting of the Human Factors Society, Vol. II (pp. 1433-1437). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

 DeJoy, D. M.  (1986c).  A behavioral-diagnostic model for fostering self-protective behavior in the workplace.  In Karwowski (ed.), Trends in Ergonomics and Human Factors III, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. 

 DeJoy, D. M. (1990) Toward a comprehensive human factors model of workplace accident causation. Professional Safety 35:11-16.

 DeJoy, D. M.  (1996).  Theoretical models of health behavior and workplace self-protective behavior.  Journal of Safety Research, 27 (2): 61-72.

 DeJoy, D. M., Murphy, L. R., & Gershon, R. M. (1995).  The influence of employee, job/task, and organizational factors on adherence to universal precautions among nurses. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 16: 43-55.

Farthing, Marilyn.  (1994).  Health education needs of a Hutterite Colony. The Canadian Nurse/L'Infirmiere Canadienne 90(7):20-26.

Gielen, A. C. (1992).  Health education and injury control: Integrating approaches.  Health Education Quarterly 19: 203-18.

Gielen, A.C., & McDonald, E. M. (2002). Using PRECEDE/PROCEED to apply health behavior theories in health promotion program planning. In K. Glanz, , B. K. Rimer, & F. M. Lewis (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice (3rd edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gielen, A. C. and Radius, S. (1984). Project KISS (Kids in Safety Belts): Educational approaches and evaluation measures. Health Education 15 (Aug.-Sept.): 43-7.

Hendrickson, S. G., & Becker, H.  (1998).  Impact of a theory-based intervention to increase bicycle helmet use in low income children.  Injury Prevention, 4: 126-131

Howat, P., Jones, S., Hall, M., Cross, D., & Stevenson, M. (1997).  The PRECEDE-PROCEED model: Application to planning a child pedestrian injury prevention program.  Injury Prevention 3(4): 282-7.

Jones, C. S., & Macrina, D. (1993). Using the PRECEDE Model to design and implement a bicycle helmet campaign. Wellness Perspectives: Research, Theory and Practice 9:68-95.

National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control (1989).  Injury Prevention: Meeting the Challenge. New York: Oxford University Press. Printed as a supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5(3). 

Reichelt, P. A. (1995). Musculoskeletal injury: ergonomics and physical fitness in firefighters.  Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews  10: 735-747.

Simons-Morton, B. G., Brink, S. G.,. Simons-Morton, D. G et al. (1989). An ecological approach to the prevention of injuries due to drinking and driving. Health Education Quarterly 16: 397-411.

Sleet, D. A. (1987). Health education approaches to motor vehicle injury prevention. Public Health Reports 102: 606-8.  

160>27. Applications of the Model in chronic lung diseases.

Deeds, S. G., Apson, J. R., & Bertera, R. (1979). Steps to lung health education programming. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Health Services Research and Development Center and School of Public Health, Division of Health Education, for American Lung Association.

Green, L.W. (1987b).  Program planning and evaluation guide for Lung Associations. New York: American Lung Association.

Iverson, D. C., & Scheer, J. K. (1982). School-based cancer education programs: An opportunity to affect the national cancer problem.  Health Values: Achieving High Level Wellness, 6(3): 27-35.

Wang, V. L., P. Terry, B. S. Flynn, et al. (1979). Multiple indicators of continuing medical education priorities for chronic lung diseases in Appalachia. Journal of Medical Education 54: 803-811.

161>28. Applications of the Model in planning and evaluation of the American Cancer Society’s and National Cancer Institute’s “Changing the Course” nutrition education curriculum and broader youth education (Contento et al., 1992; Corcoran & Portnoy, 1989; Light & Contento, 1989).

Contento, I. R., Kell, D. G., Keiley, M. K., & Corcoran, R. D. (1992). A formative evaluation of the American Cancer Society Changing the Course nutrition education curriculum. Journal of School Health 62: 411-416.

Corcoran, R. D., & Portnoy, B. (1989).  Risk reduction through comprehensive cancer education: The American Cancer Society Plan for Youth Education. Journal of School Health 59: 199-204.

Light, L. & I.  Contento, R.(1989). Changing the Course: A school nutrition and cancer education program by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute," Journal of School Health 59: 205-9.

162>29. Applications in development of curriculum for nurses’ education and standards, and assessment of primary care practices for purposes of planning continuing education and training for nurses and allied health personnel (Bennett, 1977; Berland et al., 1995; Canadian Council of Cardiovascular Nurses, 1993; Cretain, 1989; DeJoy, Murphy et al., 1995; Macrina et al., 1996; Mahloch et al., 1993; Mann, Viscount, et al., 1996; Miilunpalo et al., 1995; Morrison, 1996; Shamian & Edgar, 1987; Shine et al., 1983; Simpson & Pruitt, 1989; Smith, Danis & Helmick, 1998; Whyte & Berland, 1993).

Bennett, B. I. (1977). A model for teaching health education skills to primary care practitioners. International Journal of Health Education 20: 232-9.

Berland, A., Whyte, N. B., & Maxwell, L. (1995). Hospital nurses and health promotion. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 27: 13-31.

Canadian Council of Cardiovascular Nurses (1993). Standards for cardiovascular health education. Ottawa: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

Cretain, G. K. (1989). Motivational factors in breast self-examination: implications for nurses. Cancer Nursing 12: 250-256.

DeJoy, D. M., Murphy, L. R., & Gershon, R. M. (1995).  The influence of employee, job/task, and organizational factors on adherence to universal precautions among nurses. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 16: 43-55.

Macrina, D., Macrina, N., Horvath, C., Gallaspy, J., & Fine, P. R. (1996). An educational intervention to increase use of the Glasgow Coma Scale by emergency department personnel.  International Journal of Trauma Nursing 2: 7-12.

Mahloch, J., Taylor, V., Taplin, S., & Urban, N. (1993). A breast cancer screening educational intervention targeting medical office staff. Health Education Research 8: 567-579.

Mann, K. V., Viscount, P. W., Cogdon, A., Davidson, K., Languille, D. B., & Maccara, M. E.  (1996). Multidisciplinary learning in continuing professional education: the heart health Nova Scotia experience.  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 16: 50-60.

Miilunpalo, S., Jukka, L., & Ilkka, V. (1995). Strengths and weaknesses in health counseling in Finnish primary health care. Patient Education and Counseling 25: 317-328.

Morrison, C. (1996). Using PRECEDE to predict breast self-examination in older, lower-income women. American Journal of Health Behavior 20(2): 3-14.

Shamian, J., & Edgar, L. (1987). Nurses as agents for change in teaching breast self-examination. Public Health Nursing 4: 29-34.

Shine, M. S., Silva, M. C., & Weed, F. S. (1983).  Integrating health education into baccalaureate nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education 22: 22-7.

Simpson, G. W., & Pruitt, B. E. (1989). The development of health promotion teams as related to wellness programs in Texas schools. Health Education 20: 26-8.

Smith, P. H., Danis, M., & Helmick, L. C. (1998) Changing the health care response to battered women: A health education approach. Family & Community Health 20: 1-18.

Whyte, N., & Berland, A. (1993). The role of hospital nurses in health promotion: A collaborative survey of British Columbia hospital nurses. Vancouver: Registered Nurses Assn. of British Columbia and Vancouver General Hosp., Pub.28. [See summary: Health promotion in acute care settings: Redefining a nursing tradition. Nursing BC March-April, 1994, pp. 21-22.]

163>30. Applications of the Model with pharmacists and pharmacy interventions (Fedder, 1982; Fedder & Beardsley, 1979; Hill, 1990; Mann, Viscount et al., 1996; Opdycke et al., 1992; Paluck, 1998; Paluck, Green et al., 2002; Paluck, Haverkamp et al., 2004; Wallenius, 1995).

Fedder, D. O. (1982). Managing medication and compliance: Physician-pharmacist-patient interactions. Journal American Geriatric Society 11 (Suppl.): 113-7.

Fedder, D. and Beardsley, R. (1979). Preparing pharmacy patient educators. American Journal of Pharmacy Education 43: 127-9.

Hill, J. (1990). Patient education--What to teach patients with rheumatic disease. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 110: 204-207.

Mann, K. V., Viscount, P. W., Cogdon, A., Davidson, K., Languille, D. B., & Maccara, M. E.  (1996). Multidisciplinary learning in continuing professional education: the heart health Nova Scotia experience.  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 16: 50-60.

Opdycke, R. A. C., Ascione, F. J., Shimp, L. A., & Rosen, R. I. (1992).  A systematic approach to educating elderly patients about their medications.  Patient Education and Counseling 19: 43-60.

Paluck, E. C. M. (1998). Pharmacist-client communication: A study of quality and client satisfaction.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Paluck, E. C., Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., Fielding, D.W., & Haverkamp, B. (2003). Assessment of communication barriers in community pharmacies. Evaluation and the Health Professions. In press for Dec 2003 issue.

 

Paluck, E.C., Haverkamp, B., Frankish, C.J., Fielding, D.W., Green, L.W. (2004). Pharmacist-client communication: An investigation into the relationship between client and expert ratings. Submitted.

Wallenius, S. H. (1995). Self-initiated modification of hypertension treatment in response to perceived problems.  The Annals of Pharmacotherapy.  29: 1213-1217.

166>31. Applications of the Model in training and support for behavioral medicine (Altman & Green, 1988; Glanz & Oldenburg, 1997; D. M. Levine & Green, 1981), school health (Fisher, Green, McCrae, & Cochran, 1976; Higgins & MacDonald, 1992; MacDonald & Green, 2001; Simpson & Pruitt, 1989), dieticians (McKell, 1994; 1996), other allied health (Bennett, 1977; Goldenhar et al., 2001; Mann et al., 1996), and public health personnel (Green, 1981; Ottoson, 1995; 1997; 1998; Ransdell et al., 2000; US Department of Health and Human Services, 1996) and volunteers (Adeyanju, 1987-88; Bird et al., 1996; DePue et al., 1987; Ward, Levine et al., 1982).

Adeyanju, O. M.  (1987-88). A community-based health education analysis of an infectious disease control program in Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 8, 263-279.

Altman, D. G., & Green, L. W. (1988). Area review: Education and training in behavioral medicine. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 10: 4-7.

Bennett, B. I. (1977). A model for teaching health education skills to primary care practitioners. International Journal of Health Education 20: 232-9.

Bird, J. A., Otero-Sabogal, R., Ha, N.-T., & McPhee, S. J. (1996).  Tailoring lay health worker interventions for diverse cultures: lessons learned from Vietnamese and Latina communities. Health Education and Behavior, 23 (Suppl.), S105-S122.

DePue, J. D., Wells, B. L., Lasater, T. M., & Carleton, R. A.  (1987).  Training volunteers to conduct heart health programs in churches. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 3: 51-57.

Fisher, A., Green, L. W., McCrae, A., & Cochran, C. (1976). Training teachers in population education institutes in Baltimore. Journal of School Health 46: 357-60.

Glanz, K., & Oldenburg, B. (1997). Relevance of health behavior research to health promotion and health education.  Chapter 8 in D. S. Gochman (Ed.), Handbook of Health Behavior Research IV: Relevance for professionals and issues for the future (pp. 143-161). New York: Plenum Press,

Goldenhar, L. M., LaMontagne, A. D., Katz, T., Heaney, C., & Landsbergis, P.  (2001).  The intervention research process in occupational safety and health:  An overview from the national occupational research agenda intervention effectiveness research teamJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 43: 616-622.

Green, L. W. (1981).  The objectives for the nation in disease prevention and health promotion:  A challenge to health education training. Keynote address for National conference for institutions preparing health educators: Proceedings (pp. 61‑73). Washington, DC:  US Office of Health Information and Health Promotion, DHHS Publication No. 81‑50171.

Higgins, J. W. & MacDonald, M. (1992). The School-Based Prevention Model: A training handbook.  Victoria, BC: Alcohol and Drug Programs, British Columbia Ministry of Health.

MacDonald, M. A., & Green, L. W. (2001). Reconciling concept and context: The dilemma of implementation in school-based health promotion. Health Education & Behavior 28: 749-768.

Mann, K. V., Viscount, P. W., Cogdon, A., Davidson, K., Languille, D. B., & Maccara, M. E.  (1996). Multidisciplinary learning in continuing professional education: the heart health Nova Scotia experience.  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 16: 50-60.

McKell, C. J. (1994). A profile of the New Brunswick Association of Dietitions: Results of the Educational Needs Assessment Survey, 1993. Fredericton, NB: New Brunswick Health and Community Services and Health Canada.

McKell, C. J. (1996).  Establishing partnerships to enhance the preventive practices of dietitians.  Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association 57: 12-17.

Ottoson, J. M. (1995). Use of a conceptual framework to explore multiple influences on the application of learning following a continuing education program. Canadian Journal of Adult Education 9 (2): 1-18.

Ottoson, J. M. (1997). After the applause: Exploring multiple influences on application following adult education programs. Adult Education Quarterly  47: 92-107.

Ottoson, J. M. (1998). The role of contextual variables in the application of community training in substance abuse prevention. XVI World Conference on Health Promotion and Health Education.   San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 21-26, 1998.  Abstracts Book (pp. 26-27). San Juan: Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico.

Ransdell, L. B. (2001).  Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to increase productivity in health education faculty. International Electronic Journal of Health Education 4(1): 276-282.

Simpson, G. W., & Pruitt, B. E. (1989). The development of health promotion teams as related to wellness programs in Texas schools. Health Education 20: 26-8.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Planned Approach to Community Health: Guide for the local coordinator. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1996. Last updated 2003, see http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/patch/index.htm.

Ward, W. B., Levine, D. M., Morisky, D., Bone, L. R., Ward, E., Soff, G., & McKinney, R. (1982). Controlling high blood pressure in inner city Baltimore through community health education. In R. W. Carlaw (Ed.). Perspectives on Community Health Education: A Series of Case Studies. Vol 1: United States (pp. 73-79). Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing Co.

165>32. Applications of the Model with the study of physicians' behavior (Battista et al., 1986; Burglehaus, et al., 1997; Cheng, et al., 1999; Costanza, 1992; Desnick et al., 1999; Donovan, 1991; Green, 1999b; Heywood et al., 1996; Hiddink, et al., 1995; 1997a-d; 1999; Laitakari et al., 1997; Langille et al., 1997; Mann & Putnam, 1989; 1990; Mirand et al., 2002; Walsh & McPhee, 1992), continuing medical education, dissemination and translation (Bertram & Brooks-Bertram, 1977; Davis, Thomson et al., 1995; Lomas, 1993; Mann, 1994; Mann, Lindsay et al., 1996; Mann, Putnam et al., 1990; Wang et al., 1979), and guidelines for physician action in preventive health care practices (Bartlett, 1982; Clearie et al., 1982; Cooke, 1995; Downey, Cresanta, & Berenson, 1989; Green, 1987a; 1999b; Green, Cargo & Ottoson, 1994; Green, Eriksen, & Schor, 1988; Haber, 1994; Herbert, 1999; Levine et al., 1979; 1987; Li et al., 1984; Maiburg et al., 1999; Makrides et al., 1997).

Studies of physicians' practices using parts of the Precede Model

Battista, R. N., Williams, J. L., & MacFarlane, L. A. (1986). Determinants of primary medical practice in adult cancer prevention. Medical Care 24: 216-24.

Burglehaus, M. J., Smith, L. A., Sheps, S. B., & Green, L. W. (1997). Physicians and breastfeeding: Beliefs, knowledge, self-efficacy and counselling practices.  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88: 383-387.

Cheng, T. L., DeWitt, T. G., Savageau, J. A., & O’Connor, K. G.  (1999).  Determinants of counseling in primary care pediatric practice. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 153: 629-635.

Costanza, M. E. (1992).  Physician compliance with mammography guidelines: Barriers and enhancers. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 5(2): x1-x10.

Desnick, L., Taplin, S., Taylor, V., Coole, D., & Urban, N.  (1999). Clinical breast examination in primary care: Perceptions and predictors among three specialties. Journal of Women’s Health 8: 389-397.

Donovan, C. L. (1991). Factors predisposing, enabling and reinforcing routine screening of patients for preventing fetal alcohol syndrome: A survey of New Jersey physicians. Journal of Drug Education 21: 35-42.

Green, L. W. (1999b). What can we generalize from research on patient education and clinical health promotion to physician counseling on diet?  European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (Suppl. 2): S9-S18.

Heywood, A., Firman, D., Sanson-Fisher, R., & Mudge, P. (1996).  Correlates of physician counseling associated with obesity and smoking.  Preventive Medicine 25: 268-276.

Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., van’t Hof, M. A. (1995). Nutrition guidance by primary-care physicians: perceived barriers and low involvement. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49:842-851, 1995.

Hiddink G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., & Fieren, C. J. (1997a). Consumers' expectations about nutrition guidance: the importance of primary care physicians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(suppl):1974S-1995S.

Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., & van’t Hof, M. A.  (1997b).  Driving forces for and barriers to nutrition guidance practices of Dutch primary care physicians.  Journal of Nutrition Education, 29 (1), 36-41.

Hiddink G, J. , Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., Fieren, C. J., & van't Hof, M. A. (1997c). Information sources and strategies of nutrition guidance used by primary care physicians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65 (suppl):1996S-2003S.

Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. E. J., Fieren, C. J. & van’t Hof, M. A. (1997d). Nutrition guidance by primary-care physicians: LISREL analysis improves understanding.  Preventive Medicine, 26: 29-36.

Hiddink, G. J., Hautvast, J. G. A. J., van Woerkum, C. M. J., van’t Hof, M. A., & Fieren, C. J. (1999).  Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of nutrition guidance by primary care physicians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (Suppl. 2): S35-S43.

Laitakari. J, Miilunpalo, S., & Vuori, I. (1997). The process and methods of health counseling by primary health care personnel in Finland: a national survey.  Patient Education and Counseling 30: 61-70.

Langille, D. B., Mann, K. V., Gailiunas, P. N. (1997). Primary care physicians’ perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and STD prevention practices in a Nova Scotia county.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine 13: 324-30.

Mann, K.V., & Putnam, R.W. (1989). Physicians' perceptions of their role in cardiovascular risk reduction. Preventive Medicine 18: 45-58.

Mann, K. V., & Putnam, R. W. (1990).  Barriers to prevention: physician perceptions of ideal versus actual practices in reducing cardiovascular risk. Canadian Family Physician 36: 665-670.

Mirand, A. L., Beehler, G. P., Kuo, C. L., and Mahoney, M. C.  (2002).  Physician perceptions of primary prevention:  qualitative base for the conceptual shaping of a practice intervention tool.  BioMed Central Public Health, 2(1): 16.

Walsh, J. M. E. & McPhee, S. J. (1992). A systems model of clinical preventive care: An analysis of factors influencing patient and physician. Health Education Quarterly 19:157-175.

Continuing medical education, dissemination and translation, using the Precede Model

Bertram, D. A., & Brooks-Bertram, P. A. (1977). The evaluation of continuing medical education: A literature review. Health Education Monographs 5: 330-62.

Davis, D. A., Thomson, M. A., Oxman, A. D., & Haynes, R. B.. (1995).  Changing physician performance: A systematic review of the effect of continuing medical education strategies. Journal of the American Medical Association 274: 700-705.

Lomas, J. (1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: Who should do what? In K. S. Warren & F. Mosteller (Eds.). Doing more good than harm: The evaluation of health care interventions (pp. 226-237). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 703. Also in: Lomas, J. (1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: who should do what? Annals New York Academy of Sciences 703:  226-237.

Mann, K.V. (1994). Educating medical students: lessons from research in continuing education. Academic Medicine 69: 41-47.

Mann, K. V., Lindsay, E. A., Putnam, R. W., & Davis, D. A. (1996). Increasing physician involvement in cholesterol-lowering practices. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 16: 225-240.

Mann, K. V., Putman, R. W., Lindsay, E. A. & Davis, D. A. (1990). Cholesterol: Decreasing the Risk.  An educational program for physicians.  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 10: 211-222.

Wang, V. L., Terry, P., & Flynn, B. S., et al. (1979). Multiple indicators of continuing medical education priorities for chronic lung diseases in Appalachia, Journal of Medical Education 54, 803-811.

Guidelines for physician action in preventive health care practices based on PRECEDE

Bartlett, E. E. (1982). Behavioral diagnosis: A practical approach to patient education, Patient Counselling and Health Education 4: 29-35, 1982.

Clearie, A. F., Blair, S. N., & Ward, W. B. (1982).  The role of the physician in health promotion: Findings from a community telephone survey.  The Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association 78: 503-505.

Cooke, B. E. M. (1995).  Health promotion, health protection, and preventive services.  Primary Care  22: 555-564.

Downey, A. M., Cresanta, J. L., & Berenson, G. S. (1989). Cardiovascular health promotion in 'Heart Smart' and the changing role of physicians.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine 5: 279-95.

Green, L. W. (1987a). How physicians can improve patients' participation and maintenance in self-care. Western Journal of Medicine 147: 346-9.

Green, L. W.,  Eriksen, M. P., &  Schor, E. L.(1988). Preventive practices by physicians: Behavioral determinants and potential interventions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 4 (suppl. 4, 1988): 101-7, reprinted in R. N. Battista and R. S. Lawrence, (Eds.), Implementing Preventive Services. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988; pp. 101-7. 

Green, L.W., Cargo, M., and Ottoson, J. M. (1994). The role of physicians in supporting lifestyle changes. Medicine, exercise, nutrition and health 3: 119-130.   Also in Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting of the Society of Prospective Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, April 15-17, 1993.  Indianapolis, IN: Society of Prospective Medicine, Publishers, 1993, pp. 89-129.

Haber, D. (1994). Medical screenings and health assessments.  In D. Haber (Ed.), Health Promotion and Aging (pp.41-76).  New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Herbert, C. P. (1999).  Editorial.  Should physicians assess lifestyle risk factors routinely? Canadian Medical Association Journal 160: 1849-1850.

Levine, D. M., Fedder, D. O., Green, L. W., McClellan, W., Roccella, E. J., Saunders, E., Simonds, S. K., Weiss, S., and Winston, M. (National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Health Education in High Blood Pressure Control).  (1987). The physician's guide:  Improving adherence among hypertensive patients.  Bethesda:  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health.

Levine, D. M., Green, L. W., Russell, R. P., Morisky, D., Chwalow, A. J., and Benson, P. (1979). Compliance in hypertension management: what the physician can do. Practical Cardiology 5:151-160.

Li, V. C., Coates, T. J., Spielberg, L. A., et al. (1984). Smoking cessation with young women in public family planning clinics: The impact of physician messages and waiting room media. Preventive Medicine 13: 477-89.

Maiburg, H. J. S., Hiddink, G. J., van’t Hof, M. A., Rethans, J. J., & van Ree, J. W.  (1999).  The NECTAR-Study: development of nutrition modules for general practice vocational training; determinants of nutrition guidance practices of GP-trainees. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (Suppl. 2): S83-S88.

Makrides, L., Veinot, P. L., Richard, J., Allen, M. J. (1997). Primary care physicians and coronary heart disease prevention: a practice model. Patient Education & Counseling 32: 207-217.

33. A note about this website. 

The website at http://www.lgreen.net organizes these endnotes in such a way that the reader can use the web pages side-by-side with the book to look up references via links rather than having to page back-and-forth between text, endnotes, and references. Many of the references will also be hyperlinked in this website to their abstract or online full-text articles or other documents. Many other hyperlinks are found in the website that are not listed in this book to minimize the problem of changing URLs and the need for the reader to type in complicated URLs.

34. Quantified health objectives. The most widely known and influential of such objectives have been the exercises undertaken in several countries (e.g., the U.S., Australia, the U.K.; see McGinnis, 1990; Nutbeam, Wise et al., 1993; Nutbeam & Wise, 1996; Green, 1980; 1991) to specify national health priorities in the form of goals and targets. The U.S. version of these (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981a; 1991; 2000) has been the most dynamic and durable, having been first formulated in 1979-81 as part of the "Healthy People" initiative, following on the broad goals set in the first Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (McGinnis, 1982; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1979). Buchanan (2000, pp. 37-42) discusses the logic of the U.S. objectives, as "originally articulated" in a variation of the Precede-Proceed model (Green, 1980; Green, Wilson, & Bauer, 1983). In a later chapter, however, Buchanan takes sharp issue with this approach to health, recommending instead a participatory and values-based approach, but failing to acknowledge that the two are not mutually exclusive (Buchanan, 2000, esp. pp. 133-138). The Precede-Proceed model, as our next chapter will emphasize, begins with, and retains throughout (as did the Healthy People process in each decade; e.g., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981b), a participatory approach, while also striving for an objective specification of goals and targets. Another critique of the goals and targets approach as represented by the Healthy People series in the U.S. is the proliferation of objectives (226 in the 1980-1990 round, now several hundred more in the 2000-2010 round). Sultz & Young (2004, p. 55) take particular issue with the continued growth in the number of objectives even as we failed to meet 85 percent of the Healthy People 2000 targets.

Buchanan, D. R. (2000). An ethic for health promotion: Rethinking the sources of human well-being. New York: Oxford University Press.

Green, L. W. (1980). Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report and the prospects. In W. J. McNerney (Ed.) Working for a Healthier America (pp. 95-110). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Green, L. W. (1991). Preface. In Healthy people 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives (pp. vii-xi). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Inc.

Green, L. W., Wilson, R. W. & Bauer, K. G. (1983). Data required to measure progress on the Objectives for the Nation in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. American Journal of Public Health, 73: 18-24.

McGinnis, J. M. (1982). Targeting progress in health. Public Health Reports 97: 295-307.

McGinnis, J. M. (1990). Setting objectives for public health in the 1990s: Experience and prospects. Annual Review of Public Health 11: 231-49.

Nutbeam, D. & Wise, M. (1996). Planning for Health for All: International experience in setting health goals and targets. Health Promotion International 11: 219-226.

Nutbeam, D., Wise, M., Bauman, A., Harris, E. &. Leeder, S. (1993). Goals and Targets for Australia's Health in the Year 2000 and Beyond. Portland, OR: International Specialized Books Services; also published by Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Sultz, H. A. & Young, K. M. (2004). Health care USA: Understanding Its organization and delivery, 4th edition. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. See Chap. 2 online at: http://publichealth.jbpub.com/healthcareusa/4e/samplechapters.cfm.

U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1979). Healthy People: Surgeon General's report on health promotion and disease prevention. Washington, DC: Public Health Service, DHEW-PHS-79-55071. 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1981a). Promoting health, preventing disease: objectives for the nation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, PHS.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1981b). Promoting Health in Special Populations. Washington, D.C.: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); reprinted (1987) Journal of Public Health Policy 8: 369-423.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1991). Healthy People 2000 . Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Public Health Service; also published as Healthy People 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives, full report, with commentary. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1992.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Public Health Service.

82>35. Importance of participation of ultimate recipients or beneficiaries of programs in planning those programs, or adapting them to their localities and culture (Chavis & Wandersman, 1990; Church et al., 2002; Green, 1986c; Green & Shoveller, 2000; Kreuter, 1984; Macrina & O'Rourke, 1986-87; Wandersman & Florin, 2000; Wharf Higgins, 2002; Wharf Higgins et al., 1999). Some good examples of the application of the principle of participation employing the Precede-Proceed model include Cain et al., 2001; Castilla y Leon, 1993; Dewar et al., 2003; Fisher et al., 1995; Herbert & White, 1996; Howat et al., 2001; Renaud & Mannoni, 1997. For contrary views and caveats on participation, see Cooke & Kothari, 2001; Crenson & Ginsberg, 2002; Green, 2000).

Cain, R. E., Schyulze, R. W., & Preston, D. B. (2001). Developing a partnership for HIV primary prevention for men at high risk for HIV infection in rural communities. Promotion and Education: International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 8: 75-78.

Castilla y Leon, Junta de (1993). Plan Sectorial de Educacion Para La Salud. Madrid: Graficas Don Bosco, Arganda del Rey.

Chavis, D. M. &  Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of community in the urban environment: A catalyst for participation and community development. American Journal of Community Psychology 18: 55-81.

Church, J., Saunders, D., Wanke, M., Pong, R., Spooner, C., & Dorgan, M. (2002). Citizen participation in health decision-making: Past experience and future prospects. Journal of Public Health Policy 23, 12-32. www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/healthcare/Building.htm.

Cooke, B., & Kothari, U. (Eds.). (2001). Participation: The new tyranny? London, New York: Zed Books.

Crenson, M. A., & Ginsberg, B. (2002). Downsizing democracy: How America sidelined its citizens and privatized it public. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Dewar, A., White, M., Toros, P. S., & Dillon, W. (2003).  Using nominal group technique to assess chronic 
pain patients' perceived challenges and needs to enhance better targeted services in a community health region. 
Health Expectations 6: 44-52.

Fisher, E. B., Strunk, R. C., Sussman, L. K., Arfken, C., Sykes, R. K., Munor, J. M., Haywood, S., Harrison, D., & Bascom, S. (1995). Acceptability and feasibility of a community approach to asthma management: The Neighborhood Asthma Coalition (NAC). Journal of Asthma 33: 367-83.

Green, L.W. (1986c).  The theory of participation: A qualitative analysis of its expression in national and international health policies. In W. B. Ward, ed.Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 1, Pt. A,  pp. 211-36. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.

Green, L. W. (2000). In praise of partnerships: Caveats on coalitions. Health Promotion Practice, 1, 64-5.

Green, L.W., & Shoveller, J. A. (2000). Local versus central influences in planning for community health. In R. F. Woollard, & A. S. Ostry (Eds.). Fatal consumption: Rethinking sustainable development pp. 166-196. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.

Herbert, R., & White, R.  (1996).  Healthy hearts at work: Prince Edward Island Heart Health Program CSC Worksite Pilot Project.  Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 7(2): 12-18.

Howat, P., Cross, D., Hall, M., Iredell, H., Stevenson, M., Gibbs, S., Officer, J., Dillon, J., et al.   (2001). Community participation in road safety: barriers and enablers. Journal of Community Health. 26: 257-269.

Kreuter, M. W. (1984). Health promotion: The public health role in the community of free exchange. Health Promotion Monographs, no. 4. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.

Macrina, D. M., &  O'Rourke, T. W. (1986-87). Citizen participation in health planning in the U. S. and the U. K.: Implications for health education strategies. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 7: 225-39.

Renaud, L., & Mannoni, C. (1997). Etude sur la participation des parents dans les activites scolaires ou parascolaires [Study of parental participation in curricular and extracurricular activities]. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88: 184-190.

Schwab, M., & Syme, S. L. (1997). On paradigms, community participation, and the future of public health. American Journal of Public Health 87: 2049-50.

Wandersman, A., & Florin, P. (2000). Citizen participation and community organizations. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.). Handbook of community psychology (pp. 247-272). New York: Academic/Plenum.

Wharf Higgins, J. (2002). Participation in community health planning. In L. Breslow, et al. Encyclopedia of Public Health, vol. 5. (pp. 890-891). New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

Wharf Higgins, J., Vertinsky, P., Cutt, J., & Green, L. W. (1999). Using social marketing as a theoretical framework to understand citizen participation in health promotion. Social Marketing Quarterly, 5, 42-55.

83>36.  Federalism, state or provincial rights, and local authority in regulating health: Green & Ottoson, 1999, pp. 589-593.

85>37.  Community as most appropriate center of gravity for planning health programs, but not to exclusion of state and national levels of support needed to communities, or of institutional and family levels of support to individuals: Bracht, 1998; Green, 1990; Green & Raeburn, 1990; Halverson et al., 1996; Mays, Miller, & Halverson, 2000; Patton & Cissell, 1989; Rivo et al., 1991; Roussos & Fawcett, 2000; Sanchez, 2000; Wickizer, Wagner, & Perrin, 1998..

Bracht, N. F., ed. (1998). Health promotion at the community level: New advances, 2nd ed. New York: Sage.

Green, L. W. (1990). The revival of community and the obligation of academic health centers to the public. In R. J. Bulger, S. J. Reiser, & R. E. Bulger (Eds.). Institutional values and human environments for teaching, inquiry and healing (pp. 148-164). Des Moines: University of Iowa Press.

Green, L. W., and  Raeburn, J.(1990). Contemporary developments in health promotion:  Definitions and challenges.  In N. Bracht (Ed.). Health promotion at the community level (pp. 29-44).Newbury Park, CA:  Sage.

Halverson, P. K., Miller, C. A., Kaluzny, A. D., Fried, B. J., Richards, T. B., & Schenck, S. E. (1996). Performing public health functions: The perceived contributions of public health and other community organizations. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration 6, 288-303.

Mays, G. P., Miller, C. A., & Halverson, P. K. (2000). Local public health practice: Trends and models. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

Nelson, C. F., Kreuter, M. W.,& Watkins, N. B. (1986).  A partnership between the community, state, and federal government: Rhetoric or reality. Hygie (Paris) 5(3),  27-31.

Patton R. D., & Cissell, W. B. (Eds.). (1989). Community organization: Traditional principles and modern application. Johnson City, TN: Latchpins Press.

Rivo, M. L., Gray, K., Whitaker, M., Coward, R., Liburd, L. C., Timoll, M., Curry, C., & Tuckson, R. V. (1991). Implementing PATCH in public housing communities: The District of Columbia experience. Journal of Health Education 23,148-152.

Roussos, S., & Fawcett, S. (2000). A review of collaborative partnerships as a strategy for improving community health. Annual Review of Public Health 21, 369-402.

Sanchez, V. (2000). Reflections of community coalition staff: Research directions from practice. Health Promotion Practice, 1, 320-322.

38.  Limitations of community. Institute of Medicine (1997). Improving health in the community: A role for performance monitoring. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

39. Ways of knowing and interpretations of reality. Wilber, K. (1998). Marriage of sense and soul: Integrating science and religion. New York: Random House.

40.  Participatory research. Boston et al., 1997; George et al., 1998-99; Goodman, 2001; Green & Mercer, 2001; 2004; McGowan & Green, 1995; Minkler, 2000; Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003; O'Fallon & Dearry, 2002.

Boston, P., MacNamara , S. J. E., Karne, K., Bobbish-Rondeau, E., et al. (1997). Using participatory action research to understand the meanings Aboriginal Canadians attribute to the rising incidence of diabetes. Chronic Diseases in Canada, , 5-12.

George, M. A., Daniel, M., Green, L. W. (1998-99). Appraising and funding participatory research in health promotion. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 18, 181-197. 

Goodman, R. M. (2001). Community-based participatory research: Questions and challenges to an essential approach. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 7(5), v-vi.

Green, L. W., & Mercer, S. L. (2001). Community-based participatory research: Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities? American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1926-1929.

Green, L. W., Mercer, S. M. (2004). Participatory research. In N. Anderson (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (in press).

McGowan, P.  &Green, L. W. (1995).  Arthritis self-management in native populations of British Columbia: An application of health promotion and participatory research principles in chronic disease control. Canadian Journal of Aging, 14, 201-12.

Minkler, M. (2000) Using participatory action research to build healthy communities. Public Health Reports, 11, 191-197.

Minkler, M. & Wallerstein, N. (2003). Community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

O’Fallon, L. R. & Dearry, A. (2002). Community-based participatory research as a tool to advance environmental health sciences. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Suppl. 2), 161-171.

86>41. The principle of participation in peoples' learning and commitment. Bjaras et al., 1991; Green, 1986c; Schiller et al., 1987; Wandersman & Florin, 2000.

Bjaras, G., Haglund, B., & Rifkin, S. (1991). A new approach to community participation assessment," Health Promotion International, 6, 199-206.

Green, L.W. (1986c).  The theory of participation: A qualitative analysis of its expression in national and international health policies. In W. B. Ward, (Ed.). Advances in Health Education and Promotion, vol. 1, Pt. A,  pp. 211-236. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc. Reprinted in Patton R. D. and Cissell, W. B. (Eds). (1989). Community Organization: Traditional Principles and Modern Application. Johnson City, TN: Latchpins Press.

Schiller, P., Steckler, A., Dawson, L. & Patton, F. (1987). Participatory planning in community health education: A guide based on the McDowell County, West Virginia experience. Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing.

Wandersman, A. & Florin, P. (2000). Citizen participation and community organizations. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.). Handbook of community psychology (pp. 247-272). New York: Academic/Plenum.

42. Epidemiological transition, applicable in developing countries? Carolina & Gustavo, 2003; Hackam & Anand, 2003.

Carolina, M. S. & Gustavo, L. F. (2003). Epidemiological transition: model or illusion? A look at the problem of health in Mexico. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 539-50.

Hackam, D. G. & Anand, S. S. (2003). Commentary: cardiovascular implications of the epidemiological transition for the developing world: Thailand as a case in point. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 468-9.

43. From acute to chronic, the epidemiological transition. Sepúlveda, J. (1998). Origin, direction and destination of the health transition in Mexico and Latin America. International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada, July 23. http://www.idrc.ca/index_e.html 

44. Applying evidence from previous research together with assessment of local circumstances:

Green, L.W. (2001). From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations (Research Laureate address). American Journal of Health Behavior 25, 165-178. Full text online at http://www.ajhb.org/2001/number3/25-3-2.htm.

 

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