If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*
Chapter 1- Archives of Headlines
Through the Centuries
Has America learned the energy lesson of 1973? LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - Giant chrome and steel cars, polished high to glint proudly in the sun, once glided along America's superhighways, guzzling gasoline as if there was no tomorrow, ferrying Americans to and from their over-heated, over-air-conditioned homes. They were built without regard for the environment or economic efficiency, and their era came to a crashing halt when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries decided to use oil as a weapon after the start of the 1973 Arab-Israeli Yom Kippur war. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 - actually a cut in supplies - plunged a nation where the car was king into despair and self-doubt. Americans found they could no longer afford to consume cheap gasoline with carefree abandon and gobble up finite natural resources.
Chronology of 1973 Arab oil embargo. LONDON (Reuters, Oct. 14, 1998) - Following is a chronology of the events surrounding the Arab oil embargo that began on Oct. 17, 1973.
Sept. 15-16 - The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) designates six Persian Gulf countries to negotiate collectively with Western oil companies over prices.
Oct. 6 - Egypt and Syria attack Israel on Yom Kippur, starting the fourth Arab-Israeli war.
Oct. 8-10 - OPEC negotiations with oil companies to revise the 1971 Tehran price agreement fail.
Oct. 16 - Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait and Qatar unilaterally raise posted prices by 17 percent to $3.65 a barrel and announce production cuts.
Oct. 17 - OPEC oil ministers agree to use oil as a weapon to punish the West for its support of Israel in the Arab-Israeli war. They recommend an embargo against unfriendly states and mandate a cut in exports.
Oct. 19-20 - Saudi Arabia, Libya and other Arab states proclaim an embargo on oil exports to the United States.
Oct. 23-28 - The Arab oil embargo is extended to the Netherlands. Nov. 5 - Arab producers announce a 25 percent output cut. A further five percent cut is threatened.
Nov. 23 - The Arab embargo is extended to Portugal, Rhodesia and South Africa.
Nov. 27 - U.S. President Richard Nixon signs the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act authorizing price, production, allocation and marketing controls.
Dec. 9 - Arab oil ministers agree a further five percent cut for non-friendly countries for January 1974.
Dec. 22-24 - The OPEC Gulf six raise posted prices from $5.12 a barrel to $11.65. Prices have quadrupled from $2.90 in September.
Dec. 25 - Arab oil ministers cancel the five percent output cut for January. The Saudi oil minister promises a 10 percent OPEC production rise.
Jan. 7-9, 1974 - OPEC decides to freeze prices until April 1.
Feb. 11 - U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger unveils the Project Independence plan to make U.S. energy independent.
Feb. 12-14 - Progress in Arab-Israeli disengagement brings discussion of oil strategy among the heads of state of Algeria, Egypt, Syria and Saudi Arabia.
Mar. 17 - Arab oil ministers, with the exception of Libya, announce the end of the embargo against the United States.
June 13 - The International Monetary Fund establishes its oil facility -- a special fund for loans to nations whose balance of payments is hit by rising oil prices.
Nov. 15 - The International Energy Agency is formed in Paris within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
April 9, 1975 - The OECD's 24 members establish a $25billion lending facility to provide assistance to industrial nations hurt by high oil prices.
Scientists hold memorial before 1918 flu exhumation. August 19, 1998. Scientists held a memorial service in an Arctic cemetery Wednesday before starting work to exhume six frozen corpses in the hope of tracing a deadly 1918 flu virus that swept the world like a mediaeval plague. "We wanted to remember and honor these young men who died so tragically," said Kirsty Duncan, leading a team of Canadian, American, British and Norwegian scientists on Spitzbergen, a Norwegian island 800 miles from the North Pole. The scientists, who will wear space suits to protect against what they say is a minimal chance of reviving the virus, hope to start digging on Friday to find the corpses of the Norwegian coal miners. The 1918 virus, called ``Spanish flu'' even though it probably originated in the United States, killed between 20 and 40 million people -- more than all the battles of World War I. Samples from the lungs of the corpses will yield frozen fragments of the viruses which will be sent to laboratories in Canada, the U.S., Britain and Norway to explore the possibility of developing vaccines against future viruses of such a virulent strain.
The historic and comprehensive 1998 anti-smoking bill was blocked in
the U.S. Congress by a minority of Senators in June via procedural maneuvers. Some
analysts say, however, that the tobacco industry faces increasing public opposition that
will help fuel more litigation and regulation, including by state officials.
Now some Republicans are moving to replace the bill (which was
itself sponsored by a Republican) with a weaker alternative. Over the June 19-21 weekend,
President Clinton called the new proposal a "charade" intended to provide
Republicans with political cover, and smoking-cessation advocates said the new bill would
have no significant impact on smoking (unlike the previous bill, which was estimated by
financial analysts to cut cigarette sales by as much as half, primarily by raising the
price of the product).
U.S. FEDERAL GUIDELINES ISSUED ON CLINICAL OBESITY
The new guidelines assess overweight and obesity using three variables: 1-
body mass index (BMI); 2- waist circumference; and 3- patient's risk factors for diseases
and conditions associated with obesity. Overweight was identified as a BMI of 25 to 29.9
and obesity as a BMI of 30 and above.