If we want more evidence-based practice, we need more practice-based evidence.*
Table of Contents
HEADLINES, TIMELINES, & MILESTONES
WEB PAGES AND INFORMATION SOURCES
REFERENCES DEBATE TOPICS
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES, EXERCISES, AND ASSIGNMENTS
Part four of the text begins with this chapter on injury control as an environmental concern rather than primarily as a behavioral concern as it has been treated in the past. The environmental approach to injury control recognizes that the typical circumstances of injury (sudden and unexpected) make them difficult to control behaviorally, so environmental protection is the intervention of choice. Furthermore, many injuries are perpetrated by individuals against other individuals, as in drunk driving and violence. Regulatory measures are therefore more easily justified. An enlightened public is needed to support the passage of such regulations, so public education is still essential. The student should understand that a balanced approach to most community and population health problems is needed, but here the balance needs to be tilted toward environmental measures.
The opening definitions and epidemiological examination of injuries reveal the growing concern with innocent victims, mostly young people whose losses add more significantly to the potential years of productive life lost than do deaths from chronic diseases. These facts make protective measures a community responsibility that cannot be handed off to the victims to "prevent accidents." Types of injuries, settings and agents such as vehicles, guns and equipment point to specific protective measures that can be taken in the community.
bill surfaces as motorcycle death figures surge in
Indiana: Bill would close state’s seat-belt loophole. “Seat
belt pressure tightens”.
New Year's celebratory gunfire deaths and injuries(Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 50(53):1174, Dec 24, 2004). Firing guns into the air during celebrations such as New Year's eve causes unknown numbers of deaths and injuries. An epidemiological investigation by CDC in San Juan, Puerto Rico found one death and 19 injuries, mostly to women and children, and mostly in densely population housing areas, during the Dec 31, 2003-Jan 1, 2004 celebrations of the New Year. See also:
California to ban chemicals used as flame retardants: Component tied to learning disorders in Children.New York Times, Aug. 10, 2003. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE's), developed in the 1960s, will be phased out of products including some plastics, foams, and curtains in which they were added as a flame retardant.
House Opponents to Gun Controls Seek to Make Bill Unacceptable to Advocates.WASHINGTON (Wall Street Journal, June 18, 1999). US House of Representatives opposing stricter gun control are amending the recent legislative proposal with measures that would weaken existing rules on background checks at gun shows. This will likely result in failure of the Bill to pass because anti-gun Representatives will oppose it with these measures. See Staff Reporter Jefrey Taylor's story on http:///wsj.com.
Smoking Increases Fire Mortality.A common scenario is of elderly, debilitated, sometimes bed-bound persons accidentally igniting themselves and/or innocent bystanders with cigarette or cigarette lighter ignited fires. Much of US, and probably, increasingly China, fire mortality is made up of the elderly burned in cigarette smoking fires. Much of that data is at Fire in the United States (1985 - 1994, Ninth Edition) http://www.usfa.fema.gov/pdf/fius/sec6.pdf or http://www.nfpa.org .
EPA, FBI Argue Over Chemical Data.WASHINGTON (AP, Feb. 11, 1999) - The Environmental Protection Agency is exploring ways to provide sensitive chemical accident information to the public, yet keep it out of the hands of potential terrorists, an agency official said Wednesday. The release of information about so-called "worst-case" accident scenarios at chemical plants has been a subject of intense negotiations between the EPA and security officials for months. Critics, including FBI terrorist experts, have raised concern that the widespread availability of information such as likely chemical release points and potential casualties could be a "road map" for a terrorist attack.
Adverse Events Associated with Ingestion of Gamma-ButyrolactoneMINNESOTA, NEW MEXICO and TEXAS, (1998-1999). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48/No. 7, Feb. 26, 1999. View the full text of this week's MMWR as a web page at: http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056563.htm Products containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are marketed for many claimed purposes, including to induce sleep, release growth hormone, enhance sexual activity and athletic performance, relieve depression, and prolong life. GBL is converted by the body into gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug banned outside of clinical trials approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recognized manifestations of GHB toxicity include bradycardia, hypothermia, central nervous system depression, and uncontrolled movements. This report describes seven cases of GBL toxicity involving the product "Revivarant," which is labeled as containing 1.82 g of GBL per fluid ounce, reported from two hospital emergency departments in Minnesota during October-December 1998 and summarizes an additional 34 cases of GBL toxicity reported to poison centers in New Mexico and Texas during Oct. 1998 to Jan. 1999.
For related news stories, please click here.
From the journal, Safety Research, vol. 43, 2005 (click on titles for abstracts):
Books and Reviews
Helfer, M. A., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (Eds.) (1997).
The Battered Child - 5th ed., Chicago, Ill, University of Chicago Press. 672pp., with illus, $45, ISBN 0-226-32627-6.
CDC. National Child Passenger Safety Week, February 9--15, 2003. MMWR 52(4): 69, Jan 31, 2003.
In 2001, a total of 1,579 children aged <15 years died as occupants in motor-vehicle crashes in the United States, an average of 30 deaths per week (1.). National Child Passenger Safety Week, February 9--15, 2003, will focus on efforts to improve the safety of children riding in motor vehicles, especially the importance of appropriate restraints such as child safety seats for infants and toddlers, booster seats for children aged 4--8 years who have outgrown their forward facing seats, and safety belts for children who have outgrown their booster seats (2). Additional steps to improve the safety of children riding in vehicles include placing children in the back seat when possible and avoiding placing children in rear-facing child seats in the front seat of vehicles equipped with passenger-side airbags (1).
The proper restraint of child passengers is improved through the combination of increased public education, strong child passenger safety laws, and rigorous enforcement of these laws. Additional information about National Child Passenger Week activities and child passenger safety is available from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Office of Communications and Outreach, 400 Seventh St., SW, NTS-21, Washington, DC 20590; fax 202-493-2062, http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov; and from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc.
Homemade Chemical Bomb Events and Resulting Injuries---Selected States, January 1996--March 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52(28), July 18, 2003.
Injuries Among Railroad Trespassers --- Georgia, 1990--1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48 (25), July 2, 1999.
Firearm-Associated Deaths and Hospitalizations --- California, 1995--1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 48(23), June 18,
Deaths Resulting from Residential Fires and the Prevalence of Smoke Alarms -- United States, 1991-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, October 1, 1998/Vol. 47/No. 38. See http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/preview/mm4738.html#article4 or click here for more complete story.
Unesco: Natural Disasters, be prepared! Unesco Courier October 1997.
1. Injury case study. Conduct an interview with case study of an injury victim, for example, someone injured in a car, on the job, or as a victim of violence. Describing the personal, economic, and social costs of the injury.
2. Drunk driving. Interview a law enforcement officer to determine how drunk driving is controlled in the student’s state/province or community. What is the current legislation and how is it being enforced? What level of alcohol is tolerated? How many drinks does this involve? Have the student make calculations for their own height and weight to understand their own drinking limits.
3. Preventing emergencies. Invite an emergency room nurse, physician, or first aid squad volunteer to address the class regarding recent serious injuries that have occurred in your community. What community health efforts might be employed to prevent future tragedies of this nature?
4. Product safety. Consult a recent issue of the FDA Consumer. Report on a product or service that has been identified as unsafe. Specify consumer protection laws and agencies associated with the problem, and state their functions.
5. Planning for injury prevention. Draw a diagram of the environment in which you live, work, or conduct recreational activities. Identify those areas which would be particularly hazardous to a child, elderly person, or handicapped individual. Suggest measures for preventing injuries.